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mcagre is all that the fathers of 1776 have left of this record, thus greatly reducing the value of all comparisons between their period and ours! Shall we leave the students of our history at the close of the coming century in similar embarrassment? Rather should it be our especial endeavor to bring up to date all educational history so fully "and correctly that no revision may be required in the future, either near or remote... The Office has especially addressed itself to this end. Gathering information from all available sources, it has sought, for the benefit of our descendants, to bring it within reach of those undertaking this task.

When we have traced the educational causes in the past to their personal, social, civil, and religious effects, we shall have the best clew to the future that human experience can furnish us in this field of inquiry.


In order to a correct appreciation of the lessons of our educational history, we need to study the contributions made thereto by the early colonists—the Spaniards and Portuguese, the English Churchmen at Jamestown, the English Puritans and Pilgrims in Massachusetts, the English Catholics in Maryland, the English Quakers in Pennsylvania, the Dutch in New York, and the Swedes on the Delaware. We need to trace the condition of instruction in its different methods and forms through the several nations that contributed most to our early settlements. The period of discovery and settlement was one of increasing activity of the intellectual forces, as is evidenced by the invention of printing, the multiplication of books, the increase in the facilities of commerce, the discoveries in geography, and the multiplication of the forms of industry, and articles of trade and comfort.

The great attainments made in civilization in the Iberian peninsula, from which important colonies came to sections now embraced in the United States, would lead us to look for large contributions from that quarter. From A. D. 912 to A. D. 976, the struggles for education and progress in science were specially marked. Medicine, natural science, mathematics, and astronomy were favorite studies.

The library of Alhakem II was said to contain 400,000 volumes. Education in all grades received encouragement. Abderrahman established high schools for girls which were taught by female teachers. In Andalusia, it has been affirmed that it was difficult to find a person who could not read and write. Alhakem is said to have established at his own expense 27 schools in Cordova, where the children of indigent parcuts were instructed free of charge. But the expulsion of the Jews, the introduction of the inquisition, and the internal struggles which followed, witnessed a general decadence before any contributions were made from Spain to our civilization. Schools had closed, the attendance upon the universities had diminished, and education was almost entirely in the control of the church, and was directed toward its ends as then and there understood by church leaders. These seemed to have no idea of the duty of enlightening the entire people, and education was limited in all its higher benefits to the priesthood organizations controlled by the church and the wealthy families. There are, therefore, few traces of culture or efforts at teaching, and books were rare among the early Spaniards in America, while the priesthood was most active in striving for the diffusion of their religious tenets among the natives.

Very different were the educational ideas and practices of the Swedes who settled on the Delaware.* The art of printing was introduced in Sweden in 1482.

* The Swedes who came over (even the very first) all brought their ministers with them.

May 31, 1693, the Swedes in America wrote a letter to John Thelin, postmaster at Gottenburg, Sweden, in which the following occurs :

" Further, it is our humble desire that you would be pleased to send us 3 books of sermons, 12 Bibles 42 psalm-books, 100 tracts, 200 catechisms, and 200 primers."

In 1696 a much larger number of books was sent from Sweden' to America ; among the rest, 400 primers and 500 catechisms.-(Swedish Annals, by Rev. John Curtis Clay, Philadelphia, 1835.)

Extract from Instructions given to John Printz, governor of New Sweden, Stockholm, August 15, 1642, “to urge instruction and virtuous education of youth and children.” In 1693 the total number of Swedes on the Delaware was 945.—(History of the Original Settlements on the Delaware, &c., by Ben... jamin Ferris, Wilmington, 1846.)

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Charles X, between 1604 and 1611, established a great many popular schools, espescially in Wörmland, the central portion of Sweden. Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632) decreed that the bishops should direct the work of royal schools and seminaries where needful in the kingdom, and what course of education was most desirable to be given, how good teachers might be obtained, and that one general method of instruction be introduced.*

Schmidt quotes an old chronicler as affirming in 1637 that "there was not in this province a single peasant's child unable to read and write.” Queen Christina, in 1640, decreed that a school should be established in every town of the Swedish dominions. *These schools, called “Pedagogia,” were originally primary schools, each with an a b c class, but were in course of time either abolished or became higher schools.t

