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and enables us to know more than mere perception by the senses, or the dim inferences of reason, and to do more than the feeble attempts of human power or even than the forces of nature, mighty as they are. We, as teachers, therefore, cannot do much to instruct our little pupils in these sublime truths. But one thing we can and must do. We must conform our characters and conduct to such motives and sanctions as have been spoken of in this essay. Especially may we hold to and live by the doctrine of Goethe, suggested in that comprehensive plan of education developed in “Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship.” He insists on what he calls the three Reverences as the first habit to be formed, as well as the first lesson to be learned. The child is first taught reverence for all below him and inferior to him, then reverence for all around him and equal to him, and finally reverence for all above him and superior to him, and it involves an unhesitating obedience. This must be one of the constant aims of the teacher to instill reverence; for the irreverent man or child is the most unlovely and least promising of all persons who work in the great line of developing the race and its capacities for, as Milton has it, “all the offices of peace and of war." The holiest and the noblest thing on which we work is childhood, with its implicit trust and confidence; and if neither we nor the family into which it is born, nor the world, which must receive it, willing or not, never deceived it nor required an unjust thing, how easily it might grow to almost implicit obedience to truth and right. If we were what men and women ought to be, we might lead this little one as we pleased, and make it to continue in its nobleness of innocence, until it should develop almost into a noble omnipotence by its complete obedience to all law. For among men, as Bacon has said, we only gain power by obeying nature in all things. We then can obey. We can admit these motives and sanctions which take hold of the Infinite Truth and Love into our hearts and enthrone them there and give them the control of us. We can first be truthful, honest, and just. We can at least show that we do believe that it is always safe and always best for the interests of all pupils and teachers and all men, to obey these laws and abide the consequences.

We can in the next place aid all to be such as the law demands, and encourage them to assist every one in truth telling, honest dealing, and just acting. These are qualities of an educated manhood, of more importance to the individual and to the world than any quickness in figures or any accuracy in speech, than any familiarity with physical phenomena or mathematical formulae, than skill in manipulating chemical equivalents or astronomical instruments, than any knowledge of history and literature, or any ingenuity in constructing and applying logical doctrines. They are the highest wisdom, and they must finally, if the race is to live in peace and grow in prosperity, become foundations, principles of the soul, wrought into the

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unconscious habits of the life, universally recognized and universally practiced.

How can teachers do this ? Let us repeat. There are two lines for all teaching, precept, and practice. Both the old and the new education, in learning lessons and in forming character, and in guiding conduct, em: phasize them and insist on their practice till the nature has hardened into habit. Unless the inexperienced are told, or instructed in the specific things which the world accounts right and wrong, how can they know them? Let them try for themselves says one, and thus learn by doing. Aye. But the doing of a wrong thing weakens the nature and begets a habit of wrong doing difficult to overcome, and, of course, so far unfits for the doing of the right. There is a necessity then not only for the giving of information, but for the restraint of authority and the control of experience, until something of knowledge is gained and something of self-guidance has been produced. Specific ideas taught, and specific actions performed under the direction of wisdom and skill will speedily lead to generalized ideas or to classified knowledge of the right and the wrong. The child is first to do because he is told and sees his superiors doing the same. Then come general principles, and he does because he knows and desires to do the right and noble thing, and is under the control of motives, drawn by sanctions; the highest and most enduring. It is a pretty long road and often a pretty thorny one, by which an infant is lead to learn the abstract idea, cleanness. Good hereditary predisposition, and intercourse, with a clean family-unvarying examples—will lead to it. So of truth telling. The example is first and best, but words are profitable. The environments so effect the unsuspicious, fearless little one, that it ought to be a hard and an unfrequent case to find a lying child. A lying man in a world of liars may not be an unexpected phenomena. But a lying child, just from the great unknown mysteries of honest love and holy trustfulness, ought to be a thing accounted monstrous. The teacher's problem and it ought to be the parent's problem too, and the problem of the race as well—is to keep that child truthful to the end. How will you do it? This line cannot be dropped here without saying that in this whole affair of morality and vice, of virtue and wrong, of truth, honesty, and justice, of falsehood, fraud, and iniquity, the family should be held to the strictest account. The school is an important factor, more however, because of the great space and the marked attention it gets from our educational writings and theories, than because of the time and means given to it. But the family and the family life, precepts and examples, are the grand formatives of the character, and we must emphasize them, and demand every day the discipline and the instruction of the home, its associations, its plays, its trials, and its business. But our duty as teachers is with the school almost alone, and we are to make that and hold ourselves accountable for it. And this school which we are overseeing and directing is to train-not solely to teach—for life, its labors, its cares, and duties. Too often do we train for recitations, for examinations, for per cents., for promotions, for exhibitions—anything else than for life and destiny-sound, honest, pure, and loving, self-sacrificing, self-controlling, and noble souls. For life we train—not for society, or for business, or for duty even, but to make men and women fit to control a world of the mightiest affairs, and to fill the universe with beauty and joy. To be sure we shall work best when we give our whole energies to the immediate attention, to the little details of the grand plan which we have in general adjusted to the grand design assumed as the end of all. Let the details, be done as unconsciously of any thing beyond, as the rain is unconscious of anything but falling, as the sunshine of anything but flying on the wings of the illimitable ether, and our work will be mightest. But, after all, any school work that looks not beyond the school itself—the salary and the reputation to come from it, the day's orderly movements and recitations—will fall infinitely short of accomplishing what mankind need.

