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COLUMBIA HOSPITAL FOR WOMEN. The reports from this institution show that during the year the hospital has been free from any of the diseases usually occurring in lyingin asylums, no adult death being recorded in the obstetrical department. Only one death is recorded in the medical and surgical division, although many of the operations performed were regarded as among the most severe and dangerous in surgery.
The number of patients treated in hospital during the year was 294; the daily average was 29.48. The number treated in the dispensary was 485.
In response to a letter addressed to the governors of the several Territories, reports relating to their present condition, resources, &c., have been received from Utah, Montana, Idaho, Arizona, and Washington Territories, and will repay careful perusal. Utah is represented as rich in minerals and the precious metals-gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, coal, sulphur, and salt being found in various parts of the Territory. The lands fitted for agricultural purposes are mostly taken up and are now under cultivation. There are vast tracts of land which might be valuable for cultivation if properly irrigated, but as the water would have to be brought through canals for long distances, the chances of their redemption are remote. The larger portion of the lands of the Territory is represented as of no value except for grazing purposes.
Agricultural pursuits in Utah are followed almost exclusively by Mormons, while the mining enterprises are conducted by the antiMormon population. As a rule the farms are small, owing to the expense and difficulty of irrigating the land.
About three-fourths of the population is represented to be foreign born or of foreign-born parentage, representing nearly all the European nations, the Sandwich Islands, and China, while it is claimed from the best attainable information that about nine-tenths of the people are Mormons.
For school purposes the legislature has imposed a direct tax upon all taxable property of three mills on the dollar. Owing to the fact that the schools are controlled by the Mormons and none but Mormon teachers are employed, the Gentiles decline to send their children to the public schools, patronizing instead private institutions conducted under the supervision of the various religious denominations.
The Uintah Indian Reservation is the only one within the Territory. The Indians thereon are represented to be well behaved, many of them having adopted the habits of civilization and have built comfortable houses for their use. They are engaged in cultivating the soil, raising stock, and give promise of being self-sustaining in a few years. The governor ascribes their present condition as due to good management and to the fact that they have been isolated and under no influences other than those of the officers of the agency.
The difficulty of securing conviction in criminal cases is referred to, and, in the opinion of the governor, is due to the defective jury law in force. Certain suggestions are made looking to the proper remedy, which should receive the consideration of Congress.
The governor of Montana gives a glowing account of the present condition of the Territory. Its climate is represented as mild and healthy; its water courses, of purest water, frequent and convenient; its soil rich in all the elements of productiveness; its mines of precious metals rich and profitable, and its educational facilities, considering the means at the disposal of the Territory, equal to those of the most favored State. The average production of wheat to the acre is claimed to be larger than any of the great grain-producing States of the Northwest. Agricultural lands are abundant in all the valleys, and, for fertility, are represented to be unsurpassed. The development of the mineral resources of the Territory is still in its infancy. The absence of railroads makes the transportation of machinery and ores very expensive, and thus retards the growth of one of the leading industries. The product of the gold and silver mines for the present year is estimated at $7,000,000. The completion of the Utah Northern Railroad, running from Ogden, Utah, to Helena, Mont., and now in course of construction, will lead to a much larger development of the mining interest. Coal abounds in paying quantities, and timber of fair quality and of commercial value is found in nearly all parts of the Territory. Stock-raising is a growing industry, Montana offering advantages possessed by few sections of the country. The grass is abundant and of good quality; the winters mild; the valleys are protected by the high mountains, and water is found where needed. Since the settlement of the Territory the loss of stock from the severity of the winters has not exceeded 3 per cent. per annum. The governor says, “It is believed that the bunch grass is worth more to the Territory than its mines of gold and silver. This peculiar grass starts up early in the spring, reaches maturity in July, and cures where it stands, thus affording a ready supply of food for stock during the autumn and winter months.” . The exports from the Territory are gold and silver bullion, cattle, wool, robes, hides, and furs. The wool-clip for the year reached 1,000,000 pounds. In speaking of the people of Montana, the governor says, “They are mainly from the Middle and Western States, are energetic, enterprising, intelligent, law-abiding, liberal, and patriotic, and are of the right kind of material to found the leading commonwealth of the great New Northwest."
The present school law provides for the levy of a tax of from three to five mills upon all the taxable property of the counties. The money collected is apportioned among the various school districts by the county superintendents of public instruction, and drawn from the treasury on order of the district trustees, countersigned by the clerk of the district. Each district is empowered to levy special taxes for building schoolhouses or extending the school term after the public money is exhausted. One of the most pleasing indications of the prosperous condition of Montana is to be found in her excellent school system and the popular interest manifested in its rapid development. But little benefit has been derived from the provisions of the organic act, which sets apart sections 16 and 36 of each township as a reserve for school purposes. Practically, the law is inoperative at the present time. In referring to this subject the governor says:
Many of these lands are mineral-bearing, and our local land office holds that they may be patented by individuals, and we have recourse only to the location of other lands in lieu of those thus patented. Unfortunately, neither the superintendent of public instruction nor any one else in the Territory has authority of law to thus relocate lands in such emergencies. Immigrants are rapidly securing the best sections, and if this evil is not promptly remedied it will not be long before the lands left us to choose from will be comparatively worthless.
The report concludes with a statement of the present condition of the Indian tribes within the Territory, their relations to the whites, accompanied by suggestions as to their future government, which should receive the candid consideration which their importance demands.
The governor of Idaho reports gold and silver as the leading resources of the Territory; all other industries are subsidiary to the production of the precious metals. The greater portion of the Territory is unfitted for cultivation by reason of the mountains and desert plains, too elevated to admit of irrigation. The valleys where water abounds, or where irrigation can be profitably carried on, produce in rich abundance the cereal grains, vegetables of all kinds, and fruits in their perfection. Beyond producing for home consumption there is but little inducement for agricultural enterprises, the means for transportation being extremely limited.