The distinctive ideas and practices in regard to education among the settlers in New Amsterdam ț or on the Hudson were no less gratifying. The struggles over the principles of the Reformation in their mother country were an immense stimulus to thought on both sides, while the appeal to the word of God made more and more necessary a knowledge of letters. Here, as elsewhere in that period, the first steps are obscure; but we find the preacher always a teacher, and the school springing up by the church. Iu 1575, William established the University of Leyden as a reward of the unshaken perseverance of the city, and, as the letter of foundation says, " in order that not through the lack of good education of youth in the provinces of Holland and Zealand, all miorality, science, and learning should be lost, thus decreasing the honor of God and injuring the commonwealth.” Ten years later the University of Frankfort was established. So great was the zeal for learning that, in the midst of war, schools were founded at Groningen, Utrecht, Harderwijk, Deventer, and Amsterdam. Schools were known as higher and lower schools, Latin schools, public schools, or great and small schools. The records of the reform ecclesiastical authorities show the deep interest taken by these organizations. In 1974 one of these resolves “that good schools are very necessary; wicked schools do a great deal of harm; that the servants of the church shall determine when schools shall be established; the schoolmaster of these schools shall receive a fixed salary; the schoolmaster shall sign a pledge to submit to the discipline of the church and to teach children the catechism and all other knowledge which is useful to them.”

Early after the union of Utrecht in 1579, it was resolved “ that the inhabitants of towns and villages should within six weeks find good and competent schoolmasters; and that such towns and villages as should neglect to do this should be bound to receive the schoolmasters that were sent them, (1582,) and that as far as possible a sufficient annual salary shall be paid such schoolmasters,” (1584.)

The states of Holland and Friesland showed no less zeal in the cause of education, as is seen from the resolutions of 1581 and 1589. As early as March, 1581, they discussed the school question, and, in the month of December following, it was resolved to order the appointment of schoolmasters. All, either men or women, before keeping school or teaching children, were to pass an examination to show that they were competent. In the Zealand school law of 1583, education is called “the foundation of the commonwealth,” so that “ for the building up of a good republic and for the general well-being of the country, it is of no little importance to educate young people from their infancy in the fear of God and all useful knowledge.” The preliminary order regulating education became a law in 1590. One paragraph prescribed specially that no one, either man or woman, should be allowed to teach Latin, Greek, German, French, or any other language, without having been previously examined as to competency before the magistrate. The province of Utrecht was specially careful on these several points. Perhaps the fullest school law is that of 1612. Its first article affirms that “the authorities of the city and all the towns of Utrecht shall have special care that the public or primary schools are supplied with good teachers, and that they must give good instruction.” In the province of Gelderland, in 1693, a law enacted

* History of the Swedes by E. G. Geijer, translated by J. H. Turner, London, 1845. + Schmidt's Educational Encyclopedia, Vol. VIII, Gotha, 1870. History of Education and Instruction in the Netherlands, by D. Buddingh. The Hague, 1842.

that “no schoolmaster should be appointed unless he had been examined by the clergyman in the catechism, and God's Word, and primary knowledge, and is found to have a good moral character."

The Netherlands not only sent emigrants directly to America, taking their own institutions with them, but the founders of New England, who landed on Plymouth Rocs, while they were English by birth, had, du ring the period of their residence in the Netherlands, been taking lessons of their Dutch brethren.

The charter of the West India Company of the Netherlands, with which the work of colonization commenced, bound itself to maintain good and fit preachers, schoolmasters, and comforters of the sick. In the contract made with Rev. Gideon Shaets, · when engaged as minister of Rensselaerwick, he was “ to use all proper zeal there to bring both heathens and their children in the Christian religion, to pay attention to the office of schoolmaster for old and young.” Again we find in another colony, that of New Austel, ihat Evart Paetersen was approved, after examination before the classis as schoolmaster and zieken-trooster, to read God's word and lead in singing.

In 1633, Adam Roelansen is mentioned as the first schoolmaster at New Amsterdam. The first direct mention that we find in the history of this colony of a public tax for the support of schools occurs in the proposed articles for the colonization and trade of New Netherlands, 1638. “ Each householder and inhabitant shall bear such tax and public charge as shall hereafter be considered proper for the maintenance of schoolmasters.” As an evidence of the value set upon education, it should be noted that in 1642 it was common in marriage contracts for the parties to promise to bring up their children decently, according to their ability; to keep them at school; to let them learn reading, writing, and a good trade. A record of expense in 1644 mentions a schoolmaster who should also act as precentor and sexton, at 360 florins a year.

In 1647, Governor Stuyvesant calls the attention of the council to the state of public education, to the want of proper combinations, and the absence of a school during the last three months, (evidently of public schools, for private schools had already been established.) We find in numerous instances the civil authorities of these Dutch colonies acknowledging (1) the duty of educating the young, (2) the care for the qualification of the teacher, (3) provision for the payment of his services, and (4) the provision of the school-house. When in 1653 municipal privileges were granted to New Amsterdam, the support of schools was included. In the following year, in connection with the grant of municipal privileges to Dutch towns on Long Island, a superior district court was organized, with general authority to establish schools, giving clear evidence of the purpose of the people, although we have no knowledge that schools were established.

