Innovation and Knowledge Creation in an Open Economy: Canadian Industry and International Implications
This study of innovation - its intensity, the sources used for knowledge creation, and its impacts - is based on a comprehensive survey of innovation of Canadian manufacturing firms. Attention is paid to the different actors in the system, who both compete with and complement one another. The study investigates how innovation regimes differ across size of firm and across industries. Owing to the high degree of foreign investment in Canada, special attention is paid to the performance of foreign-owned firms. The innovation regime of Canadian innovators is compared with results of studies of other industrialized countries. The picture of a typical innovator is a firm that combines internal resources and external contacts to develop a set of complementary strategies. The study finds that innovating firms depend not only on R&D, but also on ideas and technology from various other sources, both internal and external to the firm.
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ONE The Economics of Knowledge Creation
TWO The Innovation Survey
Intensity and Types
FOUR Sources of Innovations
FIVE Research and Development and Innovation
SIX Effects of Innovation
SEVEN Innovation and Research and Development in Small and Large Firms
EIGHT Innovation Regimes and Type of Innovation
NINE The Use of Intellectual Property Rights
TEN Multinationals and the Canadian Innovation Process
Canada Canada-first Canadian chapter Class collaborative agreements competitors core sector costs customers differences domestic firms economies employees external sources Fabricated metal firm’s foreign-owned firms forms of intellectual forms of protection Frascati manual frequently important improved increased industrial designs Industrial Sector inno innovation activity Innovation Innovation innovation process innovation survey innovative and non-innovative innovative firms innovative ideas Integrated circuit designs intellectual property protection intellectual property rights intensity internal introduced joint ventures knowledge large firms Larger firms IPs less major innovation manufacturing multinationals non-innovative firms non-world-first novation ofInnovators parentheses patents percentage of firms perform R&D process innovation product innovation product or process products and processes R&D activity R&D intensity related firms rely research and development score skills small firms sources of ideas sources of innovation spillovers Standard errors Statistics Canada strategies suppliers Table technology transfer tertiary other sector tion trade secrets trademarks types of innovations variables world-first innovators