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(3) Must be a physician.
(4) Is expected to devote his entire time to the duties of his office.

(5) Salary, $3,000, payable quarterly, plus necessary expenses for clerical labor and travel.

(6) He shall take cognizance of the interests of health among the teachers and children of the public schools.

(7) He shall make sanitary investigations in respect to school-houses and grounds, and to all circumstances connected with the management and instruction of schools which may appear to influence the health of scholars or teachers.

(8) He sball make himself acquainted with the means employed in other States for preserving the health of the inmates of schools.

(9) He shall seek to trace the origin and mode of extension of epidemic or other diseases among inmates of schools, and to point out measures for the arrest or prevention of such diseases.

(10) He shall from time to time inform the department of public instruction of the results of the aforesaid investigations, and shall suggest to the said department such modifications of the system of instruction and management existing in the schools of this State as, in his opinion, would conduce to the improvement of the health of teachers and scholars.

(11) He shall further, in the month of January of every year, present to the department of public instruction a written report of his doings and investigations in the line of his duty as aforesaid for the year ending with the 31st of December next preceding.

(12) He shall gather and, from time to time, shall present to the department such information in respect to the interests of the public schools as he may deem proper for diffusion among the people.

RULES FOR THE CARE OF THE EYES Were submitted by Dr. D. F. Lincoln, secretary of the department of health, A. S. S. A.

When writing, reading, drawing, sewing, &c., always take care that (a) the room is comfortably cool and the feet warm; (b) there is nothing tight about the neck; (c) there is plenty of light without dazzling the eyes; (d) the sun does not shine directly on the object we are at work upon; (e) the light does not come from in front-it is best when it comes from over the left shoulder; (f) the head is not very much bent over the work; (g) the page is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight--that is, that the eye is nearly opposite the middle of the page, for an object held slanting is not seen so clearly; and (h) that the page or other object is not less than fifteen inches from the eye.

Nearsightedness is apt to increase rapidly when a person wears, in reading, the glasses intended to enable him to see distant objects.

In any case when the eyes have any defect, avoid fine needlework, drawing of fine maps, and all such work, except for very short tasks, not exceeding half an hour each; and in the morning never study or write before breakfast by candle-light. Do not lie down when reading. If your eyes are aching from fire light, from looking at the snow, from overwork, or other causes, a pair of colored glasses may be advised, to bo used for a while. Light blue or grayish blue is the best shade, but these glasses are likely to be abused, and usually are not to be worn except under medical advice. Almost all those persons who continue to wear colored glasses, having perhaps first received advice to wear them from medical men, would be better without them. Travelling venders of spectacles are not to be trusted; their wares are apt to be recommended as ignorantly and indiscriminately as in the times of the Vicar of Wakefield.

SCHOOL HYGIENE. Dr. Lincoln subsequently summed up thus the most conspicuous results of the investigation into this important matter:

(1) School work, if done in an unsuitable atmosphere, is peculiarly productive of nervous fatigue, irritability, and exhaustion.

(2) By “unsuitable” is chiefly meant “close” air, or air that is warm enough to flush the face, or cold enough to chill the feet, or that is “burned,or infected with noxions fumes of sulphur or carbonic oxide.

(3) Very few schools are quite free from these faults. (4) Anxiety and stress of mind, dependent mostly on needless formalities in discipline or unwise appeals to ambition, are capable of doing vast harm.

(5) The amount of study required has not often been found so great as would harm scholars whose health is otherwise well cared for.

(6) Teachers who neglect exercise and the rules of health seem to be almost certain to become sickly or to break down.”

(7) Gymnastics are peculiarly needed by girls in large cities, but, with the presez $ fashion of dresses, gymnastics are impracticable for larger girls.

(9) One of the greatest sources of harm is found in circumstances lying outside of school life. The social habits of many older children are equally inconsistent with good health and a good education,


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A PAPER UPON SCHOOL GYMNASTICS Was then read by Dr. S. S. Putnam, of Boston, who divided his subject into three inquiries:

(1) In what way and to wbat extent may gymnastic training be made useful in the education of school children?

(2) Wbat means of securing it have been adopted and with what results ? (3) What ineans will be likely to insure the best results in our schools ?

