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James M. Page......... July 15, 187
.. July 15, 1874 P. A. Largey........ Benjamin F. Marsh..
118 Oct. 19, 1877 Aug. 6, 1872 T.J. Harrington et al...
119 Oct. 25, 1877 Preston Scott ........ July 25, 1874 Charles S. Warren et al. .
Oct. 26, 1877 Benjamin F. Marsh .... Aug. 6, 1872 Jos. D. Conrad et al. .....
Nov. 7, 1877
Nov. 21, 1877
Nov. 21, 1877
Dec. 3, 1877
126 Dec. 3, 1877 Do.... June 22, 1874
1127 Dec. 3, 1877 Do... June 22, 1874 ...do....
128 Dec. 3, 1877 Do.... June 22, 1874 W.A. Clark ...
Dec. 4, 1877
130 Dec. 15, 1877 Do..... Aug. 6, 1872 Franklin Farrell et al
131 | Dec. 15, 1877 James M. Page. July 15, 1874 P. A. Largey....
132 Dec. 18, 1877 Do... July 15, 1874. ... do ....
133 Dec. 21, 1877
134 Dec. 21, 1877
135 Dec. 24, 1877
Dec. 28, 1877
136 Dec. 27, 1877 James M. Page..... July 15, 1874 Charles L. Dahler et al.
138 Jan. 2, 1878 Demas L. McFarland .. June 22, 1874 Andrew J. Davis ......
139 Jan. 7, 1878 Do...
June 22, 1874 ... do....
140 Jan. 7, 1878
Jan. 8, 1878
Jan. 8, 1878
Jan. 8, 1878
Jan. 8, 1878
Apr. 25, 1873
145 Jan. 8, 1878 Demas L. McFarland .. June 22, 1874 R. W. Donnell et al..
146 Jan. 14, 1878 June 22, 1874 H. C. Weibbold.
147 Jan. 25, 1878
Jan. 31, 1878
Jan. 31, 1878
Jan. 31, 1878
151 Jan. 31, 1878
1132 Jan. 31, 1878 Do. June 22, 1874
Jan. 31, 1878
Jan. 31, 1878
Feb. 2, 1878
583 25 156 Feb. 2, 1878
Feb. 14, 1878
Feb. 16, 1878
159 Feb. 19, 1878
160 Feb. 20, 1878 Do...... June 22, 1874 William A. Clark et al
161 Feb. 21, 1878 Do.. June 22, 1874 Jos. K. Clark ....
162 Feb, 21, 1878 Do. June 22, 1874 ...... do.......
163 Feb. 21, 1878
25 164 Feb. 21, 1878
10 165 Feb. 21, 1878
592 25 166 Feb. 23, 1878 Do June 22, 1874 John Downs et al. ...
593 25 167 Feb. 23, 1878 * Deposited in First National Bank of Helena, Mont.
47 2 south ...... 41 13 north..
43 3 north ...
46 11 north ..
3 north ....
3 north ....
7 north ....
7 north ......
3 north ...
9 south ....
3 north ....
3 north ....
78 3 north....
6 west. 9 west. 8 west. 1 west. 1 west. 13 west. 13 west. 3 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 4 west. 4 west. 4 west. 4 west. 4 west. 8 west. 3 west. 2 east. 6 west. 8 West. 8 west. 9 east. 9 east. 9 east. 9 east. 9 east. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 7 and 8 west. 8 west. 7 west. 7 west. 6 west. 8 west. 8 west. 7 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 8 west. 4 west. 8 west. 8 west.
D.—Statement of mineral claims surreyed, 8c.—Continued.
155 I Bowery ......
7. Mother Clime....
Royal Albert ..... 1587 Duke of Edinburgh .. 159 7 Michael Breon. 160! 7 Circassian...... 161 7 Imogene..... 162 7 Highland Lassie. 163 7! ('aribow.........
