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This diversity does by no means imply any diversity of intellectual, or moral, or speaking natures; for nothing could be more antecedently probable than that in early times, when the human race was broken up at the era of the great dispersion into small communities of tribes or families, wandering apart in a scattered nomadic life, with no literature, written or oral, and a vocabulary of but a few hundred words altogether, this meager stock of words should, in the lapse of ages, be thoroughly changed; that, in other words, in such circumstances, our group of articulate sounds, taken out of an infinite number of like possible groups, should gradually be changed, losing and substituting word by word, till every one of the original group should disappear. The speaking nature of the Chinese and the American is the same, and on this solid foundation is the plan and hope of an educational effort for the Chinaman among us to be based. The difficulties to be surmounted are not fundamental, but incidental. It is worthy of mention, in corroboration of this view, that a Chinaman a few years ago took the first prize in English composition in Yale College, where he graduated with honor.
Moreover, it is to be remarked of these difficulties, that, aside from those arising from a different vocabulary, they are to be encountered rather in learning to speak than in · learning to read our language. The Chinese are a reading people, and the thorough indoctrination into American ideas, which is, after all, mainly to be accomplished through reading rather than speaking, appears to be altogether feasible. Especially will this appear if we consider that only a small part of our literary vocabulary enters into the uses of common life. It is a well-attested fact that the entire vocabulary in actual use by portions of the English peasantry is confined to a few hundred words, that might easily be committed to memory in a week.
It is worthy of careful consideration whether rudimental text-books or primers, spelling-books, and primary reading books should not be prepared which shall be specially adapted to the peculiarities of the Chinese mind and habits in regard to orthoepy, orthography, and sentence construction, and inasmuch as the adults are, for a time at least, to constitute the great mass of those to receive instruction, it is worthy of consideration also whether rudimental books should not especially be prepared for them as being already well educated in their own tongue. At present the slow, clumsy practice of hearing and reading portions of the English scriptures is the best resource available, a practice which is indeed recommended by the fact that an introduction to the Christian faith is sought in union with the knowledge of our language. It is questionable, however, whether both objects cannot be better attained by pursuing the two separately.
Of the other studies which the peculiarities of the Chinese among us indicate as of special importance to them, little need be said. To write comes so easy to them that only that practice which may be desirable for learning other branches is required beyond the mere shaping of our written characters. The training in book-keeping, which ought to be enforced in every American school where arithmetical studies are pursued as far as to the common rules of commercial usage, but which is so strangely overlooked, will, to the Chinese mind, so prone to trading life, from its attractiveness, furnish probably the sufficient and readiest introduction to a good chirography.
The peculiarities of his condition suggest also at once the desirableness of special training in geography and in history, that his mind may be fully delivered from the proverbial thraldoin of Chinese pride and exclusiveness. For a like reason, at least, there should be sought a rudimental acquaintance with the principles of technological science, as developed among the occidental nations, by which they are so exalted above the oriental tribes, including, of course, something of those sciences on which that of the useful arts is founded.
The final question which presents itself in the consideration of the method to be adopted respects the instrumentality by which the education of the Chinese among us is to be effected. Actual experience sheds some light on this point, which it is safe to follow. We have, on the one hand, settled among ourselves some general principles which are applicable to educational efforts among the Chinese, and, on the other hand, we have the actual fruits of such efforts among them, which are suggestive.
The American people, then, have recognized the duty of the Government to oversee and secure the education of its citizens to such degree as to protect our free institutions that rest upon the intelligence and morality of the people. The action of the Federal Government, and also of particular State legislatures, is decisive on this point. Wisely leaving this work as far as is safe to private care, governmental action has in many ways, directly and indirectly, not only encouraged but enforced instruction. It has further, directly and indirectly, to an extent unprecedented in the history of nations, aided by liberal benefactions this general education which it has sought, and the whole tendency of the age, guided and prompted by experience, is unquestionably tờ freer and larger governmental patronage and encouragement. On the other hand, it is well established among us that education, to be universal
as it should be, as it must be, indeed, for our national security, must be within the reach of all; that, consequently, it must be to a great extent free-must be furnished, in other words, either without cost, or at a far less price than its actual cost.
We start then with these recognized principles, that education should be under governmental supervision and patronage when needed, or, generally speaking, under governmental favor and encouragement, while yet sustained mainly by private munificence, and that general education should be furnished to a large extent without cost.