Às to the first matter, Dr. Putnam suggested that gymnastic training could not fail to be of use in regard to training children who are not naturally strong, and therefore not inclined to take part in out-door sports, which are, of course, beneticial to the healthy and vigorous among our children.

It is not necessary that very great muscular power should be developed, as that is not necessarily conducive to good health, nor does it always accompany it. One way in which school children may be greatly benefited is by helping them perfect tho process of respiration. This was demonstrated by the work done by Professor Monroe with the children of the Boston schools. Good breathing is by no means common, and the singing teacher has always much to accomplish in this respect. Instruction in this regard may not only give vastly increased power to healthy persons, but it may save many who are affected by lung disorders from early deaths.

Proper physical instruction in our schools would also relate to the sitting of the scholars, to proper methods of studying or of mental application, to proper means of ventilation, &c. It is a notorious fact that many cases of injury to the spinal column arise from improper postures while sitting. Among 731 pupils at Neufchâtel, 62 cases of this sort were observed among 350 boys and 156 cases among 381 girls. The curvature of the spine occasioned was mostly to the right, caused no doubt largely by writing at unsuitable desks.

Herr Raag, of Berlin, says that he has found gymnastics very useful in preventing these spinal curvatures.

For proper school gymnastics it is only requisite that there should be space enough about the desks to enable the pupil to advance one step and to swing the arms freely. A large ball with a few desirable pieces of apparatus is all that is needed for further gymnastic exercise, which is to give to the scholars special accomplishments in this matter. In Europe, halls are now considered absolutely necessary for the use of scholars in the public schools.

SANITARY REQUIREMENTS OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS. Under this head an important paper was presented by Dr. Lincoln, containing the following suggestions:

(1) The yard should be placed by preference toward the sides where other buildings are standing, or may hereafter be erected, rather than toward the street; should contain at least 32 square feet of surface for each scholar, in order to serve as playground; should be situated so high as never to be overflowed with water; should be paved, so as to be quickly dried after rain; should be fenced, in certain cases, toward all thoroughfares and alleys, in order to shield from the gaze of passers by.

(2) The site should be elevated rather than low. Dampness of soil should condemn any site. The sun should have free access to the house on three sides at least. Many trees near the house are to be avoided, except in quite warm climates. Should not be near factories, railroads, &c.

(3) The cellar must be drained dry. A cellar, or else an air space of two feet, must extend under the entire lower floor of the house, except in situations where the soil is very dry.

(4) Basement.-The ceiling of the basement must be at least six feet above the ground. The height of such a room should not be less than ten feet, and it must be thoroughly lighted. Basements of which any portion is under ground should not be used for school work of any description except gymnastics, and the latter are to be assigned by preference to a loftier room, above ground, when this is possible. Basements may serve for space for clothes closets, it thought fit.

(5) Entries should be always warmed and ventilated ; lighted sufficiently from out of doors.

(6) Stairs must be fire-proof, as also the walls inclosing them; straight, never spiral; height of steps, 41 to 5 inches, and proportion of breadth considerable, the breadth being made at least six feet in large schools; it inust have no well; not more than two runs in a stair. (7) Fire escape to be provided for every school-house of three stories.

(8) Hall.- A large ball for assembling the whole school at once is a desirable feature, and if included in the plan it should have a floor space, in feet, equal to the whole number of scholars multiplied by 6, (for younger scholars,) or 7, (for older,) and should be not less than 14 feet high. T'he ventilating arrangements for such a ball must be such that 1,000 cubic feet of air per hour can be taken out for every one of the scholars as aforesaid.

(9) The gymnasium may be built, if thought proper, as a separate structure. If so, a covered and inclosed way must connect it with the school-house.

(10) Rooms.-Tbose for study ("school rooms ") must contain a floor space of at least 15 square feet per scholar in primary schools and 20 square feet in schools for children over 11 years of age. They must have a cubical capacity of at least 200 and 250 cubic feet per caput for these two classes of scholars respectively, or a height of, say, 14 feet. When a portion of the scholars are expected to be constantly absent from the study room for recitation, the requirements as to capacity for the study room may be diminished; but rooms for recitation only require no more than two-thirds of the floor space per scholar above prescribed ; the height remaining the same, say, 14 feet. Each room, whether for study, recitation, or the

general ball, must open into the entry by a door and by a window eighteen inches high over tbe door. The walls of rooms are to be of a light, neutral tint, colored, but never papered. Black boards never placed on the side of a room where windows are. Any columns required in the room innst be of iron, in order to avoid darkening the room.

