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14 the number of males, the wages of inalo teachers going up $1,88 per month, those of females only 25 cents per month. She has 46 more school buildings, with a larger proportion reported good or very good, and rates the increase in the value of her school property at $286,535; while the total amount raised for maintaining her schools, exclusive of that for building school-houses, goes $71,436 beyond that raised in 1873–74. In 12 Kindergarten schools were 510 pupils; in the State Normal School, 269; in the only city high school reported, that at Newark, 450 pupils ; in other secondary institutions, 3,173, besides 706 in business colleges; in institutions for superior instruction of young women, 290; in regular collegiate classes, 718; in scientific schools of high grade, 192 ; in schools of theology, 294; in charitable and reformatory schools, 475.
Pennsylvania takes no annual census of her school population, and consequently cannot tell how great may be her advance from year to year in this respect nor how near she may conte to overtaking this advance by the increased enrolment in her schools. She reports, however, an increase of 39,299 in the number of public school pupils, of 8,822 in the average attendance on her schools, of 553 in the roll of teachers, of 39 in the number of graded schools, and of $541,941 in expenditure for all school purposes, including cost of buildings, fuel, and contingencies, but not including a specially increased expenditure of $77,324 in Pittsburgh, nor $509,508 expended on normal schools and soldiers' orphan schools. Four Kindergärten report 88 pupils. Another State normal school, organized in 1875, brings up the number of these schools to 10, including the one in Philadelphia, the number of strictly normal students in all reaching 3,930, the number of graduates, including in these 135 in Philadelphia, 299. As far as can be judged froin a collation of various reports, there were in every sort of secondary schools about 29,211 pupils, including 1,647 in business colleges. In the collegiato departments of institutions for superior instruction of young women appear 497 students; in those of the other colleges, 2,105; in scientific departments, 442; in schools of theology, 603; in schools of law, 65; in schools of medicine, 1,708; in charitable and reformatory schools, 4,707.
Delaware, now in line with other States in the possession of a new school law, a State board of education and State superintendent of free schools, presents for the first time distinct statistics of her educational condition, showing 19,881 enrolled in 369 public schools, under 430 teachers, the average salary of these teachers being $28.28 a month, and the income for the support of free schools, $192,735. In secondary schools 608 students are reported, and in her one college 41 collegiate and 34 scientific students.
In Maryland, as is said by the board of education, “the symptoms, on the whole, show healthy life and vigorous growth.” A comparison of the statistics of 1874–75 with those for the preceding year indicates that, without any reported increase of school population, there has been an augmentation of 7,118 in the enrolment in public schools, of 4,091 in average attendance, of 44 in the number of schools, of 34 in the number of teachers, of $37,148 in receipts for school purposes, and of $178,257 in expenditure on these, the expenditure for teachers' wages going considerably beyond the proportion of increase in their number, and indicating a gratifying augmentation of average pay. Three Kindergarten schools report 61 pupils. The State Normal School, now housed in an elegant new building, had 197 students on its roll; another, meant to train art and music teachers, had 25; a normal class connected with the Baltimore school system, 147. In high schools, academies, and preparatory schools or colleges were 5,922 pupils ; in classes for superior instruction of young women, 384. In regular college classes, 558 students are reported ; in scientific schools, 386; in theological, 366; in legal, 59; in medical, 380 ; in special, 1,114.
Virginia, numbering 45,963 more in her school population, has enrolled, out of these, 10,611 more in her public schools, and secured an average attendance of 5,070 greater
* The trustees of the Peabody fund expond yearly on an average about $100,000 upon public schools in designated States. The effect of this aid is greatly increased by the educational efforts of the agent, Dr. Sears, and the conditions upon which it is bestowed.
than in 1873–74; has increased by 300 the number of her teachers, and by 283 the number of her schools, retaining the same number of graded ones; has built 292 new school-houses, augmenting by $74,681 the value of her school property; and bas, according to special returns from her State superintendent, increased her receipts for schools, including unexpended balances, by $210,364, her expenditures on them by $18,406. It is not claimed that the school system here has reached perfection, but the superintendent says that under it three times as many children are gathered into schools as ever were before the adoption of it. No State normal school for whites exists, but in the Hampton Institute for colored youth, to some extent aided by the State, 243 students are under training, and of 39 graduates in 1875, 36 engaged in teaching. In two other normal schools for colored people were 268 pupils. In the only public high school reported were 237 students; in other secondary schools, 1,740, including 47 in a business college. In institutions for superior instruction of young women, 1,112 students were reported, 674 in collegiate studies. College and university classes contaired 1,263; collegiate scientific schools, 479; theological schools, 181; legal, 110; medical, 87; special,
West Virginia has done herself credit by increasing her school enrolment and average attendance considerably beyond the increase in her school population, the figures being: increased number of children of school age, 6,435; increased enrolment, 6,944; increased average attendance, 10,703. She has added also 219 to the number of her teachers, $65,167 to the value of her school property, and $11,539 to her receipts for schools, diminishing by $16,504 her expenditare upon them. Her five normal schools had in them 557 students, of whom 85 graduated. Her schools for secondary instruction, no public high schools appearing, enrolled 1,021 students; her institutions for superior instruction of young women, 110, of whom 50 were collegiate; her three colleges, 215 in their collegiate classes.
