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tines, and afterwards, upon the skin, the nerves, and the bloodvessels. Dr. C. found, that opium, like vinous liquids, increases the cohesion of the intestines, and relaxes and debilitates the skin and nerves ; and hence he endeavours to explain some apparent contrarieties with respect to the action of opium. It would appear that in the living body, the primary effects of opium are stimulating as well to the nerves and skin, as to the intestines, and that the subsequent relaxation is almost in the ratio of pris mary excitement. But besides, this principle of agency, the substance in question has other and peculiar effects upon animal organization ; especially upon the human frame. Its constipating qualities are universally known; and indeed, Dr. Crawford alludes to them, but he endeavours to explain them in a rather fanciful and hypothetical manner, arguing, that while it imparts mechanical strength to the fibres of the intestines, it diminishes the energy of the vital principle. It is very probable that the particular effect of opium, to which we now allude, may have some connexion with its tendency to affect the brain and blood vessels of the head, in a degree beyond the other parcotics; for we know that brainular affections have a remarkable influence upon the peristaltic actions and intestinal secretions. The effects of opium upon the brain, and its tendency to occasion those congestions upon which apoplexy depends, are not perhaps sufficiently recognised by such practitioners as are very fiberal and indiscriminate in their administration of this very important medicine. We were pleased to see the attention of medical men called to this particular, in a late very able publication, by Dr. Armstrong, on Typhus Fever. Dr. C. found by his experiments, the same results upon the exanimate fibre, from hemlock, henbane, &c. as from opium ; at least with very little exception. Now it is familiarly known to every prescriber of drugs, that these last narcotics can often be substituted for opium with great advantage, inasmuch as they are comparatively free from the inconvenient and irritating quality just referred to. Although we have thus ventured to object to some of Dr. Crawford's speculative reasonings, it would be the height of injustice not to say, that in this, as well as in other divisions of the work, the medical student will meet with many valuable practical hints, which will amply compensate for a little false or defective theory.
The vegetable bitters come next under notice. Dr. C. finds that the substances of this class, which are most commonly used in medicine, increase the strength of the intestines, in the following order. Peruvian bark, galls, chamomile flowers, gentian root, Columbo root, cascarilla, myrrh, and serpentaria. We still find our Author guided in his theory of the modus operandi of these several substances, by the sympathetic assumptions
above alluded to, between the skin and the stomach. Dr.C. found that galls increase the strength and elasticity of the skin, as well as of the intestines, while Peruvian bark has opposite effects,—and hence he imagines may, probably, in a great measure, be inferred the febrifuge virtues of the latter. We doubt whether this principle is capable of being substantiated ; and we would rather infer the admissibility and use of Peruvian bark in febrile disorders, from its possessing, as Dr. Crawford afterwards shews, a certain degree of tonic power without displaying it in such measure as still further to increase the veloeity of the blood, already too much accelerated. · Dr. Crawford found that the dilute vitriolic (sulphuric) and marine acids diminish the cohesion of the intestines of an animal
recently killed. This fact affords another evidence of the caution with which inferences must be made respecting the medicinal effects of substances, from what is seen of their local operation upon the mere fibre. The mineral acids, it is well known, are possessed of a very considerable tonic power, when properly administered by the stomach ; while, judging merely from the experiments before us, we should be disposed to draw a directly opposite conclusion. Alkalies are proverbially endowed with the power of destroying the cohesion of animal matter; but Dr. C. found that the vegetable alkali in its aerated or mild state, somewhat increased cohesion, while the mild mineral alkali diminished it.
Common salt (muriate of soda) was proved to increase the cohesion of all the soft parts of the animal body;' and hence, says Dr. C. the reason probably that this salt, which is furnished in such abundance to the inhabitants of the earth, is so admirably calculated to preserve, and, in many cases, to restore health. In the experiments on this substance, it was seen to exert an especial influence on the arterial system ; and from this fact Dr. C. very ingeniously argues its utility in scrophulous affections. We recommend this division of the treatise to particular notice, and regret that the narrowness of our limits preclude our giving an abstract of the reasoning here introduced, which, after having made all the requisite allowances when perusing the speculations of a theorist, will be found very satisfactory and applicable. We shall content ourselves with remarking, that the tone, which is the result of saline substances taken internally, is, if we may so say, less artificial, and induced with a greater degree of impunity, than perhaps by any other agent: hence the extensive and permanent good wbich is often done to the digestive and chylopoeitic organs, by the continued and alterative administration of that salt, now so generally in use, in medicine, the (sulpharmagnesiæ) Epsom salts, which Dr. Crawford found possessed of considerable tonic powers even upon the dead fibre, and on the employment of which in the practice of physic, he
treats likewise, with considerable theoretical ingenuity. The habitual use of cathartic medicines, as well indeed as of medicine generally, ought as much as possible to be avoided ; but purgatives of a saline nature, more especially the Epsom salts, are less likely to be injurious in their continued employment, than any other; principally perhaps from the power they possess of imparting a gradual excitation to the intestinal fibre, which is not followed in so marked a degree as in other cases, by corresponding exhaustion.
