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qualified to teach without a certificate in force from this examining board. These examinations are held at the close of each school term, are written, and extend through the common branches of an English education, arithmetic, grammar, history, geography, theory and practice of teaching, penmanship, general information, &c. Testimonials of good character are required from strangers.
Teachers' salaries.-Teachers are divided into three classes, according to qualifications as shown by their examination, and are paid accordingly. First-class teachers, $50; second class, $40; third class, $30 per month. Teachers in the seminaries and asylum receive from $50 to $60 per month, with living, furnished rooms, &c.
School term.-The school year consists of two terms of twenty weeks each, the first commencing the first Monday in September, the second beginning the second Monday in February.
High schools.-The Cherokee Male Seminary, boarding school: teachers, 4; pupils, 75; in primary department, 50; advanced department, 25.
The Female Seminary, boarding school: teachers, 4; pupils, 94; in primary department, 64; in advanced department, 30.
The Cherokee Orphan Asylum and Manual Labor School: teachers, 5; pupils, 117, (40 males and 77 females :) in primary department, 97; in advanced department, 26. Total in high schools: teachers, 13; pupils, 286, males, (115, and females, 171;) in primary department, 205; in advanced department, 81.
Common schools.-Number of schools, 71; teachers, 74; aggregate attendance, 2,286; Cherokee-speaking, 654; English-speaking, 1,631; males, 1,080; females, 1,206. With these are included 6 schools for colored children. Number of native teachers, 59; number of white teachers, 28.
Separate schools are established for colored children..
SCHOOLS AMONG THE CHOCTAWS.
The Choctaw Nation is divided into three districts. Each district has a school trustee and there is one general superintendent of schools. These four constitute the board of trustees of the nation. At various points in the Choctaw Nation there are 52 day schools. A few of these were organized in 1844, but the most of them since the late war. Length of annual session, 10 months. Two dollars per scholar is paid the teachers. The average attendance is 1,200. Studies, English. There are also 2 boarding schools. One, the Spencer Academy, for boys, a manual labor school, 12 miles north of Doaksville, first organized in 1844. Length of annual session, 9 months. There are 3 teachers; number on rolls, 60; average attendance, the same. Studies, English. The New Hope Academy, for girls, is 1 mile from Scullyville. It was also established in 1844. Length of annual session, 9 months. Three teachers; number on rolls, 50; average attendance, the same. Studies, English. The Spencer Academy has annually $6,000 from the nation and the Presbyterian board of missions pay the salaries of the teachers and superintendent and other expenses necessary to sustain the school. The New Hope Seminary has annually $5,000 from the nation and the Methodist board of home missions pay the salaries of superintendent and teachers.
SCHOOLS AMONG THE CHICKASAWS.
The Chickasaws have 9 day schools and 3 boarding schools in various parts of the nation. One of the boarding schools is for boys, the other for girls. In these schools there are 5 teachers. The number in the day schools is not given. Average salaries of teachers per month, $45. The number on the rolls of the boys' school is 45; average attendance, the same; on rolls of the 2 girls' schools, 75; average attendance, the same. In each day school the average attendance is 30. In all the schools the session is 10 months.
There is 1 orphan asylum, for which the nation pay $200 per scholar per session of 10 months, the pupils of which are boarded and clothed.
The amount of educational fund of the Chickasaws is $40,000 per annum.
One of the seminaries for women above cost $22,000 and the other $7,000, each put up at the expense of the nation. The seminary for men and one of the seminaries for women are taught under contract, for each of which the nation pay the superintendents $5,750 annually. The other seminary for women is also taught under contract, for which the nation pay $165 per scholar for session of 10 months.
SCHOOLS AMONG THE CREEKS.
The Creeks have 2 manual labor schools: one the Tallahassee Mission, north of the Arkansas River, the other the Asbury Mission, south of North Fork River. Both these were founded in 1844. There are for these schools, in each case, 1 male teacher and 4 females. The number on the rolls of each is 80; the average attendance, the same. There is 1 boarding school for girls, Muskogee Female Institute, near Eufaula, founded in 1873. It has I male teacher and 2 females. Registered number of attendants,
40. There are also 33 day schools in different parts of the nation, with 15 male teachers and 18 females. Scholars on register, 700; attendance, 500. Salaries paid day school teachers, $40 per month. Eight of the 33 schools are for colored children. Length of annual session of all the schools, 10 months. Studies, English.
