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the business. The Indians dare not yet venture to bring down loads on the wagon, but drag the timber to the bottom with their ponies, but they see this is too slow á method, and they desire to have wagons to ase for this work. These bave been estimated for, and the Indians are inquiring about them every week, and I hope they will be furnished.
GOVERNMENT FARM. This consists of a piece of land fenced off, close by the agency, of 50 acres, nearly all of which was broken up at one time; but little of it has ever been worked. A young man of the Shoshone tribe was induced to take charge of the place the present season. He plowed and put in about 10 acres in oats, which was very good, being almost his first effort at farming. He made up his mind at one time that he had undertaken too great a responsibility, and became so worried that he gave all his crop to ine, saying be had “ got tired of it." Seeing that I could not prevail upon him to remain at the time, I took possession and have reported the same as planted by the government. When the field was ready for irrigation this young farmer was reinstated in his possessions, and bas given it close attention and raised a good crop, and bids fair to become a leading man in the industry. Besides attending to this farm he has also doce considerable work on bis own place.
SURSISTENCE. Rations of beef, flour, meal, sugar, coffee, bacon, baking-powder, tobacco, and soap were issued to 1,097 Indians up to April last, when we received an accession of 938 Northern Arapahoes, who were destitute and hungry, and bad to be fed. Rations hare been issued to these last, the same as to the Shoshonas, from the supplies that were on hand, the beef and flour contracts alone being slightly increased. With these two es. ceptions no additional expense has been incurred on account of this increase in the population of this agency. In distributing the above supplies, it was necessary to equal ize the same, in order to carry them through the fiscal year. The amounts issued, according to the established rules, have not given satisfaction to the Indians, and the bave expressed their dissatisfaction on a good many occasions, and their clamors for ad. ditional rations are sometimes very annoying. I am sure the ration established by the department is not sufficient for sustenance of the Indians, lasting not more than four days; during the balance of the week they provide for themselves. They do this in different ways, by going about begging, digging roots, hunting game, which if they fail to find, do not hesitate to kill a neighbor's cow or steer, provided they do not find one handy belonging to themselves. Others dispose of horses, or sell some of their cattle, to get money to purchase groceries. Such misdemeanors were never committed by them until supplies became shortened. Indians just learning to work should have plenty to eat, not allowed to get hungry, for then they will not work, and are inclined to grumble at everything. They had become so used to supplies being exhausted at this season of the year, they all wanted to know how long they would last, for when they are gone they said, “We want to go on a hunt.” When I assured them that provisions would not "give out" they were surprised, and withal not a little disappointed, when they could find no excuse to have a summer chase. However, the baffalo being within easy reach, many of them went without permission, and were gone several days, wben they returned loaded with meat, and satisfied. I would earnestly recommend tbat larger rations be authorized, until their herds increase and they be come more extensive farmers. There is no perceptible diminution in the droves of buffalo and other large game within the limits of this reservation. Indeed, I think it is more plentiful since the Sioux and other warlike tribes were driven out of the country north and east of us; and as long as game abounds and within easy reach it removes the time more remotely when these Indians will settle down all the year round to quiet, steady, hard, and constant toil. The difficulty will not be to keep them on their farms during the summer; but if it is the design to retain them at home winters, this cappot be done immediately ; it will take some time to accomplish this, and patience must be exercised until this trouble is overcome. We njust remeniber that the chase has such great attractions to many white men that they run any risks, and incur great expense, and travel thousands of miles to indulge in this pleasurable excitement. How, then, can we blame the Indians, who have always lived tbereby, if they occasionally break away from the monotony of farm-work, and especially when their appetites are unappeased by sufficient rations from the government ?
UNITED STATES INDIAN POLICE FORCE. Under the rules and regulations for the government of the United States Indian po lice service, dated July 1, 1878, I endeavored to organize such a company, composed of the Shoshones and Arapahoes, and have succeeded only with the latter tribe. The Shosbones complain of the smallness of the wages, and complain about not getting compensation for their horses also. I bave no doubt but that when the force is thoroughly organized it will be competent to maintain peace and good order on the reservation. There is nothing needed much worse tban this force. The agency being so close to the
southern line of the reservation, the Indians have many opportunities of leaving the same, and whites to come upon, committing misdemeanors, with small chance of being detected. Their advantage is increased by the fact that across the line are located, to all appearance, a graceless set of whites, whom I have reason to believe organized to carry on illicit traffic with the Indians in the way of furnishing them with whisky and cartridges, and of inducing them to steal from each other, and of buying stolen property. I am trying to detect these parties.
