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J. Crissman, Calfer & Colter, Marshall, Fouche, and other photographers, have at various times visited the park, taking and widely disseminating interesting views of the great falls, geysers, hot-spring terraces, and other wonders of the park.
During all these years of exploration and research, so far as I am aware, the wisdom of Congress in promptly dedicating the National Park has never been seriously questioned; nor has its size, or its appropriate control by the Secretary of the Interior, or his rules and regulations for its protection and management, been deemed objectionable. Hence it is not what Congress has done, but what it so long neglected to do; not the dedication of a lofty mountain-girt lava region destitute of val. uable minerals, isolated and worthless for all else, but matchless and invaluable as a field for scientists and a national health and pleasure resort for our people, but rather the failure to make moderate appropriations for its protection and improvement until leases could be made to assist in rendering it self-sustaining, which compelled its first superintendent, N. P. Langford, to abandon all efforts for its protection, and so long allowed destructive forest fires, the wanton slaughter of its interesting and valuable animals, and constant and nearly irreparable vandalism of many of its prominent wonders. So uniform was the testimony of the civil and military officers of the government, as well as the American and European scientists and tourists who visited the park, and so strong their appeals to the nation for its protection, or at least the sending a commissioner or an agent specially empowered to investigate and report the facts, that among the early acts of the present honorable Secretary of the Interior was my appointment as superintendent of the park and special agent to again visit it and report the facts as I should then find them for the information of himself and Congress. But for want of funds available for my salary or expenses none were furnished or even promised, other than a reliance upon Congress to make provision to properly pay for performance of duties pointed out and positively required of the Secretary of the Interior in the act dedicating the park. This will, I think, appear clearly evident by perusal of the following copy of the act of dedication, the rules and regulations of the Secretary of the Interior, and my appeals to the mountaineers as published in No. 62 of the Norris Suburban, several hundred copies of which were gratuitously distributed throughout the regions adjacent to the park during the spring of 1877.
AN ACT to set apart a certain tract of land lying near the head waters of the Yellowstone River as a
public park. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the tract of land in the Territories of Montana and Wyoming lying near the headwaters of the Yellowstone River, and described as follows, to wit: commencing at the junction of Gardiner's River with the Yellowstone River and running east to the meridian passing ten miles to the eastward of the most eastern point of Yellowstone Lake; thence south along the said meridian to the parallel of latitude passing ten miles south of the most southern point of Yellowstone Lake; thence west along said parallel to the meridian passing fifteen miles west of the most western point of Madison Lake; thence north along said meridian to the latitude of the junction of the Yellowstone and Gardiner's Rivers; thence east to the place of beginning, is hereby reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, or sale under the laws of the United States, and dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasure ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people; and all persons who shall locate, settle upon, or occupy the same or any part thereof, except as hereinafter provided, shall be considered trespassers and removed therefrom.
SEC. 2. That said public park shall be under the exclusive control of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon as practicable, to make and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for the care and management of the same. Such regulations shall provide for the preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition.
The Secretary may, in his discretion grant leases for building purposes for terms not exceeding ten years, of small parcels of ground, at such places in said park as shall require the erection of buildings for the accommodation of visitors; all of the proceeds of said leases, and all other revenues that may be derived from any source connected with said park, to be expended under his direction in the management of the same and the construction of roads and bridle-paths therein. He shall provide against the wanton destruction of the fish and game found within said park and against their capture or destruction for the purposes of merchandise or profit. He shall also cause all persons trespassing upon the same after the passage of this act, to be removed therefrom, and generally shall be authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary or proper to fully carry out the objects and purposes of this act. Approved March 1, 1872.
(See Revised Statutes of the United States, page 453.)
RULES AND REGULATIONS. 1st. All hunting, fishing, or trapping within the limits of the Park, except for purposes of recreation, or to supply food for visitors or actual residents, is strictly prohibited; and no sales of fish or game taken within the park shall be made outside of its boundaries.
2d. Persons residing within the park, or visiting it for any purpose whatever, are required under severe penalties to extinguish all fires which it may be necessary to make, before leaving them. No fires must be made within the park except for necessary purposes.
30. No timber must be cut in the park without a written permit from the superintendent.
4th. Breaking the siliceous or calcareous borders or deposits surrounding or in the vicinity of the springs or geysers for any purpose, and all removal, carrying away, or sale of specimens found within the park, without the consent of the superintendent, is. strictly prohibited.