In the spring of 1656, the first survey of New Amsterdam, or New York, was made, and it was ascertained that there were 120 houses, and 1,000 souls, and the number of children attending public schools having greatly increased, further accommodations were allowed.

In compliance with the request of the colonies, the West India Company sent, in 1659, Alexander Carolus Curtius, a Latin schoolmaster, to open an academy. He was paid a salary from the city treasury, and allowed the use of a house and garden, and permitted to charge 6 guilders per quarter for each scholar.* Curtius became very

* The fożlowing singular agreement, cited from Thompson's History of Long Island, vol. I, pp. 285-286, made between the town of Flatbush and Johannes Van Eckkelen, accepted schoolmaster and chorister, is in many respects curious and interesting:

ART. 1. The school shall begin again at 8 o'clock, and go out at 11; shall begin again at 1 o'clock and end at 4. The bell shall be rung before the school commences.

ART. 2. When school begins, one of the children shall read the morning prayer as it stands in the catechism, and close with the prayer before dinner; and in the afternoon, the same. The evening school shall begin with the Lord's Prayer, and close by singing a psalm.

ART. 3. He shall instruct the children in the common prayers; and the questions and answers of the catechism, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, to enable them to say them better on Sunday in the church.

ART. 4. He shall be required to keep his school nine months in succession, from September to June, one year with another; and shall always be present himself.

ART. 5. He shall be chorister of the church, keep the church clean, ring the bell three times before


unpopular, but under his successor, Tuych, this high school, or academy, gained such reputation that children were sent to it from Virginia, Fort Orange, and the Delaware. It may be set down that, in the colony, elementary instruction was furnished at the public expense, free; that the public, as we have seen, aided, by furnishing salary and house for the high school, while tuition was also charged. In other parts of New Netherlands, the colonies regulated the qualifications of the teacher and shared in the support, allowing tuition to be charged.

The foregoing action on the part of the governor and council seems to have fully settled and confirmed the policy of the Dutch adininistration in regard to free public schools supported solely by taxation, and which, but for the reconquest by the English, might, perhaps, have continued without interruption to this day. (Annals of Public Education in New York, pp. 60 and 61.) Prior to 1700, the license to teach school had uniformly been issued by the authority of the colonial officers, but, after 1700, the municipal officers began to issue these licenses.

The first indication of school legislation by the colony of New York bears date November 27, 1702, though there is no evidence that it resulted in any school. .

The free school act of 1702 expired by limitation in 1709, and there appears but little, if any, colonial action in behalf of education from that time forward, till the revolutionary war. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, however, contributed a number of schoolmasters. The so-called Trinity School of New York City, it is believed, traces its origin to this society.

In 1732 a public school to teach Latin, Greek, and mathematics was established in the city of New York. the people assemble, and read a chapter of the Bible in the church between the second and third ringing of the bell ; after the third ringing, he shall read the ten commandments, and the twelve articles of our faith, and then set the psalm. In the afternoon, after the third ringing of the bell, he shall read a short chapter, or one of the psalms of David, as the congregation are assembling; afterwards he shall again sing a psalm or hymn.

ART. 6. When the minister shall preach at Brooklyn or Utrecht, he shall be bound to read twice before the congregation, from the book used for the purpose. He shall hear the children recite the questions and answers out of the catechism on Sunday, and instruct them therein.

Art. 7. He shall provide a basin of water for the administration of Holy Baptism, and furnish the minister with the name of the child to be baptized, for which he shall receive twelve stivers in wampum for every baptism, from the parents or sponsors. He shall furnish bread and wine for the communion, at the charge of the church. He shall also serve as messenger for the consistory.

ART. 8. He shall give the funeral invitations, dig the grave, and toll the bell ; and for which he sball receive, for persons of fifteen years of age and upwards, twelve guilders ; and for persons under fifteen, eight guilders; and if he shall cross the river to New York, he shall have four guilders more.

The school money.—1st. He shall receive, for a speller or reader, three guilders a quarter; and for a writer, four guilders, for the day school. In the evening, four guilders for a speller or reader, and five guilders for a writer, per quarter.

2d. The residue of his salary shall be four hundred guilders in wheat, (of wampum value,) deliverable at Brooklyn Ferry, with the dwelling, pasturage, and meadow appertaining to the school.