SCHOOLS. Although the agent has labored diligently with those in authority, both in church and department, since taking charge fourteen months ago, it is but recently that a teacher was secured and a day-school opened for the Indian youth. Present indications are that no difficulty will be experienced in having a full attendance at schools, provided necessary aid is not withheld from us in the future as it was in the past, for, as represented heretofore, and thoroughly demonstrated at this agency, a day-school cannot be made entirely successful as long as the Indians have lodges to live in. It must be manifest to all practical minds that to place these wild children under a teacher's care but four or five hours a day, and permit them to spend the other nineteen in the filth and degradation of the village, makes the attempt to educate and civilize them a mere farce. *** * Preparations are being made to open a boarding and industrial school. Estimates bave been forwarded for an additional school-building, which it is hoped will be completed the present season. A day-school, while it is better than to have none at all, yet must continue to be, for reasons already given, very unsatisfactory to both agent and teachers, and of comparatively small benefit to the Indians. The school has been placed under the charge of Mr. J. W. Coombs, a worthy man, who is laboring with commendable zeal for the good of the Indians. The progress of our school will be reported from time to time.
MISSIONS. The care of the Indians' education and religious training was assumed some years ago by the Protestant Episcopal Church, but there has been no mission established as yet, not, however, because this is not an inviting or promising field for opening and conducting work of this character, but owing to a want of means. It is hoped tbis matter will not be long delayed, for a mission must be considered a very important part of the service at an Indian agency. A Sunday-school has been opened under the supervision of the teacher, and is regularly attended by all the white and many Indian children, giving satisfactory evidence that all that is required is to have some good man to lead the way. Such an one placed in charge of this people as their minister, would receive a welcome by the Shoshones and the Arapaboes now.
HEALTH. We cannot always tell, from the amount of medicine called for at this agency what the state of health of the tribes is, as they suffer from many imaginary diseases, and call on tbe physician for treatment of these, as well as real complaints. They generally wish to prescribe for themselves, and thus become at once both patient and physician. I have instructed the doctor in no instance to give an Indian medicine unless his condition was such as to require it. There should be a resident physician for these Indians, who would then have time to visit the sick and deal ont remedies to them in their lodges, which would be far better and more economical than as now. They come to the medical dispensary calling for such medicines as they think they need or desire to have. A hospital is needed.
THE AGENCY TRADER. Mr. James K. Moore, who keeps a large supply of goods on hand for the military and Indian trade, is not located at the agency, but at Camp Brown, he being also posttrader. His store is usually well supplied with such articles as the Indians usually purchase. This trade is changing rapidly, and is due to the change taking place gradually in the Indians themselves. Many articles a few years ago were not called for at all, such as fancy soaps, articles of kitchen furniture, dried and canned fruits, and all kinds of groceries. There is now a large trade built up by the demand of the Indians for these articles. Among the Shoshones the trade in beads, paints, and trinkets has fallen off greatly during the last five years. Mr. Moore's dealing with the Indians, as far as I have the knowledge, gives general satisfaction. His trade with them has been reduced to a cash basis.
When the Arapahoes came to the agency in the spring, they made a complaint of the trader pot giving them enough for their furs. Upon inquiry I found that the "cash system" had to a great extent cut off the “extras" or presents which they had always been used to, and this trader gave them no presents. I told them they could call for another trader for themselves whenever they chose, and I would recommend a cood man, but I have heard no further complaint.
AGENCY HOUSES, of which there are sixteen, consist of the following: Agent's dwelling; six employés' dwellings; stope fort, 20 by 20; office, 32 by 25; log school-bouse, 32 by 16; issue room, 24 by 16, log; frame saw and sbingle mill, 40 by 20; log sinitb-shop, 24 by 17, (worthless); frame grist-mill, 24 by 20; frame warehouse, 40 by 20. The agents and employés' dwellings were all put in good repair during the year. The other buildings are in bad repair; especially is this the case with the saw and sbingle mill; this machinery, including the engine, has been standing since erected, seven years ago, with little more than a roof over it, exposed to the elements and the destructiveness of the Indians, and bas suffered more damage in tbat time than twenty years' careful usage would bave inflicted. The so-called warehouse looks well on paper, but is decidedly an unsafe place to keep supplies in of more value than a sack of corn. It has been entered several times during the year, probably by Indians, and small thefts of subsistence committed. The condition of this building was fully represented to the department in my last annual report, and estimates sentin for a suitable one, but which was considered unfavorably by the department. The department does itself and the agent great injustice by making me responsible for the safe-keeping of such a large stock of supplies in such a place. I trust soon to see a better building provided.
