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Blackfeet and the combined bands of these fur-traders and their Bannock friends at their general rendezvous in the famous “Pierre's Hole,” near the Three Tetons, within plain view of mountains within the park; and yet, most strangely, in all the published reports of these famous mountaineers, we fail to find a hint of the park or its wonders.

During nearly three years of trapping and trading with the Indians by Captain Bonneville and his detached parties, in all directions from the park, it is evident that he neither visited it nor learned its true location. For although his map of those regions was far more accurate than any before and many after it, even that shows the largest mountain lake as the head of the Snake River instead of the Yellowstone; lience Pacific instead of Atlantic waters, inaccurate in form, without a name, and no indications of the great falls, canons, or geysers, or any of the firehole basins. In fact, in his only reference to the latter (Irving's Bonneville, page 236) he erroneously locates it upon the Stinking River (now Water) branch of the Big Horn, where the sulphur fumes from an extinct geyser basin somewhat resemble those of the park, but every way less mountaingirt and important than those which Coulter saw within the park.

I have ever given much credence to a well-endorsed camp-fire legend of a mountaineer named Smith having, prior to the days of Bonneville, written a narrative of his explorations of the firehole regions, and being killed by the Indians before its publication; but have never found written proof thereof. Border legends, although often gross exaggerations, are seldom wholly false, and scores of them indicate that white mountaineers did long ago occasionally visit portions of the park for trapping or concealment, and perhaps both. This is, in fact, proven by ancient stumps of large trees cut for breastworks and for foot-logs across the Crevice, Hellroaring and other mountain torrents, which no experienced mountaineer would fail to recognize as those of white men, from being rounded from below in a way never practiced by any known Indians. Also a corral near Amethyst Mountain, and the ruins of an ancient blockhouse with earth roof anal port-holes, clearly the work of unknown white men, near the grand cañon below Mount Washburn, and a cache of martin steel-traps of a peculiar form only used by the Iludson Bay trappers some fifty years ago, which were recently found along our road near the Indian arrowhead quarry at Beaver Lake.

In Captain (now General) Frémont's reports of his explorations in those regions in 1842–44, he describes mountain scenery and harmless hermit Indians similar to those in the park, but no geysers; being probably ignorant of their existence.

In 1844 James Bridger to me personally, and as I now know correctly, (escribed the casions of the Upper Snake River, but had then neither seen nor obtained a correct conception of the geysers, deeming them real volcanoes. His description of the Two Ocean Pass south of the park is now admitted to be mainly correct, and there is more of truth than sport (as per camp-fire custom) in his famous story of a foaming torrent, icy cold at its snowy fountain-head, and seething hot half a mile down the mountain-side, though not caused, as he boasted and perhaps believed, by the velocity of the descent, but by a crag-hidden firehole basin of spouting water and seething brimstone.

So with his famous legend of a lake with millions of beaver nearly im. possible to kill because of their superior 'enteness, with haunts and houses in inaccessible grottoes in the base of a glistening mountain of glass, which every mountaineer of our party at once recognized as an exaggeration of the artificial lake and obsidian mountain which I this year discovered, as briefly stated in my explorations-chapter of this re

port. But as its location, as also that of the arrow and lance head quarry, is across a sharp mountain range from where represented, and so long sought by trappers, it is not probable that he ever saw them, but that his information was derived from old Hudson Bay trappers or their Indian allies, alike interested in deceiving him as to their true location. These rumors of a mountain-girt land of wonders at the fountain-heads of the Missouri and Yellowstone so impressed Lieutenant (now General) G. K. Warren during his explorations of the Black Hills and great plains up to 1857, that he planned an expedition to explore it. This strong, well-equipped party, under the command of Captain (since General) W. F. Reynolds, with Prof. F. V. Hayden as geologist and James Bridger as guide, spent the season of 1859 in exploring the Black Hills and Big Horn regions, and failing to cross the towering Yellowstone Range and reach its mystic lake, wintered upon the North Platte. He renewed his efforts in the spring by sending Lieutenant Maynadier with a party down the Big Horn to again seek a pass from the east, and with the inain party himself sought one up Wind River from the south. Both parties failed; Reynolds by encountering a buttressed-based, snow-capped mountain wall, to cross which Bridger declared that even a crow would need to carry his grub, or provisions.

