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ens, and the manner in which the great English dramatist has worked out the hints of the ancients respecting this eccentric character.

1536. κανηφόρω. The κανηφόροι were high-born Athenian maidens, who carried on their heads baskets containing the materials and implements of sacrifice at the great festivals, such as the Panathenaic, Dionysiac, &c. They were usually attended by persons holding sun-shades over their heads.

1538 - 1549. The Eklámodes, or Shade-feet, were a fabulous tribe in Lybia, mentioned by Strabo, and by Ktesias (according to Harpocration), who compares the feet to the web-feet of geese. They are described as walking terpatroondov, or on all fours; or rather on all threes, using one foot, spread out like an umbrella, to protect themselves from the heat of an African sun. In this place the poet designates the philosophers, and especially, as is shown by v. 1540, the disciples of Socrates. The spirit of the passage is like that of the ludicrous scene in the Clouds, where the disciples of the phrontistery are represented in a variety of absurd attitudes and positions. — yuxaywyei signifies either to conduct souls, as Hermes guided the spirits of the departed; or to evoke spirits, as was done at Lake Avernus; or to allure the mind, as Socrates was accused of doing to the young men of Athens, corrupting them by his new doctrines. Here it is used ambiguously. Socrates evokes spirits at the lake of the Shade-feet. He is the necromancer of that marvellous tribe. — Leioavòpos This is the person mentioned in Thucydides (VIII. 65, seq.) as having been active in subverting the democracy, in the time of the Peloponnesian war. On account of his cowardice, he is represented as coming to Socrates in search of his soul, which has left him during his life. He brings with him for a victim a camel-lamb, either a young camel or a huge sheep. The precise meaning is uncertain. Doubtless there was some sarcastic allu


sion, readily taken by the audience, but now lost. At any rate, the whole scene is a parody upon the nekyomanteia, in Odyssey XI. — únnade, went off ; i. e. like Odysseus in the scene above referred to, withdrew from the sacrifice that the shades of the dead might not be disturbed. - Ý Vuktepis, the bat. See ante, v. 1282. He is said to have come up from Hades, on account of his ghostly appearance.

The gods now arrive. Poseidon is giving lessons in manners to the barbarian god, who has never before been in good society.

1552. 'En' åuméxel; Do you wear your dress so awkwardly? Literally, to wear it awry, upon the left; to put it, therefore, on the wrong side. The cloak, when properly put on, was so arranged as to leave the right arm at liberty. At least, that was originally the case when the garment was worn in its simplest form. " In nothing," says Hope (Costume of the Ancients, Vol. I. p. 24), “ do we see more ingenuity exerted, or more fancy displayed, than in the various modes of making the peplum form grand and contrasted draperies. Indeed, the different degrees of simplicity or of grace observable in the throw of the peplum were regarded as indicating the different degrees of rusticity or of refinement inherent in the disposition of the wearer."

1554. Aalotodias. Laispodias was a general, mentioned in Thucydides (VI. 105). He had a defect in the legs, which he concealed by the length of his garments.

1555. δημοκρατία. . “ Ludit quasi etiam apud deos sit democratia, ut Athenis." Blaydes. Other democracies besides that of the Grecian gods are open to the ridicule of sending incompetent barbarians on foreign embassies.

1563. Althaolws. Heracles, as Bergler remarks, is made at the outset so fierce for vengeance on the audacious mortal who has intercepted the sacrifices from the gods, whereby they live, in order to heighten the comic effect of his

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sudden conversion by the appetizing smell of the roasting birds. Peisthetairos, at this moment, is heard giving directions to the cook, as if unaware of the presence of Heracles.

1570. "Εδοξαν αδικείν, hαυe been adjudged guilty. A technical expression in Attic law.

1571. *12. “ *Hpákhes. Peisthetairos pretends to see Heracles now for the first time: Ah ! how do you do, Heracles ?

1574. "Έλαιον. ..Ankúð, There is no oil in the cruet. The servant comes running in with this message from the kitchen.

1578, 1579. "Oußplov .... åel, You would have rain. water always in your marshes (instead of tanks, " ut ad aves"; the Greeks ordinarily used either spring-water directly from the fountains, or rain-water caught in the tanks), and you would always pass halcyon days. Halcyon days are the supposed seven fair days in winter in which the halcyon was accustomed to make his appearance.