It is to be regretted that the cause of education receives but indifferent attention. The lands reserved for school purposes are not available as a source of revenue, so that what is done in the educational line depends upon the direct tax collected for that purpose. The Territory has no benevolent or charitable institutions and no asylums for the unfortunate of any class. In referring to the Indian tribes within the Ter. ritory the governor says:
Whatever policy may be adopted toward the native tribes, it cannot be concealed that the steady encroachments of the white settlements are rendering their condition distressing and their vicinity more dangerous. Seeing themselves surrounded and circumvented, their hunting-grounds overrun, and their means of subsistence cut oft, they become desperate and aggressive and mutual wrongs lead to war.
The governor expresses the opinion that our border population and the Indians cannot dwell near each other in peace under existing relations. He thinks a remedy may be found in the division of Indian lands into homesteads; the breaking up of tribal relations, and the extension over them of the laws of the United States and of the Territories. Ref. erence is made to the extreme difficulty in traveling in the Territory, and an illustration of this is given in the statement that the members of the governor estimates the farming and grazing lands of the Territory as about equal in area to the State of New York. Heat is a dominant feature of the climate. In the dry valley of the Colorado the summer heat is intense and of long duration. It is a noticeable fact that the heat of the sun does not produce the fatal effects of extreme heat in the moist climate of the Atlantic coast.
The chief industry of Arizona 'is the development of its mineral wealth, gold, silver, and copper being found in large quantities. The difficulties of transportation deter the growth of population and the investment of outside capital. Reference is also made to the insecurity of titles as one of the causes operating against immigration and the influx of money. The public schools of the Territory are reported to be in a good condition, and the progress made in education satisfactory. The governor discusses the Indian question, the condition of the tribes within the Territory, their wants, &c., and makes certain suggestions as to their future treatment. The concluding portions of the report are devoted to the presentation of facts relating to projected railroad routes and suggestions thereon, together with a suggestion that competent persons be employed to examine “the structure of the country” and make experiments from time to time with the view of indicating to the people the situations and depths at which water, whether by artesian wells or other means, may be found.
As reports had not been received from the governors of Dakota, Wyoming, and New Mexico at the time of preparing this report, no reference has been made to their present condition and resources. Should they be received in time they will be printed, so that the series of reports from the several Territories may be complete.
RESTORATION OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT BUILDING.
At its last session Congress appropriated $600 to enable the Secretary of the Interior to secure competitive plans for the repairing and reconstruction of the Interior Department building. It also authorized the appointment of a commission of three practical men skilled in the art of building to make report and submit specifications upon the plans secured, and appropriated for the work of restoration the sum of $100,000.
On the 14th of June, 1878, a circular was sent to many of the leading architects of the country, and to all who expressed a desire to compete, calling for plans for the restoration and reconstruction of the building.
Among the requirements were:
1. A design for the restoration of the building substantially as it stood before the fire.
2. A design for the conversion of the former model-rooms in the north and west wings into office-rooms, and the addition of a model-room above the offices and around the whole building, or over the north and west wings, without, however, changing the present architectural appearance from the street; also design for an additional story.
3. Designs for an entire new roof for the whole building; also, eleva
ber. Its vast rolling prairies make it peculiarly fitted for grazing purposes, and for wheat-growing it has few equals on the continent. It is estimated that its area of wheat-land is sufficient to produce, with ordinary culture, more than 100,000,000 bushels annually. The present yield for the season is estimated at 1,500,000 bushels. All the fruits, except tropical, and all vegetables of superior quality, are grown in great abundance. The soil and climate are well adapted to the production of peaches and grapes. For stock-raising this section of the Territory is unsurpassed, there being an unlimited supply of bunch-grass growing spontaneously over many thousand square miles on Puget Sound. The completion of the canals around the obstructions on the Columbia River will largely reduce the rates of transportation, and give a new impetus to the agricultural interest of Eastern Washington.
In referring to these improvements the governor says: There is no work of internal improvement pow carried on by the government which is of more importance than these canals. When completed there will be uninterrupted steamboat navigation from the wheat-growing regions of Eastern Washington and Oregon, and Western Idaho, to the Pacific Ocean.
The average temperature is as follows: Spring, 520; summer, 73°; autumn, 530; winter, 340.
The report is silent upon educational matters, with the exception of a reference to the Territorial University, located at Seattle. The university was erected from the proceeds of the sales of university lands do nated by the General Government, and is supported by appropriations from the Territorial treasury, and is under the management of a board of regents. It is reported as being in a prosperous condition.
The conclusion of the report refers to Indian affairs. Strong feeling exists against the reservation system, due to a great extent to the outbreak in Idaho last year, and to Indian troubles in Oregon during the present year. It is represented that a feeling of insecurity exists among the settlers throughout the Territory caused by the disaffection and discontent among the Indians. The governor favors the breaking up of all tribal relations; the extension of homestead and pre-emption rights to the Indians, and would have them made amenable to the laws of the United States and of the Territory. •
The governor of Arizona presents an interesting report descriptive of the soil, climate, and resources of the Territory. Although geographically located on the direct line between the populous Atlantic States and Southern California, it is shut out from lines of travel and barred against progress by its inaccessibility. There are neither railroads to it, in it, nor any roads other than those afforded by the natural surface of the ground, and these are rendered difficult to travel by the hot, dry, and sandy or stony ground over which lie the approaches to the settled portions of the Territory. The Little Colorado and Salt River regions are reported to be the granaries of the Territory. The soil is extremely fertile, and the bordering mountains well adapted for stock-raising. The