Turning to the west and crossing the main Wind River divide, near the head of Green River, and failing in another effort to reach the cliff and snow encircled park from near the Three Tétons, he abandoned the effort, and followed the old traders' route via Henry's Fork and Lake to the Three Forks of the Missouri.. He was there joined by Lieutenant Maynadier, who, failing in all his efforts to reach the park from the east, had crossed the Yellowstone in buffalo-hide boats below the gate of the mountains, and through the Bozeman Pass had reached and descended the Gallatin.—(See Ex. Doc. 77, Fortieth Congress,first session.)

The utter failure of a two years' search for the geyser basins by such well-equipped parties and led by the most famous guide of the mountains, proves them mountain-girt, isolated from the surrounding regions, with few and difficult known routes of access.

Thus baffled, the government made no further effort to explore the park until long after gold-seeking pilgrims had visited various portions of it. Prominent among these prospectors were Bart Henderson, Adam Miller, George Houstin, and C. J. Barronette around the Forks of the Yellowstone, and Frederick Bottler and H. Sprague from Henry's Lake to the forks of the Firehole River. All these were prior to 1869, when two hunters, named Cook and Folsom, visited portions of the park, but their verbal report, made to General Washburn and others who sent them from Helena, has never been published.

Having myself, long before the Reynolds expedition, failed, as he did, to reach the park from the east, I, after many years' absence from those regions, sought, in June, 1870, to reach it by ascending the Yellowstone above the gate of the mountains, accompanied by Frederick Bottler. Deep snows baffled our resolute efforts to cross the Madison Range to the geysers, and, when seeking to descend to the Yellowstone Valley below the Mammoth Hot Springs, Bottler was swept away in attempt ing to cross a mountain torrent above Cinnabar Mountain, losing his rifle, ammunition, most of his clothing, and nearly his life. This mishap compelled our most reluctant return from within the park through the then nearly unknown and impassable second casion of the Yellow stone to Bottlers', then the only wbite ranchmen upon any portion of the mighty Yellowstone River. Thence I retraced my route to Fort Ellis, published a brief account of my trip (see No. 3 of my Journal of Rambles in the Far West), and, under previous engagements, descended the Columbia to the ocean, purposing to return with a party to explore the park the next year.

During the following autumn the Washburn expedition was suddenly organized for exploration of the park. It was composed of H. D. Washburn, N. P. Langford, T. C. Everts, S. T. Houser, C. Hedges, W. Trumbull, B. Stickney, W. C. Gillett, and J. Smith.

General Washburn, in command, was then surveyor-general, at least T. C. Everts and N. P. Langford ex-officers, and all prominent and esteemed citizens of Montana Territory, well equipped; and, at Fort Ellis, joined by Lieut. G. ('. Doane and seven men, they followed my return route to and up the Yellowstone through its second cañon. They missed the Mammoth Hot Springs, but visited Mount Washburn, the Great Falls and Lake, returning by the Firehole River and Madison route to Virginia City. When among the fingers of the Yellowstone Lake, Everts lost his way, horse, arms, and provisions, and after thirty-seven days of exposure, starvation, and suffering, doubtless unequaled by any other man now living, was found by Barronette and Prichette, barely alive, upon the Black Tail near the Mammoth Hot Springs. This is the first party of really successful explorers of any considerable portion of the park of which we have any public record. (See General Washburn's surveyor-general's report ; also that of N. P. Langford, in the May and June, and T. ('. Everts's Thirty-seven Days of Peril in the November number of the second volume of Scribner's Monthly Magazine, and Lieutenant Doane’s report, Senate Ex. Doc. 51, Forty-first Congress, third session.)