North Carolina presents in 1875 her report of public schools for 1873–74, exhibiting a school population of 369,960, an enrolment in her schools of 174,083, a gain in the former of 21,357, in the latter of 27,346 on 1872–73. Then, too, she shows a gain of 709 in the number of her schools, and of 785 in the number of teachers in them; of $87,575 in her receipts for public schools, and of $105,919 in expenditures for theirsupport.
In teachers' institutes and normal schools, about 600 were under training in 1874–75; in secondary schools of different kinds, excluding public high schools, 2,076;* in institutions for superior instruction of young women, 580, of whom 250 were collegiate; in the collegiate classes of the newly opened State university and five colleges, 433; in the agricultural and mechanical department of the university, 10; in schools of theology, 71; in a school of law, 16; in special schools, 342.
In South Carolina the increase of enrolment, 9,697, has gone beyond the increase of school population, which was 9,162. The increase in school attendance was 5,678; that in the number of teachers, 228; that of the schools, 227, of which number, 118 had new school-houses. The income for schools rose $10,775 above that for 1873–74, while the expenditures on them dropped $5,038 below the figures of the year before. The State normal school, imperfectly sustained, bad in it 39 pupils; the secondary schools, 3,946; the schools for superior instruction of young women, 406, of whom 366 were in collegiate studies. The State university and five colleges numbered 357 in collegiate classes; the agricultural and mechanical college, 35; two schools of theology, 90 students; one of law, 24; one of medicine, 63.
Georgiant with a school population reported the same as in 1874, claims to have en*On page 3:22 of the abstract, last line, there is an error of 243 in the figures for preparatory students of colleges, from one college reporting these quite late.
Hon. Gustavus J. Orr, the State superintendent of public instruction for Georgia, has written and published in the Constitution newspaper a series of articles giving from his point of view the arguments in favor of universal education.
The friends of education in the South would find the newspaper press a most successful medium for conveying to a great number of people better ideas of education, of the injury and shame of ignorance, and the benefits of right instruction.
rolled in her public schools 47,976 more pupils, and to have secured an average attendance of 29,532 more than in that year, the attendance at private elementary schools diminishing by 294, and that at private high schools increasing by 422. An imperfect enumeration of normal pupils shows 334 in two institutions, with probably at least one-third as many more elsewhere. In different secondary institutions appear to have been, for 1874–75, about 7,276 pupils, * besides 215 in a business college. In fifteen institutions for superior instruction of young women, were 1,364 students, of whom 894 were in collegiate studies; while in the State university and five colleges, were 536 collegiate students; in scientific institutions, 332; in theological classes, 70; in legal, 14; in medical, 256; in special, 252.
In Florida, from the imperfection of the returns for 1874, fourteen counties having failed then to make reports, comparison with the statistics of 1875 is difficult; but there appears to have been an augmentation of 11,175 in the enrolment of pupils in public schools and of 12,409 in the average daily attendance on these, 206 more teachers, and receipts $85,078 greater in 1875 than in 1874. The returns respecting secondary schools, imperfect in statistics, show only 520 pupils in such schools, probably not a third of the whole number, while as to superior, scientific, and special instruction information is wholly wanting.
Turning to Alabama,t we find, from the great imperfection of returns for 1873–74 no basis of comparison between that year and 1874–75, except in the matter of receipts and expenditures for public schools, those for the latter year being $159,962 in excess in the line of receipts, and $158,136 in excess in the line of expenditures. Comparing 1874–75 with 1872–73, we get an increase of 1,337 in the number of schools taught, of 1,311 in the number of teachers employed, of 41,347 in enrolment of pupils, and of 36,426 in average attendance, with a most refreshing improvement in the specification of the grades of schools and of the students pursuing in them different lines of study. In 1875, there were in three State normal schools and in five supported by societies, 659 students, of whom 533 are believed to be colored. Of the number of pupils in the 218 State high schools no report is made. In other secondary schools appear 495, with perhaps 131 additional; in institutions for superior instruction of young women, 946, of whom 623 were in collegiate studies. In the collegiate classes of the university and one college were 148 students; in the agricultural and mechanical college, 55, besides 33 in preparatory classes; in one school of theology, 14; in the law sehool of the university, 4; in the Medical College of Alabama, 50; in special schools, 202.