(11) Windows must never be in front of the pupils. They must contain a total of , at least 30 square inches glass (excluding sash) for every square foot of floor surface in the room. The lower sill sbould be at least 31 or 4 feet above the floor and the upper should be within a foot or less of the ceiling. Arched and gothic tops are inadmissible. Windows not opening into the outer air directly are not to be considered as such in fulfilling the above requirements.

(13) Water-closets, fc., separated for the two sexes. Screens when out of doors; in this case, to be also connected with the main building by a covered way, dry, clean, aud ventilated. Those indoors to be lighted and warıned, and ventilated by an oatward draught of air. For girls, sufficient accommodation must be provided indoors; and if the house is three stories high, a third of the girls' closets should be placed on the third story. Should never be placed under any school room.

(14) Drains should be protected from rats and precautions taken against the danger of fouling the drinking-water.

(15) Ventilation must furnish the means of renewing the air of study rooms and recitation rooms, gymnasiums, and singing rooms at the rate of 500 cubic f-et per hour for each one of the average number of ininates intended for such rooms. For entries, one-third of this ventilation is sufficient. In water closets and clothes closets the current must always set in-never outward into an evtry or room. They cannot be safely ventilated by windows, as rain or snow might enter during the school session when the doors are closed. For water closets a double door, with interspace of three feet, is good, the interspace to be kept well ventilated. The method of exhaustion by a shaft of air tubes is recommended, for large buildings especially.

(16) Heating.-If by stoves or radiators exclusively, there shonld be also a proper system of ventilation added. In large schools it is best to provide a single source of heat for all the buildings.

Miscellaneou8.-Two stories are better than three or more. The main façade should not be to the south; it is best when the corners of the house are set to the four cardinal points of the compass. The north side is a suitable place for stairways, library, gymnasium, closets, anıl any rooms for transient use; the front entrance may be placed on tbe north. The roof must not extend out so as to cut off light from the windows.(School Bulletin, June, 1875, and Detroit Tribune, May 12-16, 1875.)

INTERSTATE EDUCATIONAL CONVENTION. The Interstate Educational Convention, which assembled in Chattanooga June 30 and July 1, was in all respects a most important meeting. The States of Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia, Alabama, Missouri, Illinois, and Virginia were represented. The meeting lasted only a day and a half, and but four regular addresses, of about an hour's length each, were delivered, the remaining time being taken up in interchanging ideas on the topics presented by the chosen orators. The speakers and essayists were Dr. W.T. Harris, superintendent St. Louis schools; Professor S. E. Pickett, superintendent Memphis schools; Dr. M. C. Briggs, Illinois; and Maj. William J. Davis, of Louisville. Dr. Harris's essay treated of the resources of the States in the valley of the Mississippi and indicated their place in the educational economy of the Republic. Professor Picket discoursed of school government. Dr. Briggs, one of the most popular orators of the Northwest, spoke on the subject of "Common school education : universal in opportunities, 1 horough in rudiments, compulsory within definite limits, and English in all things.” Major Davis's address was entitled “Common sense in the schoolroom,” and showed the defects of that training whereby children grow up in ignorance of the commonest things, a course of instruction adapted to develop the child's nature being placed on a blackboard and the scheme illustrated by facts and anecdotes. The discussion was participated in by most of the delegates, and the best thoughts on these interesting questions were presented. The body was a representative one, composed of the most distinguished members of the profession in the South and West. A permanent organization was effected by the election of the following officers: B. Dallon,

president; Z. C. Graves, W.T. Harris, M. C. Briggs, G. A. Woodward, William J. Davis, and A. S. Townes, vice-presidents; W. R. Garrett, secretary. The next regular meeting will be held in Memphis in June, 1876; and since membership in the association is open to all teachers and friends of education throughout the country, it is expected the second convention will equal in enthusiasm and consequence this first meeting of the Interstate Educational Association.-(Home and School Journal, August, 1875, p. 377.)

AMERICAN PIIILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The session of the pbilologists for 1875 was held at Newport, R. I., in the month of July, under the presidency of J. Hammond Trumbull, LL. D., of Hartford, Conn., noted for his knowledge of the Indian tongue.