Experience, as it respects actual fruits, indicates the following general particulars in regard to the kind of instrumentality to be employed :
First. The successes which have attended the education of Chinamen in our colleges and schools, promiscuously with native Americans, indicate that this policy be pursued and encouraged in every way. All considerations sustain this view ; while no social repugnances are encountered, our habits of training bring no difficulties to the learner. Such free intermixture of the foreign with the native elements of our people is for the health and safety of all.
Secondly. The remarkable successes which in the last two years have attended purely philanthropic efforts among the Chinese, indicate that these efforts should be continued and enlarged in every way, with more system, if possible, so as that all may be reached, and, at all events, with more efficiency. They should receive a greatly increased support from the enlightened and humane.
The proper religious efforts, particularly in Sunday-schools, that have had such great success, may be greatly extended. Only through them, at present, probably, can the children be generally reached, especially while the unreasonable prejudice continues in those communities where Chinese children are mostly to be found. This agency may, in any event, well supplement what is done in the public schools that are open to the children of this race.
The night schools during the week have also been favored with a parallel success. These efforts, meeting particularly the adult Chinese when disengaged from industrial pursuits, are deserving of special consideration and favor.
The provision of higher institutions specially for Chinese by individual munificence, is one that should be resorted to only in case of a clear necessity, which does not as yet seem to have arisen. Every movement that can tend to sustain a caste system is to be deprecated, and should be allowed only as the less objectionable alternative of ignorance and continued debasement.
Thirdly. It is the clear dictate of wisdom to extend whatever educational privileges are accorded to the children of native Americans or of whites, also to the children of the Chinese. What the Federal and the State governments should do in behalf of education it is not proper here to prescribe; but whatever is thus done should certainly .avail as fully to the needy and the neglected as to the affluent and favored. All legislation and all administration which discriminate in favor of any one class of our heterogeneous people to the prejudice of any other, is as anti-American as it is unwise and impolitic.
H. N. DAY, A. M.
The following series of questions was sent, as far as time would allow, State and city superintendents. The answers received, though limited, from a number of school officers, contain important facts and suggestions in reference to the right adjustment of this vital part of school business.
The answers will be given, as far as received from State, county, and city superintendents, corresponding to the numbers of the questions.
QUESTIONS. 1. What is your annual salary? 2. How many assistants are you allowed by law; their salaries; their duties? 3. Is the force of your office adequate for the amount of work to be done?
4. What is the smallest additional force you should have to satisfactorily do your -duty; proper compensation !
ANSWERS. CONNECTICUT.—1. Three thousand five hundred dollars.—Birdsey G. Northrop, secretary board of education.
2. The law does not allow any assistant; or, if two or more were necessary, the law would allow so many. At present one is employed; salary, $1,600. His duties are to receive and attend to calls at the office, to answer inquiries as to laws, &c., pertaining to educational affairs in the State, to conduct the correspondence of the office, and to
collect, classify, and tabulate the educational statistics of the State for publication in the annual report.
3. It is. 4. The compensation is the same as that of the chief clerk in each of the other State offices; no more can be expected.
NEW HAVEN.–1. Two thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars.--Ariel Parrish, superintendent of schools.
2. None. A secretary of the board of education attends to the financial department, furnishes all supplies for the schools, and attends to the repairs of buildings. Salary, $2,000. So far as those duties belong to the superintendent, he is an assistant.
3. Not sufficient for what should be done. Much is necessarily left undone which is not missed by the community or by the board.
4. Competent assistants, to save time for more thorough examination of schools, would increase the efficiency of the office of superintendent. Five hundred to ono thousand dollars would be an economical outlay for this purpose.
Remarks.-Our city, on the whole, is as liberal, perhaps, as the general average; but a more generous outlay would produce greater and more satisfactory results.
ILLINOIS.-1. Three thousand dollars.-Albert G. Lane, county superintendent, Cook County, Illinois.
2. No assistant.
Remarks.-If each township were organized into one school district, under the management of a board of six members, and the schools of each town graded, with a central grammar school with two assistants, the efficiency of the schools could be increased five hundred fold.
MARYLAND.-1. M. A. Newell, president of board of State school commissioners, Baltimore. Salary, $2,500 as principal of State normal school.
2. None. One of the teachers in the State normal school acts as clerk of the superintendent. Salary, $500.
4. There should be a principal of the State normal school-salary, $2,000 to $2,500 ; or a salary of $2,500 to $3,000 should be attached to the office of president of the Staté board.