Done and agreed upon in consistory, under the inspection of the honorable constable and overseers, this 8th day of October, 1682. Signed by Casper Van Zuren and the consistory. I agree to the above articles, and promise to observe them.

JOHANNES VAN ECKKELEN. * The following action of the governor and council, during the temporary reoccupancy of the government of the province by the Dutch, indicates the purpose of the Dutch administration as regards the support of public schools.

At a council held in Fort William Hendrick, May 24, 1674, was considered a petition from the schout and magistrates of the town of Bergen, complaining that some of the inhabitants of their dependent, hamlets “obstinately refuse to pay their quota to the support of the precentor and schoolmaster;" concerning which it was ordered that the schout "proceed to immediate execution against all unwilling debtors,"

At a council held June 15, 1674, there was presented a petition from the inhabitants of Mingagquy and Pemrepogh, “requesting to be excused from contributing to the support of the schoolmaster at Bergen.” In answer to this petition, the council issued the following: “*

it is after due inquiry resolved and ordered, that the inhabitants of Pemrepogh and Mingagquy shall promptly pay their share for the support aforesaid, on pain of proceeding against them with immediate execu

The opinions and practices prevalent in regard to education in England up to the time of English immigration to these shores are obscure or ill-defined. There was no general acknowledgment of the duty of universal education.

Oxford and Cambridge were chartered early in the thirteenth century. Eton was founded by Henry VI in 1440. During his reign and that of Elizabeth, many grammar schools were established; Rugby, by Lawrence, sheriff, in 1567, and Harrow, by John Lyon, in 1571. Nearly 2,000 parochial charity schools are said to have been founded, by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, from 1698 to 1741. There was action, first, by the church ; second, by the state; third, by the family ; fourth, in large personal benefactions to education. The result is, first, family training here excellent, there indifferent, and again entirely wanting ; second, church or parochial instruction; and, third, the magnificent work of the great foundations of various grades already mentioned, from which has come the perpetual flow of cultured minds that have given skill to English industry, scope to English commerce, learning to English statesmanship, and eminence to her literature and science. But with all this there was a noted limitation of culture to the few, no knowledge of even letters among the great masses, and no general belief in the idea of the obligation of the state to assume the universal education of its subjects. Taking the English colonists out of this condition of things at home and visiting them in Virginia, New England, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, we find their home ideas and practices undergoing certain modifications, and no two colonies, though coming from the same source, starting out on the work of education on exactly the same methods or precisely the same principles. There is more general accord in the characteristics exhibited in Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania, at least so far as acknowledging in terms the importance of educating the young, and the action by the church and family, but in which there is wanting a comprehensive scheme, put in force by the civil power, embracing every child.

The earliest historical fragments relating to the settlement of Virginia at Jamestown indicate interest in education. Fifteen thousand acres were appropriated at the instance of Sir Edwin Sandys, president of the company, toward the endowment of a college at Henrico for the colonists and Indians. In 1619 collections in the churches of England amounted to £1,500 sterling. In 1621, persons homeward bound on the Royal James, from East India, gave over £70 toward founding a free school in Virginia, to be called the East India School.

Other benefactions followed, and Mr. George Thorpe came over as superintendent of the college, or East India School, which was situated at Charlotte. In 1621, carpenters were sent to erect buildings, and Rev. Patrick Copeland was placed at its head. But in March, 1622, the massacre followed, when Thorpe and nearly 350 men, women, and children were barbarously slain, and the efforts for the school terminated. The next movement of a general and public character was that of Rev. James Blair, D. D., which resulted in the establishment of the College of William and Mary.

In the Maryland settlement there were earnest friends of education, but they struggled against circumstances which rendered the full realization of the fruits of their efforts impossible. In April, 1671, thirty-seven years after the arrival of Lord Baltimore, the upper house of the assembly passed an act for the establishment of a school or college. This act was returned from the lower house with an amendment to the effect that the tutors or schoolmasters may be qualified according to the Reformed Church of England, or that there be two schoolmasters, one for Catholic and the other for the Protestant children, which was so unsatisfactory that twenty-three years elapsed before any further attempt at legislation was made.

In 1694 an effort was commenced which in seven years resulted in the establishment of a school near the site of the State House. It will be seen that the people began to rely almost entirely upon the private tuition of their children.

William Penn found the Swedes and their school already on the Delaware. His ideas were well expressed in his declaration, “That which makes a good constitution inust keep it, viz, men of wisdom and virtue, qualities that, because they descend not

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