First, let us work in harmony one with another, and with the best tendencies of our environment, and let us insist that our scholars do the same among themselves. Let our own examples be correct and let our whole bearing and conduct show by unostentatious honesty, that we believe every word we utter and are willing to test our whole conduct by death or life if need be, and we shall be daily making consciences in the souls intrusted to us, and thus shall we determine them to shun evil, and to follow the right. An additional idea that should not be neglected is that not a wrong thing can be concealed. By the eternal nature of things it is self-revealing. As well may you throw a pebble into a lake and expect that waves will not start and circle to the shore, or strike a light in the sky and think that the ether will not vibrate to its rays, as to do a wrong deed and hope to keep it a secret. The Great Infinite knows it. “All things are naked and open to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do.” Then the doer himself knows it, and must carry that knowledge in his memory forever. Sometimes it may slumber, but everything will knock at the chamber of the brain, and who can tell when the consciousness of the guilty deed may be roused to be a tormenter. Besides, the consequences do not stop with the act. They affect others and for all time. Chiefly, however, do they live in the soul of the wrong-doer. They damage his whole nature and from their power there is no escape. He is to live daily with that nature, and if it is made mean, deceitful, selfish, lying, it is to be his companion, his bed-fellow; and it will cer tainly be his tyrant. What a terrible thing then to be a mean man, and to grow in meanness daily. Here is the worst fact of all. The life becomes full of guilt and is ruled by it, is a slave driven by a lash wielded by his own vicious nature and degraded lower and lower forever.

It is not, of course, expected that a teacher will often state in words his belief in God, or this doctrine of the eternal infamy of wrong-doing. He can, however, make it sure that he believes that right will live and wrong will die, that honest living will get a reward and harm will come from fraud, as surely as grass will spring from a healthy sward when spring rains and sunshine touch it. He should, nevertheless, feel the force of these higher motives and sanctions which we call religious, and live as if he breathed in a wider sphere and were inspired by a higher life than this little every-day round of daily business. His example is nearly all that will be required, and it should be living, vital to impart warmth and new life to every life it touches. What is called “ preaching” will answer no good end. A right-living force he must be among the pupils and must be an inspiration by his silent power and not by talk.

Three specific rules may close this essay. First, make yourself truthful and honest, and make others the same by example chiefly. Second, insist so far as in you lies that others shall demand truth and honesty in all with whom they associate, and shall honor these qualities wherever they are seen. And third, discountenance all fraud and lying, and assist all authority to suppress it and to reveal the offenders to themselves, and if need be, to the officers of justice. Then will there be less antagonism between teachers and pupils, for all will be striving to be noblest and to lead all others up to the highest standard of nobleness.

And finally, if a teacher wishes to be supreme in his school and in the world, he must be like the Saint Christopher, named before, and learn to serve only the Highest and the Wisest and the Mightiest. And he will find that wisest and mightiest only when he listens to the voice of the little child crying for help in the raging storms of this world and runs to his relief. And when he lifts that little one to his shoulder he will find the weight and burden of the world's Savior laid upon him. But if he is brave and bears that burden with all his human force, he will himself be carried through the angry stream and the furious storm to the shore; and if he will then plant his teacher's rod in the barrenest soil, it will blossom into eternal roses for his crown.

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