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views of these prisms are laid in tablets of proper color, the idea that the view need not of necessity be colored, being first impressed upon the mind.

“The development of the form is now made by one pupil on a clay tablet before the class, others working on sand-paper, the latter omitting one square face. A little conversation on the uses of sand-paper leads the children to see that from this development we may make a matchscratcher.

“ They will suggest that a front of colored paper will improve the appearance of the object. They select a color, cut, and paste.”

EDUCATIONAL PAPERS.

The tendency toward expression through making, color, and drawing is also very strongly seen in the educational papers. Hardly a single number of an educational journal appears without a device for the schoolroom. The department of " Methods for the School-Room" is a necessity. The headings read, “ Unique Method in History,Graphic Story Telling,” “ Paper Cutting and Clay Modelling," "Modelling in Snow,” “Individual Moulding Boards,” “Illuminated Compositions,” “Graphic Physiology,” “ Production Maps,” “ Practical Work in Botany,“ Illuminated History," “ Object Work in Arithmetic,” “Graphic History," Historic or Literary Pictures,” etc.

CONCLUSION.

Thus it is seen that on all sides the movement in favor of concrete expression is rapidly growing. The problem at present seems to be how to develop the power of this expression in accordance with sound principles of teaching. The exhibit is extremely interesting as representing the growth of the movement, but it also shows the great need of provision for systematic instruction in making, drawing, and color. At present, these various means are used in the school-room almost universally, without ability on the part of the teachers to properly utilize them or to suggest improvement. But if students of normal schools could receive training in the principles and methods of using making, drawing, and color, what an influence and an impetus would be given to the use of these valuable educational means in all school work!

The committee would say, in conclusion, that, in view of the eagerness with which these means are being adopted, it seems of very great importance that educators should turn their attention to the consideration of ways by which these means of expression can be made effective, and that strong efforts should be made in normal schools, not only to suggest and encourage the use of making, drawing, and color in other studies, but also to give students systematic training in them. The committee would therefore recommend the continuance of the inquiry.

MARY D. HICKS,
WALTER S. PERRY.

Committee.

JULY 8, 1887.

*To the great regret of the other members, Mr. Anson K. Cross resigned from the committee on account of pressure of work at the Normal Art School,

PROCEEDINGS

AND

ADDRESSES

OF THE

Department of Music Education.

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC.

CHICAGO, ILL., July 13, 1887. The Department of Music of the National Educational Association met in Central Music Hall, at 2.30 P. M., the president of the department,

0. S. Westcott, of Chicago, in the chair.

President Westcott delivered the opening address of the session ; subject : “What Has Been Done in the Public Schools for and with Vocal Music?"

The next address was by Gen. Thomas J. Morgan, principal of the Rhode Island State Normal School ; subject : "Shall the State Teach Music?” Mr. Frederick W. Root, of Chicago, followed Gen. Morgan with a paper upoa “Voice Training and Singing,” illustrating his paper with exercis 33 anl songs ren lerel by a chorus of pupils trained by himself, and assisted by Mr. S. A. Baldwin, organist, and Mr. Herbert Hutchins, cornetist.

The discussion of papers was postponed until the next session.

President Westcott appointed Supt. L. C. Lord, of St. Peter, Minn, H. E. Holt, of Boston, and 0. B. Blackman, of Chicago, a committee on nominations to present a list of officers for the ensuing year.

The department then adjourned.

SECOND SESSION.

Chicago, ILL., July 14, 1887. The department met pursuant to adjournment at 2.30 P. M., President Westcott in the chair. Paper: “ The Educational Value of the Tonic Sol Fa System,” by Daniel Bachelor, Philadelphia. It was discussed briefly by H. S. Perkins, of Chicago, N. Coe Stewart, of Cleveland, and H. E. Holt, of Boston.

Mr. Blackman, of Chicago, discussing Mr. Bachelor's paper, presented the following objections to the Tonic Sol Fa system of instruction :--1. As a notation, because we already have one in use universally. 2. Because it is an imperfect notation, in that it does not adequately represent pitch. 3. Because what of absolute pitch it does teach comes afterwards from the relation, which is scientifically wrong side up"—the cart before the horse. 4.

4. Because, beginning

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