Tallahassee Mission is conducted under the auspices of the Presbyterian board of missions, who pay the salaries of the superintendent and teachers.
Asbury Mission is conducted on a like plan by the Methodist board. The total amount expended by the Creeks is $30,000 annually.
SCHOOLS AMONG THE SEMINOLES.
The Seminole Nation have 5 day schools located at different points, all organized in 1867. Length of annual session, 10 months. Three male teachers and 2 females. Number of children on rolls, 138. The average attendance is 105. Studies, English. Average salaries of teachers, $40 per month.
EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS.
AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.
At the meeting of the American Geographical Society, held February 25, 1875, the annual address was delivered by Chief Justice Daly, the president of the society. Beginning with a brief survey of the remarkable physical phenomena of the year, including great falls of rain and snow, extreme and widely distributed cold, earthquakes, volcanic disturbances, floods, cyclones, &c., he alluded, in passing, to the geography of the sea bottom as made known by the recent examinations of the Challenger expedition, and then took up the geographical work in our own country, as carried on by the United States Engineer Corps and other explorers. The explorations of Lieutenant Wheeler show that every State and Territory west of the plains is crowded with the products of volcanic action, ancient and modern, the connected beds of lava in Arizona and New Mexico covering an area of twenty thousand square miles; and the conclusions of the geologists of the expedition are that volcanic disturbances and eruptions in our western territory will be resumed and may occur at any day. They have occurred so recently, geologically speaking, that it is extraordinary there is no human record of them. In the department of the Platte a new route to the Yellowstone Park has been discovered by Captain Jones's exploring party. The Black Hills country was penetrated by General Custer's military expedition and explored by Captain Ludlow. Professor Hayden's geographical survey has confirmed the discovery of 1872, that Colorado is the great center of elevation in the United States, having fifty peaks that are about 14,000 feet high. In the Pacific Ocean soundings have been made for ascertaining a practical route for a telegraph cable between Japan and Puget Sound and for one from San Francisco to the Hawaiian Islands.
The separate researches and explorations of M. Pinvart and Mr. W. H. Dall, in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, were next reviewed. M. Pinvart is of the opinion that the Esquimaux of this region are of the same stock as those of Greenland and Baffin's Bay, and concludes from their legends and traditions that they came originally from Asia across Behring's Straits. The probability of this conclusion is doubted by Mr. Dall; moreover, many American ethnologists think that Greenland and vicinity were peopled from Europe.
Professor F. W. Putnam, of Salem, Mass., has been engaged in researches respecting the ancient inhabitants of North America. He believes that the Southern Indians (the Mound Builders of Ohio, Indiana, and other parts of the West) were not connected with the northern or eastern tribes, but were of the same stock as the ancient inhab-itants of Mexico, though diversified by immigration and by mixing with other races.. In Central and South America specialists have carried on explorations in Costa Rica,. Nicaragua, and the lower part of South America. A French expedition has been exploring Terra del Fuego.
The Arctic event of the year has been the return of the officers and crew of the Tegethof, of the Austrian expedition, and the important discoveries made by them.. This expedition, in the difficulties it encountered, the perseverance displayed, the discipline maintained, and the success achieved, is about as heroic as anything that has occurred in the history of Arctic exploration. The ship was frozen in off the coast of Nova Zembla from August till October, 1872, when the ice broke up, and they found themselves fixed upon an ice floe, helplessly drifting, but, strangely enough, to the north-ward. Drifting fourteen months in this way, mère passengers on an ice flce, they were at last driven ashore and frozen in on a coast which they had discovered, but were unable to reach, two months before. This was in 79° 43 north latitude and 60° 23' east longitude. It was now November, 1873, and they had passed the eightieth parallel. The long polar winter of 175 days set in, and the cold was so severe that the quicksilver remained frozen for weeks, and the darkness in midwinter was intense. The land, to which they gave the name of Franz-Joseph Land, was a most desolate region. In April, 1874, they set out in sledges and reached 81° 57' north latitude, coming upon a country which they called Crown-Prince Land, whose cliffs were covered with thousands of ducks and auks; seals lay upon the ice and there were traces of bears, hares, and foxes. Here, over a sea comparatively free from ice, they saw land. in the distance, which seemed to stretch beyond the eighty-third parallel of north lati-. tude. Their return journey was one of over three months' hardship, made in sledges and boats.-(Popular Science Monthly.)
NEW ENGLAND SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS.