* From the trials made with some of the mercurial preparations most commonly used in medicine, it was found that they in general increased the cohesion of the aniinal fibre throughout; while tartarized antimony seemed to increase the cohesion of the intestines and diminish that of the skin. Hence our Author would infer the sudorific tendency of the latter. Nitrated silver (argenti nitrus) impaired cohesion both of the intestine and of the skin. flow does this fact comport with the known tonic quality of this important medicine when duly and discriininately employed? It appears that the nitrate of silver was decomposed by the action of the animal fibre; and perhaps there may be sometbing in the principle of life, by which this decomposition is prevented when the medicine is taken into the stomach, and thus may the discrepancy be explained between its action upon living, and upon dead matter. Dr. C. endeavours also to account for this discrepancy in other tonic substances of the metallic class, such as the sulphas ferri, (vitriolated iron,) and blue and white vitriol, by supposing a similar decomposition and separation of their principles, when made to come into contact with animal matter. We cannot however follow the Dr. further into the extensive regions of hypothetical speculation, but shall content ourselves with recommending the tract, as characterized throughout by marks of deep reflection and able philosophy. It would be well for the interests of medicine, and of mankind, did all the works which issue from the press under medical titles, bear like marks of a real desire for the advancement of medical philosophy: but
while every true friend to science laments the want of fixed
principles in physiology, and the consequent uncertainty that • prevails in medical reasoning, there are some who willingly "avail themselves of this plea for neglecting its study, and idly exult in the assertion, that we have not sufficient knowledge
of the animal economy, to entitle this brauch of philosophy to ' rank with the sciences *;' and thus they either content themselves with running the round of an empirical routine, or adopt and foster with paternal partiality the illegitimate and vicious offsprings of a false and mischievous generalization.
* Quarterly Journal of Science and the Arts. No. IV. Art. I.. Vol. VII. N. S:
Art. V. 1. A Sermon preached in Great St. Mary's Church in the
University of Cambridge, on Sunday, the 30th of June, 1816, being Commencement Sunday. By Robert Hodgson, D. D. F.R.S. Dean of Chester, and Rector of St. George, Hanover Square. 8vo. pp. 24. Rodwell and Co. 2. A Defence of Extempore (Extemporary) Prayer, and of Calvinistic
Preaching ; in Reply to the Dean of Chester. By George Redford, .A.M. pp. 79. Price 2s. Hamilton. W HEN will the Dissenters rest their cause with the defences
W of it already in the world? When will they cease to pro..voke animosity, by a repeated exhibition of those views which are so well known to be opposed to the sentirnents or the prejudices of the greater part of their countrymen ? - These are the salutations which such a writer as Mr. Redford must expect from many estimable persons among his dissenting brethren. Were these inquiries addressed to us, we should without hesitation reply, The Dissenters will cease to make these deprecated exhibitions of their sentiments, when their brethren of the Establishment, and especially the Teachers of religion among them, shall think it worth while to take some little pains to know what the principles of the Dissenters are ; when these Christian teachers shall be convinced that men, with all the feelings of other men, have some reasons for the relinquishment of numerous secular advantages, and for exposing themselves to the derision of a scornful age. We are far from expecting that such an acquaintance with our principles, would ensure their universal reception; but we do think it would prevent that ignorant and intemperate abuse of Dissenters, which is so general a characteristic of the writings of a large proportion of persons, who are ambitious of meriting the distinguishing appellation of Churchmen.
The Dissenters have at no period been forward to make an exposure of what they consider as the defects of the Establishment, or to offer a defence of their own separation *. There are scarcely any of their few standard works on these subjects, which were not called forth by virulent and unprovoked attacks; and upon this model, we trust, the conduct of the Dissenters will ever be formed: entertaining too exalted views of the nature of Christianity, possessing too much of its holy enjoyments, animated by too large a share of its benevolent spirit, to permit them to be movers of the contention, and yet, when attacked, by no means shrinking from the contest, but openly and fearless*** Should it be thought that some recent articles in our Journal are at variance with these statements, we reply, that an honest and conscientious Reviewer is necessitated to state in regard to all points of controversy, what he considers as the truth.
ly defending those principles which to them appear to be founded on the Holy Scriptures.
Prudence, to say nothing of duty, requires from the Dissenters, a temperate but manly defence of their principles. We have not to learn, at this time of day, the importance of public opinion, nor the influence which the ministers of religion have, in the formation of that opinion. Now, if Christian teachers, it may be they are honest and well-informed teachers on subjects in general, but on the subject in question, ignorant and bigotéd,) if these can allow themselves a violent departure from “ the words of truth and soberness," in regard to those who dissent from them, it would be an unhappy circumstance, were any qualified person among these Dissenters, to be prevented by the clamours of some of his own denomination, from at. tempting to avert the dangers which might threaten the whole body, by the changes of public opinion.
We are quite sure that burning heretics alive, would not be endured in the present day. But though we feel certain that the public mind is too far improved to endure the scenes of 1560, we do not feel quite certain, that it is too far improved to endure the scenes of 1680. We think that many recent facts will allow us, without the least danger of libelling our countrymen, to suppose, that there are multitudes of them in every rank of life, who, though they could not endure the sight of a burning, would enjoy the amusement of attending a justice of the peace, with a party of coustables, to the conventicle ; of (ragging the preacher froin his pulpit, of dispersing the congregation, and shutting up the doors. And if the public mind were to be influenced only by bigotry and misrepresentation, who could say how near we should have arrived to so distressing a period?
Some persons who would not condemn every defence of dissenting principles, may consider it as a very unnecessary labour, to refute so feeble and superficial a performance as the Sermon before us; and were it likely to bave no other effect, than what the vigour of its composition, the accuracy of its statements, the cogency of its reasonings, and the profundity of its theological views, are in themselves adapted to produce, we might be of a similar opinion. But it requires only a very limited acquaintance with the state of religion in this country, to know that the opinions of the distinguished individuals who are invested with the awfully imposing name of bishop, or dean, are by numbers in every class of society, regarded as something more than human. To devolve, by this means, a large portion of its concerns on another, is congenial with the indolence of the human-mind; an indolence which is peculiarly evident in regard to religion ; and there is the greater danger, from this deference