1580. aŭtokpáropes, plenipotentiary.

1583. Mà vûv is elliptical. Supply “though not before," yet now,

i. e. if

you are at last willing to do what is right. 1587. 'En .. kalô, On these conditions, I will in. vite the ministers to dinner. 1592. õp&woiv, gain the power.

The force of the aorist, in the oblique moods, is to express the action as single and completed, not frequent or continuous. Therefore, here, not rule, but get power.

1597. napeldóv, coming up, or passing along. The advantage promised to the gods is, that, if any mortal swear falsely by them, the crow will pounce upon him and pluck

eyes. 1600. The barbarian god, unable to speak Greek, utters some unintelligible sounds, which Peisthetairos interprets into giving his consent.

out his

1605. Mενετοί ulontiav, " The gods can wait,' and not repay in full. μάποδιδω = μη αποδιδό. μισητία is luxury, lust, &c.; also abundance, wastefulness ; here, perhaps, to be constructed as synecdochical, and used adverbially.

1606. Αναπράξομεν, we will eract. 1610. riuhv, the value.

1613. οιμώζειν δοκεί σοι; have you a fancy for a beating ! Intimating that, unless he is willing to yield the point, he must expect a beating. “Hercules,” says Cary, “trusting that Triballus will not understand, says this for the sake of raising a laugh at the barbarian god.". He translates, Triballus, what think you of being cursed ?" 1614. Φησιν

Tráv, He says that I talk quite right. The subject of Néyelv must be gathered from the context; otherwise it would be the same as that of the finite verb. Again he construes the unintelligible sounds of the barbarian god into an assent to the demand.

1620. Oủ .... épậs, You are not fond of reconciliation ; your demands are so extravagant, that there is no hope of coming to terms with you.

1621, 1622. 'Ολίγον .... γλυκύ, I care but little. Cools, you must make the sauce sweet. Peisthetairos puts on an indifferent look, but counts with certainty upon the effect of the order to the cook upon Heracles.

1623. δαιμόνιανθρώπων, my dearest fellow. The comic force of the phrase is heightened by addressing a familiar form of speech among men to a god.

1624. Ημείς .... πολεμήσομεν; There is an allusion to Helen and the war of Troy :- Shall we wage a war for one woman ?

1631. οιόν σε περισoφίζεται, how he is tricking you. Peisthetairos now expounds the Athenian law of inheritance, according to which Heracles, not being the son of Zeus in lawful wedlock, cannot become his heir.

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1634. oud' åkapn, not a penny.

1638. 'Enrikinpov, successor to an inheritance. A technical term. The argument is drawn from the principle of the Athenian law that excluded illegitimate sons from the property, in favor of a legitimate daughter. Athena, being the protecting goddess of Athens, is pronounced the heiress of her father, Zeus.

1643. 'Ανθέξεται χρημάτων, Will take precedence of you in the paternal property. Whereupon he pretends to quote a law of Solon.

1646. áyxuorelay, rights by nearness of relationship.

1651. "Ήδη .... φράτορας ; Did your father ever introduce you to your kith and kin? It was required by law that all legitimate sons should be enrolled in the registers of the tribe, deme, and phratria ; those of the same pparpla were called φράτορες.

. See ante, p. 169. See also Hermann, Political Antiquities, pp. 192 – 194.

1653. aiklay Béwy, looking assault, like Shakspeare's speaking daggers.

1659. 'Ev. a payua, The whole thing now depends on Triballos. He has the casting vote. 1660, 1661. Καλάνι

παραδίδωμι. Triballos tries to give his decision in Greek. The effect of his barbarous pronunciation is conveyed by Cary thus:

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“De beautiful gran damsel Basilau Me give up to de fool.”

do ;

1663. Ei Xedidoves, unless to go as the swallows

i. e. unless he means to bid her become a bird. Swallows are singled out for birds in general, because the Greeks always compared the speech of barbarians to that of swallows.

1670, 1671. 'Es . . . . yeyous, In good time, then, these fellows (the rebel birds) have been put to death for the nuptials. — Téws, in the mean time.

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