At the opening session the guests were welcomed by Hon. Samuel Powel, and no one among Newport's scholars could do this service more gracefully or eloquently. His reference to our beautiful island Aquidneck, with the fair island of Conanicut upon the sunset side, the gray hill of Miantonomoh on the southwest, Sachuset Point toward the rising sun, Naushon and Nashawena in the farther east, and Mount Hope, the royal residence of Philip, in the northern waters," would have been worthy of a descendant of Massasoit himself. Nor can we forbear a single quotation from his address : “While we know full well that your profound studies belong chiefly to the deep problems of the diversity of tongues and to the wonderful analogies of their roots, whether or not those tongues sprang from the ban which divine wisdom saw fit to decree against Babylonian arrogance or whether they were pent up meanings, inborn and bursting the lips of man as he was first molded in his great Creator's hand, in the shadowy days of oldest time, far behind the dawn of the age of stone, still we know that a cherished part of your task is to rescue what you may of the language of our land's early people. Remembering this, I bid you again welcome to the family home of one of your inost illustrious scholars in the Indian languages."

Dr. Trumbull's reply was well fitted to the compliments of Senator Powel, and opened new themes for philological research. He said: “So long as we are here, under the genius loci, we accept as established history all that has been told us of the visits of the Northmen to your Vinland-Leif and Thorwald Ericson and Thorfinn Karlsefne--and of the coming of Verazzano in 1524. In the very names your island has borneVinland, Monachunte, Aquidnay, Rood Eylant, the Isle of Rhodes—there is work for the philologist as well as for the historical antiquary. And the philologist has peculiar obligations to honor the memory of the founder of your State, he who directed the course of Coddington to this island. For it was Roger Willians who gave his countrymen the first ‘key into the language of the natives'-'A little key,' be said, 'may open a great box'—and while he was in England, laboring for the establishment of the colony be had planted and for the promotion of civil and religious freedom in Old and New England, he found time, ainid the distractions of London and the burden of many cares, to study ancient and modern languages, and, in exchange for lessons in Hebrew, to teach a little Dutch to John Milton.

The first paper, by Professor Haldeman, tho learned Pennsylvania German, was suited to the most fastidious philologic ear and taste, on “The mutations of a consoDant," as in the change from proof to prove ; cliff, cleare; gilt, gild, &c., the professor citing 114 pairs of words with a similar change. The professor mentioned the curious fact that the vulgar pronunciation of "holt” for hold is at least as old as Chaucer, who uses holte for a stronghold or castle.

Professor March thought that where the verb was sonant and the noun surd, the verb bad its final consonant between the two vowels. The tendency was to change this consonant, because it was easier for the vocal organs and natural to approximate it by softening to the nearest sound on either side. The organs of speech tend to their use in the direction of the least exertion.

“How many words does a writer use ?" was the theme of a paper by Professor E. S. Holden, of the United States Naval Observatory. It discussed the question of the number of words used in speaking and writing by individuals. Professor Holden made a count of the number of words beginning with each letter of the alphabet, and noted the order of frequency of initial letters in Webster's Dictionary. He found the latter as follows: S, C, P, A, D, R, B, T, F, M, I, E, H, L,G, U, W,O, V, N,J,Q,K, Y, Z, X. He estimated that his own vocabulary was 33,456 words. A friend in tho Patent-Office, Mr. Farquhar, assistant librarian, tested his own writing, and concluded that he must have a still larger vocabulary. In this estimate he disagrees with Professor Marub, who states that an intelligent person, in writing and speaking, uses less than 10,000 words. The discussion on this paper was brief and interesting, calling out Professor March, Colonel Higginson, and Professor Haldeman.

Dr. Trumbull's evening address on “ The American language” was a valuable contribution to his previous rich and almost exhaustive researches in this direction.

The second day's session opened with a paper on a comparative view of the language of Deuteronomy and Jeremiah, by Rev. Dr. George R. Euther, of New York, showing the differences and parallelisms of these sacred books of the Old Testament.

Professor A. Harkness, of Providence, discussed with his usual clearness and scholarly accuracy, the difficult question of the origin of Latin reflects in ui, vi, and i, in a paper which is the complement of the paper read last year on the origin of the perfect in si.