The New England Association of School Superintendents held its semiannual meeting at the City Hall, Boston, on the 7th of May, 1875. The papers and discussions.. occupied the day and were unusually interesting.
At the morning session, which began at 9.30 o'clock, Mr. E. A. Hubbard, of Fitchburg, presided, with Mr. A. D. Small, of Salem, as secretary.
Health and comfort in schools.-Mr. J. W. Allard, superintendent of schools at Gloucester, Mass., opened the discussion upon "Physical health and comfort."
The subject of school architecture was first touched upon, and the hope expressed that the day of spending vast sums of money upon showy and useless ornamentation of the exteriors of our school buildings was rapidly passing. The statement was made that one-fourth of the amount was absolutely needed for the comfortable fitting up and proper equipment of the class rooms. The modern four story school-house, with class rooms in the fourth story, was emphatically condemned as destructive to the comfort and health, both of pupils and teachers. He thought that if this style of architecture must prevail, then the buildings should be furnished with steam-elevators, like that of the city hall.
The important topics of lighting, heating, and ventilating were fully discussed and a history given of the improvements which have been made during the last thirty years in the material arrangements of school rooms with regard to dressing rooms, blackboards, tables, desks, and single seats.
The diversion of gymnastic exercises from their legitimate object of physical rest and culture to purposes of show was condemned in the severest language.
Kindergarten instruction and reports.-A paper on the subject of "Kindergarten instruction" was read by Superintendent Thomas Tash, of Lewiston, Me.
After a short recess, "The usefulness of monthly or occasional reports of pupils to their parents, and the manner of preparing these reports," was discussed by Mr. Waterman, of Taunton, who took the ground that occasional reports would be more advisable than any of the present systems of weekly or monthly reports. He gave an interesting account of the various methods which had been tried in Taunton, the amount of interest felt by parents in the matter, and presented an interesting résumé of the results. Practical education. Mr. John D. Philbrick, of Boston, then presented a paper on the subject "How to make common school education practical." While he opposed the introduction of the workshop into the school, he favored a more practical use of its opportunities than is generally enjoyed. Mr. Philbrick's plan is, first, to discard the theory of aiming at mental discipline primarily, and adopt in its stead the theory of imparting the greatest amount of the most useful information; second, to introduce the following subjects of instruction: elementary geometry, natural philosophy, drawing, and elements of chemistry, as lying at the foundation of all industrial education; third, make room for these subjects by lopping off the more useless parts of the old branches, which, through the influence of rival bookmakers, have grown out of their due proportion; fourth, facilitate the acquirement of the needed practical knowledge by the adoption of better methods of teaching. He did not believe in teaching a child the names of all the branches of the Amazon and leaving him in ignorance of the principle by which water rises in a pump. After some debate on the best way in which to make a census of children between 5 and 15 years of age, it was voted that the matter be referred to a committee to report at the next meeting.
United States Bureau of Education.-The work of the National Bureau of Education was then presented to the meeting, and its importance recognized in the unanimous passage of the following resolutions, the first offered by Mr. Philbrick, of Massachusetts; the second, by State Superintendent Simonds, of New Hampshire; the third, by Superintendent Stone, of Springfield, Mass.:
"Resolved, That the National Bureau of Education, in its work of collecting and distributing annually, through printed reports and circulars, a vast amount of reliable and useful information, respecting the condition and progress of education both in our own and in foreign countries, has accomplished in the most satisfactory manner, so far as the limits of its means will permit, the objects for which it was established, and that we regard it as an indispensable instrumentality for the promotion of education throughout the country.
"Resolved, That, in the opinion of this body, the labors of the United States Commissioner of Education, General John Eaton, in promoting the educational interests of all sections of our country through the agency of the Bureau of Education, have been eminently wise and efficient, and that they merit and receive our cordial approbation. "Resolved, That a committee be appointed, consisting of one from each State represented in this body, to memorialize Congress in behalf of the continuance and liberal support of the National Bureau of Education."
The afternoon session was devoted to a discussion of the subjects so ably presented in the morning. Superintendent Harrington, of New Bedford, thought that the condition of most of our school-houses, as regards ventilation and conveniences, is abominable. He was tired of hearing praises on our perfect school system, even though it is centennial year, and thought it quite time that the facts should be known, however disagreeable they may be. But very few primary schools in the districts, the very places which should receive most careful attention, have a proper system of ventilation. The condition of the outhouses in too many of the schools is indescribably bad;
and, though the subject is distasteful, it needs immediate attention. There is need of a great reform.