INDIAN Houses. There are fifteen on this reservation, and three more partially completed being erected, one by Washakie and two by half-bloods—most of them in a bad state of repair. Some are occupied by Indian families; three are uninhabitable, the doors and windows being broken to pieces, and the floors and stairways chopped up. The above shows the destructiveness rampant among the children in the village. Funds were estiinated for last year to make these buildings babitable, but nothing was remitted, and the buildings, though only erected in 1873, are fast going to decay. The tent or lodge should give way to the house. No more tent-cloth should be furnished by the govern. ment than to keep the Indians from suffering, until they can build houses for themselves. I think they can soon be taught to build log huts for themselves, which are good enough, such as are occupied by thousands of white families. This will break up the habit of moving abuut from place to place whenever the notion takes possession of them. By persistent and continued effort in this direction, this can surely be accomplished.
CRIMES AND MISDEMEANORS committed on this reservation during the past year have been mostly petty tbieving, and confined almost exclusively to Indians against themselves, and within the Shoshone tribe.
The present is the first year since this country was settled by whites that violent deaths of friendly Indians and whites have not occurred at the hands of hostile enemies. It has been remarkable for the reign of peace and quietness in this regard.
Whisky, as usual, has been introduced upon the reservation quite frequently, undoubtedly by white persons banded together for the purpose, and the traffic is conducted so secretly that no evidence has been collected pointing to the guilty parties. And while the local authorities and others in the vicinity of Lander have made complaints to me of the frequency of drunken Indians in the neighborhood, yet not one of them, nor of the other citizens of the place, are able, or say they are not, to give me important information that would lead to the detection and punishment of the parties engaged in this traffic. The Indians who know will not inform on those from whom they get liquors. The only available plan, it seems to me, by which the parties can be discovered and their arrest affected, is to employ a secret detective.
CLAIMS FOR SPOLIATION. But one claim of this kind, and that against the Shoshones for $500, has been presented during the year, and is now undergoing examination. Owing to the remote. ness of the period on wbich the act was alleged to have been committed, it will require considerable time for proper investigation.
SETTLERS. The white settlers alluded to in my first annual report still remain on the reservation, being located on their several claims, increasing their stock and improvements, and, of course, still further encroaching on the Indians' rights. The claims of said whites were long ago appraised, and Congress should pass a law without delay authorizing the liquidation of the same, or else to dispossess the claimants and settle the matter by law afterwards. I would earnestly recon mend that some enactment be made by which said settlers may be removed and the Indians given their rights.
NORTHERN ARAPAHOES. This band is a remnant of the once powerful tribe of that naipe, inhabiting the mountains and plains of Northern Colorado, Westeru Dakota, and Eastern Wyoming, They bave met many misfortunes within the past few years, by which they have become thoroughly subjugated, and their numbers reduced to 938 souls. Their character is peaceable, and they are better developed mentally and physically than many other tribes. The other bands constituting this tribe were removed several years ago to the Indian Territory; these refused to go to that miasmatic country, and have been underlings of the Sioux, until recently transferred from the Red Cloud to this agency. They have conducted themselves quietly and peaceably since their arrival, and have made a permanent peace with the Shosbones and the surrounding tribes. They are in such indigent circumstances as to be wholly unable, without generous assistance from the government, to speedily emerge from their present state of mendicancy. When the steps taken by the government to furnish these people with food and other supplies and implements of farming are completed, and the Indians have a chance to use them, I predict that they will make a far better showing, in a shorter period of time, than many others who have possessed advantages that tbis band will never experience. They express themselves pleased with their treatment at this agency, and are especially grateful that the department permitted them to come here, instead of compelling them to journey to the Indian Territory. It shall be my endeavor from the beginning to induce these people to inprove each one his own farm. I think time will develop them into thrifty and industrious people.
TRANSFER. This subject has recently been presented to the Shoshones and Arapahoes, and in a council held at this office, which was generally participated in by the chiefs and their councilors, they have expressed their preferences for a civil instead of a military agent.
Before closing, I wish to express my grateful sense of the kindly feelings wbich bave marked the intercourse, socially and officially, between the officers of the military department and myself. I have many times received from them good and timely advice, and bave ever found them ready to see that every just order issued from this office was strictly complied with.