7 Black Eve Girl. 165
Pocahontas...... 166 7. Seven Thirty. 167 7 7 Chief Deposit .... 168 7 Potosi....... 169 7 Little Nation and mill site. 170 i 7 Victory ....... 1711 7 Adelpheh 172! 7 Dolly Varden 173 7 Moultrie ..... 174 1 7 Peerless....... 175 7 Royal Consort 176 7 Almont...... 177 7 Belmont..... 1781 7 Empire State. 179' 7 Alaska.......
7 Ocapulca ..... 181
Jno. Wesley 182! Queen Mary..
7 Davenport.... 184 7
Starlight .. 189, 7 Cimarron...... 190 7 Bradley .......
7 Florence Placer 192! 7 Pandora ...... 193 7 Oriental ...... 194 7: Ohio Placer........ 195 7 Bonanza .......... 196 Number 1 and mill site. 197
American Flag. 199
No. 1 201 No. 2..
7 No.3..... 203
No. 4 204 7 Maid of the Mist 205 7 J. W. Young.... 206 7 Black Spar 207 7 Jenny Parker ... 208 7 Grand View.. 2097 Park Placer...
Sept. 6. 1877 San Juan County
E.-Statement showing amount of salariex paid surreyor general and clerks in his office for
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878. DR.
F.-Statem nt showing amount erpended for rent of ofar, berods, stationery. fuel, and eher
incidental expenses for the fiscal year ending June 30, 133 DE
G.–Statement showing amount expended in surrey of prirate land grants for the fiscal year
ending June 30, 1878. De. -- 1877.
1877. Nov. 8 E. H. Kellogg. survey of
June 29 By appropriation ............ $2,000 00 Sangto de Cristo grant. .... $3,250 11 Dec. 17 By appropriation (No. 2336). 2,000 00 Oct. 17 Paid for printing ... ..
18 60 Balance......................
4,000 00 ---- - -
1.—Report of the surreyor general of Montana.
I'NITED STATES SURVEYOR GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Helena, Mont., August 28, 1878. SIR: In compliance with instructions in your letter E, dated May 1, 1878, I have the honor to submit herewith my annual report of the surveying opertions in this district, with accompanying statements, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878.
The following base, standard, and meridian lines have been established during the fiscal year, viz: The base line through a portion of range No. 16 east, and ranges Nos. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, and 25 east. The first standard parallel north through a portion of range Nos. 13 east, ranges Nos. 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 east, and a portion of range No. 33 east, to the point of its intersection with the Yellowstone River.
The second standard parallel north through a portion of range No. 32 east, ranges Nos. 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46 east, and a portion of range No. 47 east, to the point of its intersection with the Yellowstone River
The third standard parallel north through a portion of ranges Nos. 8 and 9 west.
The Blackfoot guide meridian through a portion of township No. 12 north, and townships Nos. 13 and 14 north between ranges Nos. 8 and 9 west.
The Judith guide meridian through townships Nos, 5 and 6 north, between ranges Nos. 15 and 16 east. The Valley Creek guide meridian through townships Nos. 1 and 2 south, and Nos. 1, 2, and 3 north, between ranges Nos. 20 and 21 east.
The Buffalo Creek' guide meridian through townships Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8 north, between ranges Nos. 32 and 33 east.
I entered npon my official duties October 8, 1877, and at that date, contracts for the entire amount of the appropriation for the fiscal year, viz, $17,700, had been made by my predecessor.
The unfulfilled portion of contract No. 77, dated July 21, 1877, with Demas L. McFarland, L'nited States deputy surveyor, was canceled by me January 5, 1878, with the consent of himself and bondsmen, and subject to your approval. Said approval was duly received, dated January 24, 1878. I entered into a new contract, No. 79, with the same deputy, March 5, 1878, for the survey of portions of the base line and first and second standard parallels north, with guide meridians connecting saine, &c., for the purpose of exploring the valley of the Yellowstone River, and establishing standard lines, from which subsequent surveys could be extended. This action was taken in answer to petitions, signed by a large number of actual settlers in the Yellowstone Valley, requesting that the public lands in that portion of Montana should be surveyed, and the informati on gained fromthe report of surveys made under said contract, No. 79, has proved its wisdom.