The interesting letters, reports, and personal influence of the various members of this party led to Professor Hayden's interesting and valuable explorations in the wonderland in 1871. (See Professor Hayden's Geological Surveys of 1871.) Capt. J. W. Barlow and D. P. Heap also made valuable explorations, maps, and report of portions of the park in 1871. (See Senate Ex. Doc. 66, Forty-second Congress, second session.)

During the succeeding winter Professor Hayden was with his associates very active in publishing and distributing photograph views, sketches, and other valuable information in reference to the matchless wonderland, and in preparing, and, aided by many leading members of Congress, advocating to its passage a bill dedicating it as a health and pleasure resort for the American people under the name of the Yellowstone National Park. For its boundaries and control by the Secretary of the Interior, see hereinafter copy of the act of dedication.

For report of Professor Hayden's extensive explorations in the park, also including N. P. Langford's report as superintendent, see his report of Geological Surveys for 1872.

(apt. W. A. Jones and Prof. Theodore B. Comstock explored mountain passes to, and a portion of, the park, making valuable reports and maps. (See Ilouse Ex. Doc. 285, Forty-third Congress, first session.)

In 1874, the well known Scottish Earl Dunraven made a tour of the park, and published an interesting narrative. (See his Great Divide.)

For Secretary of War Belknap's narrative of a tour of the park, see his report of 1875.

Capt. W. Ludlow made a reconnaissance of the park in 1875. (See Engineer's Report published by War Department.)

For record of P. W. Vorris's explorations in the park in 1875, see No. 24 and 25 of his Journal of Rambles in the Far West. Besides Moran, Jackson, Elliott, Gannett, Holmes, and other justly famous artists who have at various times accompanied Professor Jayden's and other expeditions,

Forks, and the Yellowstone, Big Horn, and other branches of the Missowi- Mississippi-Atlantic waters, and the longest river upon our globe, radiate (often) from hot springs or spouting geysers within or adjacent to the great National Park, situate mainly in Northwestern Wyoming Territory. This is really less one large park than a group of smaller ones, partially or wholly isolated, upon both sides of the continental divide, here much lower than the nearly unbroken surrounding mountain ranges. Its average altitude probably exceeds that of Yellowstone Lake (some 8,000 feet), or nearly a half mile higher than Mount Washington; its few and yawning, ever difficult, often impassable, cañon-approaches along foaming torrents, and the superstitious awe of the hissing springs, sulphur basins, and spouting geysers, and unfrequent visits of the surrounding pagan Indians combined to peculiarly delay the exploration of this truly mystic land.

Although Lewis and Clarke, by ascending the Jefferson instead of the Madison or Gallatin Forks of the Missouri in 1805, crossed the Rocky Mountain Divide some 50 miles west of the park without its discovery, yet it is from a member of that first band of Northwestern explorers that we derive our first knowledge of its existence. Coulter and Potts, after their discharge in 1806, retraced Captain Clarke's return route, via the Yellowstone River and Bozeman Pass, to the three forks of the Missouri. They there continued to trap and hunt until Potts was killed and Coulter captured in a Blackfeet Indian ambuscade below the famous Beaverhead landmark upon the Jefferson. Coulter was allowed to run the gauntlet for his life, and, being remarkably fleet of foot, distanced all but one of his pursuers, whom he pinned to the earth with his own war-lance, and escaped, over 6 miles of prickly-pear plain, to some drift-wood at the head of an island in the Jefferson. Unarmed, naked, and lacerated, he, through untold dangers, hardships, and suffering, reached a trading-post on the Lower Yellowstone, rearmed and returned to his Bannock friends, and for years hunted, trapped, and with relentless vengeance fought the Blackfeet.

The haunt of the main Bannock tribe was at Henry's Lake, west of the park, that of their little Sheepeater Band within, and their main buffalo range upon the Big Horn, east of it, and Coulter certainly visited the Great Falls, Yellowstone Lake, and some of the firehole basins and spouting geysers, and ever after his return to Missouri in 1810 gloried in describing them. Yet so little credence was given his descriptions, that for many years, even long after I was first upon the Lower Yellowstone, "Coulter's Hell” was a standing camp-fire jest upon now wellknown realities, and John Coulter is, without a shade of doubt, the first white explorer of any portion of the Yellowstone National Park.