Remarks.-It will be seen that our State is in an anomalous condition. The superintendence of education is vested in a board of four, appointed by the governor from among the presidents and examiners (say superintendents) of county boards, together with the principal of the State norınal school. There is no salary, but there is an appropriation of $1,000 a year for expenses.
MASSACHUSETTS.—1. Three thousand dollars, and four hundred dollars for traveling expenses.-Joseph White, secretary Massachusetts board of education.
2. Three, assistant, secretary, and librarian; salary, $2,000; female aid to the assistant, $500; agent, $3,200, including traveling expenses. The duty of the agent is to visit schools, hold institutes, and do the same work which the secretary might do.
3. As we have no county superintendents, it would be well to employ four other agents, to be located in different portions of the State. With county or district superintendents our present force would be sufficient.
5. See above for answer. Boston.-1. Four thousand five hundred dollars.-John D. Philbrick, superintendent of public schools.
2. I have no clerk, and no assistant.
Remarks.—The reason why I need so little assistance will be seen from the following facts : First, our school buildings are erected and repaired, the fuel is furnished, and the janitors appointed by an officer of the city council, viz., superintendent of public buildings, who has his staff of assistants; second, the school board has its secretary and assistant secretary, who keep the records and notify all meetings of committees, &c.; third, the committee on accounts of the board employs an officer, with a clerk, to keep the accounts of expenditures, and purchase and distribute the supplies not furnished by the superintendent of public buildings. I take care of the statistics, make reports, and have a general supervision, but no direct control over any of the officers or clerks named. Assistance is needed, especially in visiting and examining schools.
WORCESTER.-1. Two thousand five hundred dollars.-A. P. Marble, superintendent public schools.
2. One; salary, $1,700; he is the secretary of the school board. 3. Yes. Remarks.-I am happy to say that this city is very liberal in providing for her schools.
NEW YORK.-1. Five thousand dollars.--Abram B. Weaver, superintendent public instruction, Albany.
2. One deputy superintendent, and as many clerks as may be necessary. We have four clerks; two at $1,600 each, and two at $2,200. Salary of deputy, $3,000.
ALBANY.–1. Two thousand dollars.—John D. Cole, superintendent of schools and secretary of the board of public instruction.
Remarks.-In 1866 the title of the “board of education” was changed to that of “Board of Public Instruction." NEW YORK CITY.-1. Four thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars.--Henry Riddle,
1, city superintendent.
2. Four; two for grammar schools, and two for primary schools. Salaries respectively, $4,200, $3,500, $4,200, and $3,600. Duties, to examine schools and assist in examining candidates for teachers' licenses.
3. It is. Two clerks are employed in addition to the assistants above mentioned.
Remarks.—The schools of this city, 276 in number, are visited and examined twice each year by one of the assistant superintendents. They are also visited and inspected by the chief superintendent as often as possible--at least once each year.
BROOKLYN.-1. Three thousand dollars.-J. W. Bulkley, superintendent of city schools.
2. One assistant superintendent, salary, $2,500; secretary, salary, $2,500; two clerks, salary of each, 1,500; messenger, salary, $500.
3. No; not for supervision.
Remarks.--The assistant superintendent works wich the superintendent in the general duties of his office. The secretary and clerks perform only office work, and attend to the supplies required, as also act as secretaries of the various committees of the Board of education.
SYRACUSE.-1. Two thousand dollars. - Edward Smith, clerk and superintendent.
2. One assistant clerk, who attends to copying and writing up the books; a messenger, and a repairer clerk; the respective salaries, $600, $300, and $700.
3. I ought to have a superintendent of buildings, so that I might be relieved of everything pertaining to repairs, fixtures, &c.
BUFFALO.–1. One thousand eight hundred dollars.--Thomas Lothrop, superintendent of education.
2. None. 3. No.
4. One assistant superintendent and two clerks. The salary of the superintendent should be $4,000; that of the assistant, $2,000; and that of the clerks, $1,000.
Remarks.-I am allowed one clerk, on a salary of $500. I have under my charge 42 schools, employing 338 teachers, and giving instruction to 15,000 pupils.
NORTH CAROLINA.-1. Two thousand four hundred dollars.—S. S. Ashley, superintendent of public instruction, Raleigh.
2; One clerk; salary, $1,000. The board of education employs an agent, who looks after the colored schools, as acting assistant superintendent; salary, $1500.