The townships subdivided during the fiscal year are those along, and south of, the Musselshell River, between ranges Nos. 12 and 20 east; in the valley of the Blackfoot River; some timber lands near the town of Helena; and fractional townships in the big bend of the Yellowstone River, north of the Crow Indian Agency, comprising a total area of 624,713.36 acres.
The total amount paid for surveys during the fiscal year, including the standard lines embraced in contract No. 79, the expense of running which should properly be considered as pertaining to future surveys of townships, was $17,403.53; the expense of inspecting surveys, $997.21 ; and office expenses, including salaries, $6,950.68; thus making the cost of field work 2.8 cents per acre; inspecting same, one tenth of a cent per acre; office work on same 1.1 cents per acre; and the total expense to the government, 4 cents per acre. In this connection it should also be stated that a large part of the surveyor general's time is occupied in work arising from mineral surveys, and, therefore, only a portion of his salary should be considered as pertaining to the expense of agricultural surveys.
The act of Congress making the appropriation, approved June 20, 1878, specifies the following classes of lands as surveyable, viz:
First. Those adapted to agriculture without irrigation.
Second. Irrigable lands, or such as can be redeemed, and for which there is sufficient accessible water for the reclamation and cultivation of the same, not otherwise claimed.
Third. Timber lands bearing timber of commercial value, either foreign or domestic.
The special instructions issued under this law require the surveyor general, in the selection of lands under the third clause, to confine his field operations to non-mineral timber lands; direct him not to contract “for the survey of lands which subserve merely pastoral interests;" and inform him that if he should let contracts for the survey of lands not authorized by the appropriation act he will be held to strict account for so doing, and therefore instruct him to be vigilant in the selection of the lands to be surveyedl, taking only those which are known to him to be of the classes specified, either of his own knowledge or from that derived from actual settlers applying to him for the extension of public lines over their settlements.
Except through information acquired by inspection of surveys in the field, to which I refer hereafter in this report, it is manifestly impossible for the surveyor general to have a personal knowledge of the character of lands in his district, and information derived from the application of actual settlers is, to some extent, unreliable, for the reason that they are not aware of the above restrictions, and when a contract is let for the subdivision of a township containing such settlements, it is often the case that the deputy surveyor, upon reachiug the ground, will find that only a portion of it is surveyable.
The surveyor general therefore selects the locus of a contract according to his best information and judgment, and in the special instructions accompanying the contract, which are made a part of same and always approved by the Commissioner of the General Land Office before the surveys are commenced, makes the deputy surveyor the judge of the character of the land. Said special instructions in this surveying district are as follows:
"In the execution of work under your contract, you will be guided by the above classification of surveyable lands, and not include in your surveys any land that cannot be classed as surveyable under the six heads heretofore mentioned, excluding all barren wastes, bad lands, &c., unfit for classification in the above category. Lands which merely subserve pastoral interests are not of the character authorized by law to be subdivided.
“As confidence is placed in your judgment, it is expected that you will not violate the same by any act contrary to law and instructions. In this you will be held strictly accountable, and unless your work under the present contract is executed in strict accordance with the terms of your contract and the laws and instructions governing you in your work in the field, payment therefor will not be made, and you will be debarred from any future contracts. In case any towüships or portions of townships embraced in your contract are unsurveyable, you are authorized to substitute in lieu of same, other townships which are surveyable, preference being given to those upon which settlement has been made, or toward which settlement is tending."
I am unable to see what other course the surveyor general can pursue under his instructions; yet, in my judgment, it is wrong, and the deputy surveyor should not be made the judge, for two reasons:
First. He is employed to do specific work, and he should no more be the judge of its value than a contractor on a railroad should be the judge of the engineering skill with which the work has been laid out.