In 1809, the veteran fur-trader Henry, driven from the three forks of the Missouri by the ferocious Blackfeet, constructed and for a time occilpied a stockade fort upon the outlet of the lake, which still bears his

name.

W. P: Hunt and Ramsey Crooks, in their outward route to the ever illfated Astoria, with a strong party in 1810, and also the feeble remnant of the band during their return in 1812, crossed the Wind River Range south of the park.

The famous American mountaineers Ilenry, Ashley, Sublette, and Jackson, the Scottishi Campbells and Stewarts, the French Pierre, Port Neuf, and Fontenelle, and other renowned trappers and traders, roamed over the regions surrounding the park until the most of them were killed by the Indians, down to the expedition of Captain Bonneville, in 1832. During that year a sanguinary battle was fought between the ever-bloody

and no

Blackfeet and the combined bands of these fur-traders and their Bannock friends at their general rendezvous in the famous “ Pierre's Hole,” near the Three Tetons, within plain view of mountains within the park; and yet, most strangely, in all the published reports of these famous mountaineers, we fail to find a hint of the park or its wonders.

During no three years of trapping and trading with the Indians by Captain Bonneville and his detached parties, in all directions from the park, it is evident that he neither visited it nor learned its true location. For although his map of those regions was far more accurate than any before and many after it, even that shows the largest mountain lake as the head of the Snake River instead of the Yellowstone; lience Pacific instead of Atlantic waters, inaccurate in form, without a name, indications of the great falls, canons, or geysers, or any of the firehole basins. In fact, in his only reference to the latter (Irving's Bonneville, page 236) he erroneously locates it upon the Stinking River (now Water) branch of the Big Horn, where the sulphur fumes from an extinct geyser basin somewhat reseinble those of the park, but every way less mountaingirt and important than those which Coulter saw within the park.

I have ever given much credence to a well-endorsed camp-fire legend of a mountaineer named Smith having, prior to the days of Bonneville, written a narrative of his explorations of the firehole regions, and being killed by the Indians before its publication; but have never found written proof thereof. Border legends, although often gross exaggerations, are seldom wholly false, and scores of them indicate that white mountaineers did long ago occasionally visit portions of the park for trapping or concealment, and perhaps both. This is, in fact, proven by ancient stumps of large trees cut for breastworks and for foot-log's across the Crevice, Hellroaring and other mountain torrents, which no experienced mountaineer would fail to recognize as those of white men, from being rounded from below in a way never practiced by any known Indians. Also a corral near Amethyst Mountain, and the ruins of an ancient blockhouse with earth roof and port-holes, clearly the work of unknown white men, near the grand cañon below Mount Washburn, and a cache of martin steel-traps of a peculiar form only used by the Hudson Bay trappers some fifty years ago, which were recently found along our road near the Indian arrowhead quarry at Beaver Lake.

In Captain (now General) Frémont's reports of his explorations in those regions in 1842–44, he describes mountain scenery and harmless hermit Indians similar to those in the park, but no geysers; being probably ignorant of their existence.

In 1844 James Bridger to me personally, and as I now know correctly, described the cañons of the Upper Snake River, but had then neither seen nor obtained a correct conception of the geysers, deeming them real volcanoes. His description of the Two Ocean Pass south of the park is now admitted to be mainly correct, and there is more of truth than sport (as per camp-fire custom) in his famous story of a foaming torrent, icy cold at its snowy fountain-head, and seething hot half a mile down the mountain-side, though not caused, as he boasted and perhaps believed, by the velocity of the descent, but by a crag-hidden firehole basin of spouting water and seething brimstone.

So with his famous legend of a lake with millions of beaver nearly impossible to kill because of their superior 'cuteness, with haunts and houses in inaccessible grottoes in the base of a glistening mountain of glass, which every mountaineer of our party at once recognized as an exaggeration of the artificial lake and obsidian mountain which I this year discovered, as briefly stated in my explorations-chapter of this re

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