In Mississippi the report for 1875 indicates, notwithstanding a diminution of 31,354 in the number of children of school age, an enrolment of 15,432 more in the public schools; the average attendance, however, running down to 2,842 less than in 1874. The receipts for school purposes show an advance of $180,376, the expenditures goivg $197,997 beyond those of the preceding year. The two State normal schools for coloral students had in them 351. In the absence of information respecting public high schools, only 1,292 pupils in secondary schools can be reported; 186 of them in preparatory schools of regular colleges, and 100 in a business college. In six chartered colleges for females, were 386 students; in the State university and two colleges, 177 collegiate undergraduates; in the two agricultural colleges, 22, besides 39 in preparatory classes; in one school of theology, 15 students; in two special schools, 94.
* Erroneously stated on p. 75 of abstract, last line in "Secondary Instruction,” to be 6,662, from omitting 514 pupils in the ligh schools of Atlanta and Savannah.
† Alexander Hogg, M. A., superintendent city schools, Montgomery, Ala., has prepared and published an essay on practical education, in which he "sets forth the importance and value of physics, chemistry, geology, geography, and the study of human nature, notices the fundamental relation of mathematics, and dwells upon art and science."
" The great industrial problem to be solved by our statesmen, our educators, is this: How can we make the most of our natural resources, which, however varied and vast, are but the basis of our wealth ? How can we manage to consume in home industries the larger part of our raw material, adding to its value by the magic touch of taste-of skill? This problem can only be solved by the teachers, by education for definite industrial purposes."
Louisiana appears nearly stationary, her school population being reported the same as in 1874, the enrolment in her public schools increased by only 537, that in both public and private diminished by 55; the State school receipts running $89,403 below those of the preceding year, and the expenditures going $25,946 above; the number of schools 7 less, the number of teachers 63 more. Increased efficiency is said, however, to have been attained through the organization of teachers' institutes. In public high schools only 582 pupils are reported; in other secondary schools, 1,397, including 363 in business colleges. In one woman's college were 45 students, 20 of them collegiate; in the collegiate classes of the university and three regular colleges were 62; in the State agricultural college, 68, besides 22 preparatory; while in a school of theology 15 students were reported; in one of law, 36; in three of medicine, 163; in special schools, 493.
In Texas, where the educational authorities had to contend against many discouragements during 1874–75, only 97 counties out of 139 reported the statistics of the schools kept in them. There is no provision yet for the training of teachers for the State schools, nor any indication given of the existence of high schools under the State system. In other secondary schools 2,516 pupils are reported. In colleges for women were 536 students; in the collegiate classes of seven other reporting colleges, 635; in one school of theology, 12; in two medical schools, 36; and in two special schools, 99. Arkansas, just starting afresh after a virtual suspension of her schools for 1874, begins
a with a new constitutional provision restricting taxation for free schools within somewhat parrow limits, and a new school law, which substitutes county examiners for circuit superintendents. She reports for 1875 an enrolment of 73,878 in her schools out of an estimated school population of 184,692; an average daily attendance in the schools of 42,680; a teaching corps of 2,322; receipts for schools amounting to $789,536, and expenditures upon them of $750,000. In the normal department of the State Industrial University,58 students were being trained as teachers for the schools for whites; in another institution, sustained by a society, 156 were in training for the ones for colored children. Of public high school pupils no sufficient statistics are in hand, but in other secondary schools 632 are reported. In one female college 95 students are indicated, but whether collegiate or preparatory appears doubtful; in two other colleges and the university appear 74 collegiates; in two special schools, 104 pupils.
Tennessee, still struggling with great difficulties, appears, from comparison of the reports for 1874 and 1875, to have fallen behind her former self, her school population increasing by 6,228, but her school enrolment dropping from 258,577 to 199,058; the average attendance, from 161,089 to 136,805 ; the number of teachers, from 5,551 to 4,210; the receipts for schools, from $998,459 to $740,316, and the expenditures on them from $997,376 to $703,358. These things are to some extent explained in the report, but not sufficiently to remove the impression of a painful falling off. The school law has, however, been somewhat improved, the important element of State normal school instruction has been introduced, and some energetic superintendents have exerted themselves to train more fully the teachers of their counties, while additional normal instruction for colored teachers is being provided for by the Society of Friends. Of public high schools there is the customary lack of information ; but in other secondary schools reporting to this Bureau appear 6,212, including 346 in business colleges. Seventeen institutions for superior instruction of young women report 1,467 students, 1,016 of them in collegiate studies; while in nineteen colleges and universities were 1,389 collegiates; in the agricultural college 44 students; in three schools of theology, 93; in three of law, 90; in two of medicine, 218; in special schools, 242.
