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Ancient Leghorn.


expansive Mediterranean spreads its dark blue waves to the horizon's edge; and all around are seen the Apennines, on whose more distant summits the icy snows are shining in the golden clouds. On a clear day both Elba, and Corsica, may be traced.

The Rock of Gorgona, which is close to Leghorn, is the spot round about which are found the anchovies so famous as a sauce, yet, strange to say, the natives themselves never think of perfecting this little fish as we eat it; nor do I believe that any fish sauce is to be met with, or very rarely, in Italy, except it be imported from England. The usual addition to fish here (and very good I found it) is a little Florence oil mixed with the juice of a citron.

The Coral-Manufactory, and the Synagogue of the Jews, were the last two places visited by me at Leghorn. The latter is the handsomest that the unfortunate race of Abraham possess throughout Europe.

The manufactory of Leghorn hats, so important to all the belles of every country, is some miles distant from the city.

The Classics speak of Leghorn by the name of Liburnum; and also Herculis Liburni or Labronis Portus. Silius in his eighth book alludes to the Gulf of Spezzia, and neighbouring Promontory, as the Bay of Luna, and Sinus Lunensis. The modern Leghorn owes all its value as a port, and all

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its consequence as a city, to the labours of the illustrious Medici; and amply repaid have they been.

Pisa. Could we implicitly rely upon the traditions of ancient history, we might well venerate Pisa from the classic recollections it excites; since Strabo (book 5th) speaks of Pisa as visited by the wandering Greeks, and particularly by the venerable Nestor, at the termination of the Trojan War. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, has asserted that it was founded before the Trojan War; but we may reasonably believe that it was colonised by the ancient Pisans of the Peleponnesian Pisa on the Alpheus.

Without, however, retrograding so far into the remote periods of time, we well know that Pisa was a Roman colony, a distinguished city of Etruria, and a supposed residence of the Emperor Nero, the columns and sculptures of whose temples and palaces are conjectured still to exist, and partially to contribute to the cathedral, baptistery, &c. Rutilius alludes to its harbour, then styled Sinus Pisanus, having neither mole, or pier, to protect it, but as being equally secure without either from the singular circumstance of the sea-weeds in that part being so tenacious as to prevent the violence of the waves, yet so flexible as to yield to the pressure of

the vessels.

The glory of Pisa touched perhaps at its highest point during the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries; then were her fleets respected through

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out the Mediterranean, and Corsica, with Sardinia, the Saracens, and Carthage, were among those who humbled to her power. Now weakened by long wars, in her turn almost annihilated by the Genoese, this ancient republic is at présent part of the Dukedom of Tuscany; its population is decreased from 150,000 to about 16,000, and in walking through its streets, except on the Quays, the most frequented part, it is impossible not to be impressed with the solitude, and desertion, that seem every where to pervade this city.

Nevertheless in one spot, and close to each other, are four objects of great curiosity-its Cathedral, Baptistery, Campo Santo, or burying ground, and Campanile, or belfry.

Though in the English churches, generally, these accessories, the baptismal font, and belfry, are under one roof; in Italy, they are detached. The belfry, or Campanile, of Pisa, is unique, and the most extraordinary edifice of the kind in the world. It was built by Guglielmo, a German architect, in the year 1174.

A Circular Tower of the height of 181 feet 7 inches, having eight winding galleries, formed of regular arches, and columns. There are fifteen attached columns on the lower story; thirty insulated columns for each of the six successive peristyles, or galleries, and twelve attached columns for the eighth or topmost story, which is of a lighter structure,


The Leaning Tower.

and less circumference than the others, and surrounded only by an iron balustrade. The six central galleries are therefore entirely open.

The architect had completed this tower to the fourth story, when, most unexpectedly, the soil on which it was built gave way on the south side, and of course the whole building fell out of the perpendicular line.

Spite of this, the artist finished it according to the original design, and this stupendous fabric, known as the Leaning Tower, has now stood all awry, and apparently tumbling down, yet not having any material decay, or injury, for more than 600 years.

Having on this day spent six hours with some professional friends on the tower, who took every dimension with the utmost possible exactitude, the statements of the principal matters which I here subjoin may be depended upon.

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Besides the upper cornice.

Sinking of the ground on the south

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It would seem that the architect had endeavoured to counterpoise the building, and create a balance, since the height of the three upper galleries varies from one to three inches shorter on the north side than on the south.

The 207 columns, and arches, thus ranged. around, and above each other, are of marble, as is the whole edifice, some of them antique and choice; with all their capitals differing; while the general effect of this celebrated Leaning Tower is most beautiful, and equally striking, in whatever point it may be viewed.

The Cathedral was built in 1016 by Buschetto, in form a Latin Cross, and is 415 feet long by 145 wide. The front is formed of five stories of half columns, and semicircular arches, each story of less dimensions; and the Dome rises from the centre, also supported by columns, and arches, and adorned by pediments, pinnacles, and statues.

The interior roof is not arched, but formed of wood, in compartments, and roses, &c. richly gilt. The dome is low, and elliptic. The church contains 162 columns of the rarest marbles; some of Oriental granite; and perhaps the most striking feature in their appearance is their dissimilarity, many of them being the relics of former temples of Greece, and Rome; some fluted, some plain, some twisted, or spiral, all of different orders, and of different hues white, broccatello, granite, and porphyry.

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