5th. No person will be permitted to reside permanently within the limit of the park without permission from the Department of the Interior, and any person now living within the park shall vacate the premises occupied by him within thirty days after having been served with a written notice so to do, by the superintendent or his deputy, said notice to be served upon him in person or left at his place of residence,
To whom it may concern :
Under the above laws, rules, and regulations, and my peculiar circumstances of health, long acquaintance, and business interest in those regions, I have accepted the responsible, but as yet neither lucrative nor desirable position of superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park. Have appointed J. C. McCartney, esq., proprietor of the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, assistant until my arrival via the Yellowstone River route, I trust in June, unless delayed by the Indians.
Meanwhile, bona-fide occupants of buildings, bridges, mines, &c., will, by due regard for the above rules and the future interests of the public in the park, be allowed quietly to remain. The outburst of national enthusiasm at discovery of the matchless wonders of the firehole and geyser basins, amid the Rocky Mountains, secured their prompt dedication as a national park for the weary and worn business man, the tourist, and the scientist forever; also, provision for the appointment of a superintendent under proper rules and instructions, but not the necessary appropriations to reward the one for the enforcement of the other.
My predecessor, Mr. N. P. Langford, did all and more than proper to expect under the circumstances while in Montana, but with his return East all restraint ceased, and for fully two years, careless use of fire, wanton slaughter of rare and valuable animals, and vandalism of matchless wonders have, as so truthfully published in letters of myself and others, been doing irreparable injury in all the explored portions of the park.
I'nder these peculiar circumstances, in the interest of science and of the tourist now and in the future, the welfare and good fame of the people of Montana, Utah, and Wyoming in general, and especially to my old mountain comrades and friends, do I most earnestly appeal, to abstain, and use all influence in urging others to desist from future vandalism of all kinds in the lofty, romantic “wonder-land."
With the closing of the Sioux war, extension of the Northern Pacific Railroad, openiny of the Yellowstone natural ronte, and the Big Horn Mountains for explorations of their vast gold and silver mines, and influx of sturdy miners and herdsmen, will soon gather wealth, build towns, and open safe and convenient routes of access to this now isolated, little known, but matchless national heritage of wonders.
That the spirit in which I write and act in this matter may extend to the press and the people of those mountain regions and the tourists who visit them is my ardent desire.
P. W. NORRIS, Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park.
NOTE.-—The boundaries of the park have never been surveyed, but they are mainly crests of snow-capped basaltic mountains encircling the wonder-land of cataracts, cañons, firehole basins, geysers, salses, fumeroles, &c., unique and matchless, with entire area from 50 to 75 miles square.
These rules and regulations are those adopted by the Ilon. C'. Delano, Secretary of the Interior, at the dedication of the park.
Under these circumstances I ascended the Yellowstone, visited most of the park and its routes of access, including the exploring of an important cut-off route; and, too seriously injured at Tower Falls to otherwise return, descended the Yellowstone from above the gate of the mountain in a skiff, and reported facts and suggestions which were merged in the honorable Secretary's report of 1877, part first, page 837, and also deemed worth a publication in pamphlet form. (See Report of the Superintendent of the Yellowstone National Park for 1877.)
After a long and careful investigation of the whole subject, and in consideration of the written opinions of the prominent scientists and explorers of our country, this cautious and prudent Congress at its first session, with a flattering unanimity, made an appropriation of $10,000 for the protection and improvement of the park. For an account of my expenditure thereof reference is respectfully made to the appropriate chapter of this report and attached map of the park.
In addition thereto I may justly add that-unlike General Sherman in his tour of the park just in advance of last year's raid of the hostile Nez Percés, and General IIoward in their pursuit, without roads—Generals Miles and Brisbin, in their military operations of this year, as well as the various parties of Professor Hayden's geological survey, the Berthold party of engineers in running a line for a branch of the Utah Northern Railroad, from llenry's Lake to the upper 'geysers, as well as many parties of tourists, have utilized my roads and other improvements as fast as made, thus opportunely rendering them of present as well as future convenience and benefit. With the expeditions of Generals Miles and Brisbin were Colonel Baker, Captains Baldwin and Egan, Lieutenants Douglas, Pope, Long, and other battle-scarred veterans of the Indian wars; Mrs. General Miles, sister of the wife of Senator Cameron, of Pennsylvania, and other ladies of distinction; the Rev. Dr. Hoyt, of Brooklyn, N. Y., and other prominent speakers and journalists.
Besides these, Lord Stanley, English; Colonels Schultz and Koster, German; and many parties of American tourists, despite the Bannock raids, safely visited the park during the past season. The unanimous testimony of this long list of civil and military officers or agents of the government, and the scientists and tourists of our own and other lands, proves the Yellowstone National Park one of surpassing interest, a concentration of petrified forests and balmy groves, of lovely lakes, matchless falls, and yawning cañons; of azure pools and spouting geysers, unique and unrivaled-truly the peerless cliff and snow encircled wouder-land of earth, well worthy the fostering hand of the representatives of our people, whose priceless heritage it is.