In Kentucky, by careful sifting of figures, there appears to be an increase of 71,208 in the school population, by including for the first time the colored youth; a school enrollment increased by 36,888; an average attendance increased by 44,397; a corps of teachers greater by 1,957; school-houses numbering 1,876 more, with $909,265 advance in the value of school property. Receipts, $1,438,146, and expenditures, $1,559,452, seem also to be much increased, but there is no sure basis for comparison. The increase at all points is due in some degree to the establishment of schools for colored children, these reaching to 340 in the year 1874-75. There is yet no State normal school, but 140 normalpupils in two institutions, and 29 graduates from the city normal school at Louisville. In five public high schools were at least 889 pupils; in other secondary schools, 3,550. In institutions for superior instruction of young women were 637 students, apparently all in collegiate studies; in the State University and 13 colleges, 865 collegiates; in the State agricultural college, 140, with 40 preparatory; in schools of theology, 115; in schools of law, 20; in schools of medicine, 604; in special schools, 380.
NORTHWESTERN LAKE STATES.
Ohio, one of the great leaders of the West, presents for 1874–75, through her new superintendent, an increase of 31,779 in the number of children of school age, of 4,186 in school enrolment, of 5,719 in average attendance in public schools, of 117 in the number of teachers, of 146 in the number of school-houses, of $1,046,918 in the value of these and their grounds, of $410,817 in her absolute receipts for schools, and of $98,792 in her total expenditures upon them. In private schools there appears to have been a decrease of 2,414 in the number of pupils and of 54 in the number of teachers ; but the returns from these are greatly less complete than those from public schools. Two Kindergärten report 33 pupils ; eight normal schools, 3,154, of whom 530 graduated; four city training schools, 168, of whom 75 graduated. In public high schools, 27,348 pupils were reported, including 3,136 colored ; in other secondary schools, including business colleges, 10,143; making 37,491 in academic studies. In thirteen colleges for women (so called) were 1,064 students, 847 of them collegiate; in thirty regular colleges, 2,432 collegiates ; in three schools of science, 382 students; in thirteen schools of theology, 384 ; in two schools of law, 61 ; in twelve of medicine, 1,142; in eighteen special schools, 3,298.
Michigan, augmenting her school population by 12,090 in 1874–75, has more than equalled this increase by an additional enrolment of 16,113 in her schools, securing an average attendance of 30,000 beyond that of 1873–74; bas employed 191 more teachers; increased by $1,250,003 the value of her school property; raised $78,775 more for the support of schools; and expended $462,163 more on them. Three Kindergärten report an attendance of 50 pupils. The State normal school enrolled 409 pupils in its normal classes and graduated 51. In public high schools 3,545 pupils were reported; in other secondary schools, 3,308 ; making 6,853, including 1,369 in business colleges. In two institutions for superior instruction of young women were 202 students, 156 of them collegiate; in the university and eight colleges, 756 collegiates; in the agricultural college, 156 students; in two schools of theology, 31; in one of law, 321 ; in five schools of medicine, 528; in nine special schools, 1,100..
In Indiana, Mr. Smart, successor to Mr. Hopkins, reports an advance of 12,997 in school population and a school enrolment going beyond this by reaching 13,318 above that of 1873–74; an increase of 128 in the number of teachers, of 178 in the number of school-houses, of $854,944 in the value of school property, and of $2,830,189 in the receipts for schools, the only disappointing item being a decrease of 10,529 in average attendance. One Kindergarten school reports 25 attendants. Returns from normal schools show 2,555 pupils for 1874–75, without classification of the strictly normal ones, except at the State normal school, where were 217, of whom I graduated. In public high schools at least 13,342 young persons were under training; in other secondary schools, 4,186, including 1,040 in business colleges. Two colleges for women had 115 students; nineteen other colleges, 1,533 in their collegiate classes. Two schools of science failed to report the number in their balls, but in one school of theology were 21; in one of law, 40; in three of medicine, 213; in nine special schools, 1,423.
From Illinois the new State superintendent, Mr. Etter, bad the pleasure of returning an increased enrolment of 13,901 out of a school population 19,125 greater than in 1873–74, (an advance of 489 in the number of teachers, and of 17 in the number of school-houses,) but the pain of showing a decrease of $33,037 in the receipts for schools