Professor Richardson, of Kentucky, gave the results of bis tabulation of the prononciation of Latin in 249 American colleges. The tigures obtained are essentially different from previous estimates. The Catholic institutions, as a rule, employ tbe European pronunciation. The percentage is as follows: 37 use the English, 32 the Continental, and 31 the Roman pronunciation.

Mr. Alonzo Williams, of Providence, a student of Sanskrit, as well as of Greek and Latin, read a paper on “Verb reduplication as a means of expressing completed action," in which he showed from the history of the rise, prosperity, and decay of the different forms in language that the reduplication of a sound or syllable is intended to give intensity to expression by the force of repetition. The primitive Aryan people used this to give emphasis. The Sanskrit recognizes this principle frequently; the Greek bas a few late formations of like character. As instances of intensified and reduplicated verbs in the present tense, there is the Sanskrit jajanmi, Greek gignomai, Latin gigno. Applied to verbs in the present tense, it gave them not only force, but the significance of completed action. The mere repetition may itself suggest that the action has been already performed. _The reduplication had taken the form of the perfect before the separation of the Indo-European people, and has been inherited by the Indian, Persian, Grecian, Latin, German, and Celtic branches. The Letto-Slavic has alone lost all traces of it. In the Rig Veda the form is still preserved, but subsequently it became a mere past narrative tense. In the classical period of Sanskrit it becamo an aorist.

The afternoon session was opened by Mr. O'Keefe, of Brooklyn, who took for his text "The first sentence of Cæsar's Commentaries."

Mr. Higginson read a paper of Mr. A. C. Merriam, of Columbia College, upon the relation of the recent discoveries of Dr. Schliemann at the site of Troy and the Cesnola collection. Professor March continued on “Dissimilated germinations,” which would attract our readers by its popular title; and Professor Goodwin sandwiched a juicy treatise of " Juise," between Professor March's word changes and “Ists that grow out of isms,” by Professor Brewer, of South Carolina. Professor March followed with a paper of a more popular charater, on “ The evidences of the immaturity of Shakspere in Hamlet,” and the session closed with a paper on the analysis of the old poem, the "Owl and the Nightingale," by Dr. L. A. Sherman, of New Haven.

The great movement of this meeting was the appointment of a committee on spelling reform, consisting of Professor W. D. Whitney, of Yale; Dr. J. H. Trumbull, of Hartford; Professor F.J.Child, of Harvard University; Professor F. A. March, of Lafayette College, and Professor S. S. Haldeman, of the University of Pennsylvania. Whether they will succeed in having all the silent letters dropped from our printed language is, to say the least of it, a question of the future. There was no debate on the subject, which is certainly a strange fact. What these wise men think and will propose on so great a matter as the dropping of all silent letters from our English vocabulary, we are interested to know, and shall learn in due season.

Professor Albert Harkness, of Providence, is honored with the presidency for the ensuing year. The next place of meeting is to be New York, July 18, 1876.-(NewEngland Journal of Education, July 31, 1875.)

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION. The forty-sixth annual meeting_commenced at Music Hall, Providence, R. I., on Wednesday evening, July 7, 1875. Prior to the public meeting in the large ball, a business meeting of the board of directors was held in the committee room, at which Merrick Lyon, LL. D., president of the institute, presided. At 8 p. m. a large audience was present to listen to the opening exercises of the institute. The first welcome was one of song by the pupils of the Providence Grammar Schools, under the charge of B. W. Hood, esq., director of music in the public schools of the city. The singing was very effective, reflecting much credit both upon the pupils and teacher. The singers occupied the rising seats in the rear of the platform and portions of each balcony.

President Lyon introduced Rev. E. G. Robinson, LL.D., president of Brown University, who delivered the introductory lecture. Subject, "Teaching as related to the other professions.” He said:

“A profession is any particular branch of business a man thinks himself fitted to engage in and does his best in; but the learned professions are commonly knowu as tbeology, law, and medicine. A clergyman must be educated in ancient languages, acquainted with mental and moral philosophy, to be comparatively well fitted for his work; a lawyer must know common organic law and be able to read men's minds; while a doctor must bave a thorough knowledge of physiology, anatomy, and chemistry in order to succeed. Many succeed in these professions without a knowledge of these branches, but they are not learned men, and in an emergency cannot be depended upon. Many of this class, including even clergymen, practise upon the credulity of

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