In conclusion, I desire to say that while I am aware that we have come far short of what is expected of us by the department, yet I am sensible that we are making progress, it may be slowly, yet nevertheless surely, and beg that the authorities will remember that we have a savage people to deal with, and that while it is the chief duty of an agent to induce his Indians to labor in civilized pursuits, he should be clothed with a large discretion with regard to carrying out the various orders promulgated by the department. I have the honor to invite attention to the inclosed reports of teacher and physician Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES I. PATTEN,
United States Indian Agent. The COMMISSIONER OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
mile in width, and has arable land from its source to its mouth. The timber on the creek is sparse and only sufficient for winter cover for cattle. The fine timber on the head forks and lateral ravines is practically inexhaustible, but can only be utilized by hard labor, owing to the broken country where the timber grows.
The creek was thoroughly examined by the commission and found to be an excellent home for Red Cloud's band of Ogalala Sioux, and too limited in extent to accommodate so many people. The timber, the grass, the water, and the land, so far as it is capable of cultivation, are unexceptionable. The Big White Clay Creek was the farthest point westward examined by the commission, and in any case is as far west as the country could be colonized, being within 15 miles from Nebraska on the south, and the same distance from ceded land on the wost. The country west of Big White Clay to the Wounded Knee Creek was examined and found to be a rough couutry of sharp ridges, the ravines filled with pine tiniber.
Passing eastwardly the creeks emptying into the White Earth River, the Wounded Knee 15 miles, the Porcupine Tail Creek 25 miles, the Medicine Creek 35 miles, the Corn Creek 35 miles, and the Bear-Running-through-the-Lodge Creek 45 miles, were found to be streams of living water, with a fair proportion of arable land on eacb, with good grass and abundance of pine timber in the ravives on either side of the valley. This pine country extends in a direction nearly east and west from the Eagle's Nest Butte on the east to Camp Robinson on the west, 100 miles, and will furnish timber for 10,000 people for 100 years to come, and is one of the advar ges which recommend this country for an Indian settlement.
The Pass Creek, 15 miles east of Eagle's Nest, and the Bad Lands Creek, 30 miles east of the same landmark, can be utilized as stock conntry, but are distant from timber; yet it is recommended that these creeks be embraced in the territory of the Ogalalas under Red Cloud. This territory, nearly 100 miles in extent east and west, would contain all the land available for settlement south of White Earth River on the Sioux Reservation, and not assigned to the Brulés under Spotted Tail, and would furnish comfortable and profitable homes for the tribe.
It is thought best that the agency should be placed on the Wounded Knee, as the Big White Clay is near the western border of the Red Cloud lavd. And as the selection of a site for the agency is a matter of lasting importance, it is recommended that this be referred to the Indian agent and the commanding officer of the post.
After returning to the forks of White Earth River, the commission examined the valley of that river to within 20 miles of the Missouri, their attention baving been called to this valley by the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs. This valley the commission condemned as a home for Indians from the badness of the water of White Earth River (the only water), the sterile soil, and the sparseness of the timber.
The commission were fully aware of the great expense in the matter of transportation in placing the Indians, Spotted Tail 70 miles and Red Cloud 150 miles from the Missouri River, and in council on the 1st August at the Forks of White River, in accordance with instructions received by the commission and as a compromise, it was explained to Red Cloud and chiefs assembled that $20,000 would be paid them in cattle if tbey would remain on or near the Missouri River at some new location.
This proposition they received in perfect good nature, but answered that they could not do so; that they could not do anything to make a living on the Missouri; that they bad selected the White Clay country for their home while in Washington last fall; that their people were unanimous on going there, and nothing else would content them. These promises, which it appears were really made the Indians, seemed to bar any chance of inducing them to remain on the Missouri. And in fact after a faithful ex. amination of the country the commission were forced to the conclusion that if these Indians, excepting in small numbers, were located on the Missouri they must be paupers dependent on the government forever; whereas if located upon the lands recommended, and supplied with stock and reasonably and bonestly assisted, within ten years they have a fair and good prospect of becoming self-supporting, and in an economical point of view it should not be lost sight of that for these Indians to become settled and ultimately self-supporting, with homes of their own, they must bave houses ; and on the Missouri the materials for houses would have to be obtained from some other locality, and the cost would be greater than the cost of transportation of supplies ; hence a removal to a locality where building material can be had ready to their hands would in the end be more economical.
We think these Indians fully realize their own condition. Their couutry, the Sions Reservation, is comparatively poor in soil and pasturage; no equal extent of territory east of the Rocky Mountains could be laid off so deticient in natural resources. The game is almost entirely gone, the living wild creatures of the Sioux Reservation would not feed its Indian population one week. The Sioux tribes have lost all the resourcs of their savage life, they have ceased to live as Indians, without having made one single step toward being civilized men. They realize all this themselves, and they now only need proper help. We believe they can be rescued from barbarism, and can