3. It is not.
Remarks.—My time as superintendent of public instruction should be chiefly spent in visiting and inspecting schools, consulting with school authorities, and conferring with the people as to public school affairs. As it now is, my time is mostly consumed in office work and clerical labor.
OHIO.—CLEVELAND.-1. Four thousand dollars.-Andrew J. Rickoff, superintendent of instruction.
2. He has virtually three assistants called, " principals of districts;" salary of each, $2,000. To each of these
is assigned the care of from four to six schools, employing from fifty to sixty teachers. They classify the schools, give attention to all serious cases of discipline, and have, under the direction of the superintendent, the supervision of the work of subordinate teachers. No male teachers are employed under them, the heads of all the schools being women.
3. Last year we had four principals of districts, and, I think, the number was very properly reduced. Remarks.—I am glad that you are taking up the matter. Saving in a very few cities,
a the supervising force is altogether insufficient for thorough work. The question might be raised whether the supervision of principals of schools within their own school buildings is of that. nature which will insure efficiency. My observation leads me to the belief that the value of their work is not proportioned to their number. It certainly is vastly more expensive than such an arrangement as we have in Cleveland.
CINCINNATI.—1. Three thousand five hundred dollars.—John Hancock, superintendent of schools.
2. I have no assistants proper. The principals of the schools are the local superin tendents in their respective houses.
3. It is not adequate to the thorough performance of the work properly devolving on the superintendent of the system of schools for a great city.
4. One English and one German assistant superintendent. Probably a salary of $2,500 would secure the services of persons competent for such positions.
Remarks.—The clerical force under the direction of the board of education is amply sufficient; and in local supervision we are sufficiently provided; our want is in general supervision. Upon the efficiency in this department of a school system will, to a greater extent than is generally imagined, depend the efficiency of that system.
PENNSYLVANIA.-1. Two thousand five hundred dollars, and six hundred dollars for traveling expenses.-J. P. Wickersham, superintendent of common schools, Harrisburg
2. A deputy superintendent, salary, $1,800; a financial clerk, salary, $1,400; a statistical clerk, salary, $1,400; a recording clerk, salary, $1,400; a messenger, salary, $900.
3. Not for the amount of work that must be done, to say nothing of the amount that might be done.
4. With one additional clerk we could do quite satisfactorily the work that must bo done. The salaries now given are not high, but reasonable.
Remarks.The school department here occupies two large rooms in the capitol building. It is better provided with men and office fixtures than any other department of the State government.
RHODE ISLAND.—1. Two thousand five hundred dollars.—Daniel Leach, superintendent of public schools, Providence.
2. No assistants.
Remarks.—Providence was the first city in New England to establish the office of superintendent of schools. The salary of all school officers are voted by the city council. The present incumbent has been superintendent nearly sixteen years.
NEWPORT.-1. Two thousand five hundred dollars.-F. W. Tilton, superintendent of schools.
2. None. 3. No.
GERMAN SCHOOLS AND TEACHING GERMAN.
The following communication and the article accompanying it are given to indicate the views entertained by a large class of our most intelligent citizens among the German population:
“ANNAPOLIS, November 12, 1870. “DEAR SIR: The question concerning the education of the young has grown to be more and more interesting and important in proportion to the increasing number of German emigrants, particularly after 1848, when the percentage of men educated in normal schools and universities for the business of teaching steadily increased. Many States offer liberally, by their public schools, the means of obtaining a knowledge of the elementary branches of education ; yet the system of recitations adopted by these schools differs essentially from that adopted in Germany, and the German language is in some States altogether ignored. The consequence was, that wherever a sufficient number of German families had settled elementary schools were founded by them, the settlers preferring to pay for the education of their children rather than lose all the advantages which the German method of school-teaching, in their opinion, offers. You will find, therefore, all over the West and North, and as far south as Baltimore, a large number of German-American schools, kept up by the people of German origin. With the growing number of educated teachers, and of children to be educated in conformity with the peculiarities of this country, grew also a desire to concert a general system of education all over the States, and to influence the public school organizations in the different sections. The Bureau of Education is most likely founded on the same principle, though it may require some time before the different States will be convinced that it is absolutely necessary to clothe the Bureau with powers similar to those of other branches of the central government. Centralization, without destroying liberty, is the spirit of the United States Constitution as well as of German institutions, and the German-Americans tried, therefore, for some time to form an organization of the teachers, being convinced that all reforms must originate in the people. It is not necessary to state, in this report, the causes which had hitherto prevented the