P. W. NORRIS, Superintendent of Yellowstone National Park. Hon. CARL SCHURZ,
Secretary of the Interior, Washington, D. C'.
Summary of weather reports kept in the Yellowstone National Park during the season of 1878.
That portion of July which was taken would average, at sunrise, 570; at midday, 80°; and at sunset, 74o.
The month of August, the morning average was 44°, and ranging from 320 to 600; at noon, average 780, ranging from 620 to 880; at sunset, average 64°, ranging from 480 to 20
The month of September, the average at sunrise, 390, ranging from 240 to 600; at midday, average 61°, ranging from 385 to 780; at sunset, average 51°, ranging from 36° to 740.
The first fifteen days in October average, sunrise, 41°, ranging from 24° to 540; midday, average 57°, ranging from 460 to 70°; and at sunset, average 51°, ranging from 420 to 600,
Routes and distances to the Park. The following facts and suggestions will be of practical interest to our people in reference to the only two present or prospective routes of access to their heritage of wonders in the Great National Park. These are the northern or Yellowstone, and the southern or railroad, and as Omaha and Bismarck alike possess the advantages of Missouri River navigation and direct railroad connection with all portions of our country, they may be properly deemed starting points upon their respective routes.
The northern route from Bismarck is still the natural one, by steamboat up the Missouri, 400 miles; the Yellowstone 360, to the mouth of the Big Horn, and probably some 60 further that of Clark's Fork; and by coach 160 miles to Bozeman, the main town and ontfitting point of those regions. Thence it is by coach 72 miles to the Mammoth Hot Springs, within the Park- from Bismarck, distance 1,050 miles; time ascending, 12 or 14 days; descending, much less; expenses, about $100.
The southern route is by the Union Pacific Railroad from Omaha to Ogden, near Salt Lake, 1,033 miles; Utah Northern to Port Neuf Cañon, near Snake River, 150 miles; coach via Pleasant Valley and Virginia City, 380 miles to Bozeman, and 72 miles to the Park, or an aggregate of 1,635 miles; time, 10 days; expenses, $200.
A saving of 30 miles can be made in the Yellowstone route by following it through the Gate of the Mountains instead of via Bozeman; and considerable time, distance, and expense upon the southern route by entering the Park from Virginia City, 90 miles from Bozeman. With little doubt both these routes will be materially shortened during the coming season: the southern, by extension of the railroad 70 miles to the crossing of Snake River at Eagle Rock, then coach some 150 miles via Henry's Fork and Lake to the Lower Geyser Basin within the Park, some 50 miles nearly south by the road this year constructed from the Mammoth Hot Springs. By the anticipated construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad from Bismarck to the Yellowstone, near the mouth of Powder River, some 600 miles of river route will be exchanged for 250 of railroad; the routes then standing approximately: Northern-Bismarck to the Mammoth Hot Springs, distance 700 miles; time, 8 days; expenses, $60. Southern-Omaha to the Lower Geyser Basin, distance 1,400 miles; time, 6 days; expenses, $100; showing that, as now, one route requires the most time, and the other the most money; but practically tourists should go one route and return the other.
Routes within the Park.
ROAD TO THE GEYSERS.
Mammoth Hot Springs to summit of the Terraces..
Obsidian Cañon .........
ROAD TO THE GEYSERS.
MOUNT WASHBURN TRAIL VIA THE GREAT FALLS AND LAKE.
Mammoth Hot Springs to the Forks of the Gardiner.
Cañon and Falls of the East Gardiner .
655 DOC Lerco er erosion
A trail is greatly needed from the Upper Fire-Hole Basin to those of Shoshone, Lewis, and Heart Lakes, and those upon the fingers and eastern shore of the Yellowstone, some 100 miles in length, and the Pelican Creek route of 35 miles to the East Fork of the Yellowstone, at the mouth of the Soda Butte.
As the very limited building accommodations at the Mammoth Hot Springs are all which are likely to be found in or near the Park the coming season, tourists should outfit at Ogden, Bozeman, or Virginia City, or, if reaching the Park by coach, excellent saddle and pack animals will be abundant at $1; guide and packer, $2 each per day.
T'ime actually necessary for a tour of the main wonders of the Park, ten days; twice that more enjoyable; and August the best month, although July is only marred by flies, which nearly devour the animals; September good, except a severe equinoctial storm; and October, save deep snows in the passes.
The best plan is to make the Park the main object and turning-point in a season's rambles, visiting both the Salt Lake and the Yellowstone Valley regions upon the outward or return routes.
There is now all promise of a summer post for protection from Indians, if necessary