Second. It is opposed to his interests. In this surveying district the deputy employs
assistants at a certain rate per month, giving them transportation to and from the locus of the contract, rations for the entire period, and wages from the time the work is commenced until it is completed. Now, suppose that when he arrives on the ground instead of five or six townships adjoining and easy to work, he finds only one or two that can properly be classed as suurveyable. When the survey of these is completed, he must spend days in finding other townships to substitute, during which time his men are lying idle, but drawing pay. The temptation is great to proceed with the subdivision of townships included in his contract, irrespective of the character of the land, especially when, as has been the case for the last two years, the appropriation for surveys is made so late that the deputy cannot get into the field until long after the fiscal year commences, has to work in the late fall and winter, until the snow drives him in, and go out again to finish the work in the spring, when the weather is, if possible, worse.
The instructions require the survey of timber land to be confined to that which is non-mineral in character and “where depredations have been practiced or are liable to be carried on by unlawful parties." This, in my judgment, is an unwise restriction, for the reason that timber on mineral lands is that first used for mining and milling purposes. It is true that by the act of Congress approved June 3, 1878, citizens and bona fide residents are authorized to fell and remove such timber, yet, if surveyed, such lands would be entered and purchased by owners of mills and mines, for the purpose of securing the timber thereon for their exclusive use. In this way mineral timber lands which now yield nothing to the government except the amount paid for the areas of mining claims would be a source of revenue.
The instructions forbid the survey of pastoral land. In this country it is almost always associated with agricultural land, on which are raised hay, oats, and vegetables, and it is with the greatest difficulty that an experienced man can tell what land is worthless, and what cannot be cultivated. The most worthless ground in this country can and does support sheep and cattle, with a little irrigation from the mountain streams, and it is only a question of a few years, if the necessary legislation can be bad, when large tracts of land will be taken up for stock ranges. Anywhere on the table lands can be found swales covered with fine grass, and plenty of good land. The introduction of sheep culture into this country has completely revolutionized the ideas of the inhabitants as to land, and a great number of farms have been taken up as hay ranches, many of them on ground left unsurveyed as worthless.
Walter W. de Lacy, United States deputy surveyor, a gentleman of thorough scientific acquirements and long practical experience as a civil engineer and land surveyor, writes me relative to this subject, as follows:
*Iu 1863, I was one of the first to enter the Stinking Water Valley, on my way to tbe far famed Alder Gulch. I thought then that I had never seen a more desolate or worthless looking valley. It was covered with sage brush. Within two years this sage-brush land proved to be excellent farming land, and to-day the valley contains many thriving farms, well cultivated, has at least two towns and a large number of herds of cattle, horses, and sheep, besides mines on every side of it.
“I have seen the same thing in other places in this Territory, in California, in Idaho, and in Washington Territory. My experience has been a very varied one, yet withal I might survey land and declare that it was agricultural; it might be inspected by some one who had no experience in this country and rejected as such, and I might lose my time, my money, and my employment.
"The true way, in my opinion, would be to survey the whole country into townships, subdividing such as are found to contain valuable land. Let the township lines be run first. The surveyor, in returning surveys of exterior lines, should furnish notes of the different parts, as far as he has the opportunity to see them. The deseriptions should be as minute as possible, showing the character of the land embraced in the township. This would, in the first place, give a very good topographical idea of the whole country, and would also designate effectively the agricultural, pastoral, mineral, and timber lands. The department and the surveyor general could then act understandingly in giving contracts and describing the country.
"As for the surveyors to whom contracts are awarded, they should have a rigid examination in mathematics, use of instruments, calculation of areas and draughting, the method of making public land surveys, with regulations governing the same, and have had some previous experience. The only exceptions should be old and reliable snrveyors who have already been long in service and proved their capability.
“There have been many bad surveys inade throughout the western country, but this is not wonderful. Many of the surveyors were men who were not educated to the business, who cared for nothing but making money ; there were no inspections, no accountability, and no punishment for wrong doing. With a different system the public surveys can be made a credit to the conntry."
I thoroughly indorse the views of Deputy Surveyor De Lacy, as set forth in above letter, which was written at my request, and wonld add that, in my judgment, the prices allowed for field work are entirely too low to afford a fair compensation to the