Ventilation.-The secretary, Mr. Small, of Salem, made reference to the subject of ventilation; whereupon, Mr. T. B. Stockwell, of Providence, gave an account of a system which produced excellent results in Providence. Mr. Marble, of Worcester, spoke of the objection in the mind of the public to the great expense attendant upon elaborate schemes of ventilation, and advocated a plan which has worked with complete success in the Asylum for the Insane at Worcester. Here, in the basement, a large fan is kept in slow but steady motion by an engine supplied by the steam in the building, keeping up in every part of the structure a steady current of warm, fresh air. By applying this arrangement, or a modification of it, to our school-houses and providing each room with an outlet, we can safely "trust to Providence" to clear out the foul air and give place to the fresh current continually ascending. Mr. Marble suggested the use of a sash with double windows directly connected, as doing away, to some extent, with the objectionable draughts of air inseparable from window ventilation.
Kindergärten.-Taking up Fröbel's, system Mr. Philbrick argued that the Kindergarten ought not to be a fixed institution, but should rather be considered an improved system of infant instruction. Viewed in this light, he was happy to report the Boston Kindergärten as doing splendid work. It is, however, the teacher far more than the system which makes the Kindergarten so great a success, as, indeed, in all grades of schools success depends very largely upon the instructor.
Mr. Stone, of Springfield, spoke of the advantages of a course of training which makes the child, at an early age, properly inquisitive and self-reliant. Mr. Tash explained some of the advantages of Fröbel's system of gifts, object and alphabet teaching; after which the subject of reports of scholars to their parents was further discussed by Messrs. Small of Salem, Harrington of New Bedford, and others.
"Practical education" resumed.-The final subject of discussion was Mr. Philbrick's paper on "Practical education." Messrs. Harrington of New Bedford and Hunt of Portland, Hood of Lawrence, and others talked over the subject. The matter of parsing, reading, spelling, and drawing was debated. Mr. Philbrick said that, in these things, too much attention was given to unimportant details. Reading is taught, for instance, in some of our schools as a fine art, and half the time thus used might give the scholar a knowledge of the French language. So in arithmetic. It may be "splendid" to train a girl to add in a minute a long column of figures, but it is splendid waste of time. So in spelling. President Felton, when rallied on account of his numerous blunders in spelling, would say, "Spelling isn't my business; take up Greek, and I am ready for you." In something of this spirit, the mere mechanical acquisition of the orthography of a hundred difficult words ought to be as nothing when compared with weightier matters.
The matter of drawing elicited some discussion. Mr. Morrill, of Lowell, thought that the dissatisfaction with the system there was no greater than elsewhere in the State; while Mr. Waterman, of Taunton, said that drawing was the most popular branch of instruction in that city, because it had not been ridden as a hobby. There had been no wholesale purchases of drawing books; no exalting of this department to the dignity of an exhibition, while other branches of study are neglected. In a word, the study had not been pushed; and he did not doubt that the few objections raised against its use would disappear as quickly as those made against the introduction of music.
The committee on nominations reported for president, W. W. Waterman, of Taunton; for secretary, Augustus D. Small, of Salem; committee of arrangements, Ephraim Hunt of Portland, T. B. Stockwell of Providence, Edward Conant of Vermont; committee on nominations, A. P. Marble of Worcester, H. T. Hoyt, S. H. Marvel. The report was adopted and the nominations confirmed.-(New-England Journal of Education, May 15 and 22, 1875, pp. 235, 247.)
AMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION.
The annual meeting of this association was held, for 1875, at Detroit, Mich., from the 11th to the 15th of May. The sessions were opened by an address from the president, Hon. David A. Wells, on the larger life to be secured by such investigations as those prosecuted by the association. Among the papers read were important ones from Dr. D. F Lincoln, of Boston, secretary of the health department, on "A project of a law for a medical inspection of public schools, on "Care of the eyes in school and elsewhere," and on "Health in the public schools;" from Dr. S. S. Putnam, on "Gymnastics in schools," and from Superintendent W. T. Harris, of St. Louis, on "Ideal education." The limited space at our command admits of only a few extracts from the papers of Drs. Lincoln and Putnam, bearing on the improvement of the sanitary condition of our schools. Dr. Lincoln, for instance, presented, as follows:
(1) A PROJECT OF A LAW TO ESTABLISH THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS. (1) He shall be appointed by the head of the department of public instruction. (2) Term of office, three years.