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The year preceding this amounted to $1,178,764.80. The income from the Federal Government for 1934-35 was $1,395,461.12. The total operating expenditures for 1934-35 were $1,709,992.63.
The total amount spent for capital expenditures in 1934-35 was $756,606.28, as against $229,271.55 in 1933-34.
THE LAND-GRANT COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES
The land-grant colleges and universities, once known as agricultural and mechanical colleges, were established by authority of the first Morrill Act of 1862, which provided Federal endowment by the sale of grants of land. Each State received by the terms of this act an amount of public land or land scrip equal to 30,000 acres for each Senator and Representative then in Congress. The sale of these lands created an endowment called the 1862 land-grant fund. In 1933-34 the income from this fund was $1^127,344, derived from interest on the principal of $23,350,743 and rentals and rights on unsold land appraised at $13,726,827.
Additional Federal support was provided for these institutions through the second Morrill Act of 1890 and the Nelson amendment of 1907. Since 1911 each State has received $50,000 annually, including Puerto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii; the total appropriation now amounts to $2,550,000 annually. These moneys must be expended either for salaries or facilities for instruction in certain allowed subjects, and generally most of the appropriation is spent for salaries, as it was in 1933-34, when $2,533,605 was paid out to faculty members.
The new Bankhead-Jones Act, which was signed and became a law at the end of this fiscal year on June 29, 1935, supplements and increases the Morrill-Nelson appropriations beginning with the year 1935-36. By this act there is authorized to be appropriated annually (Public Act No. 182, title II, sec. 22) to the 48 States and the Territory of Hawaii (Alaska and Puerto Rico do not participate) the sum of $980,000 to be divided equally—$20,000 each. In addition, the sums of $500,000 in 1936-37, $1,000,000 in 1937-38, and $1,500,000 in 1938-39 and thereafter annually, are authorized to be appropriated, but the division of these funds is on a basis of population, i. e., the ratio that total population of each State and the Territory of Hawaii bears to the total population of all States and the Territory of Hawaii. Provisions of the act of August 30, 1890, as amended and supplemented, apply to the use and payment of these additional funds.
Sixty-nine land-grant institutions are now maintained—52 primarily or exclusively for white students, and 17 for Negro students. There is a land-grant college in every State, Puerto Rico, Alaska, and Hawaii; Massachusetts provides 2 institutions, and in the 17 Southern States there are 17 Negro land-grant colleges.
Congress has authorized the Secretary of the Interior to supervise the expenditures of the funds mentioned above, and to require annual reports in detail from the treasurers and presidents of the land-grant institutions. This duty has been assigned to a specialist in the Office of Education. A few of the pertinent facts gleaned from the 1933-34 report are:
In the 69 land-grant institutions faculty members number 25,895, of whom 22,572 are employed full time.
Resident-undergraduate students totaled 104,892 men and 49,202 women; graduate students—10,998 men and 4,625 women; freshman students—30,559 men and 14,780 women.
Enrollments in arts and science courses represented a larger proportion and a larger number of students than ever before in these courses—63,811 men and women. In agriculture, 11,469 students, mostly men, represented an increase over the previous year, but a decided loss during the depression years. In engineering, the lowest enrollment in a decade was reported—26.207 students, all men, with the exception of 112 women.
Receipts for educational purposes totaled $103,124,212, of which the Federal Government contributed $18,014,174. In addition there was reported $1,063,092 for noneducational purposes, $7,057,428 for capital outlays and plant extensions, $16,127,153 for auxiliary enterprises including student unions, dining halls and athletics, and $1,513,022 for net increase of permanent funds. The value of buildings was placed at $275,261,569, grounds at $60,540,171, and total plant values at $436,488,174.
III. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
This report covers the eighteenth year of operation under the Vocational Education Act of 1917, and the fifteenth year of operation under the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920—the two fundamental acts which, having been accepted by the States and Territories, provide the legislative basis of the cooperative Federal-State programs (1) of vocational education in agriculture, trades, and industries, and homemaking, and (2) of vocational rehabilitation and placement in wage-earning employment of persons disabled in industry or otherwise. It covers the second year of administration of these acts by the Office of Education, to which the functions of the Federal Board for Vocational Education, and the personnel of the staff of this board were transferred by Executive order in 1933.
VOCATIONAL ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF EDUCATION
The vocational acts administered by the Office of Education under the direction of the Assistant Commissioner for Vocational Education, include the following fundamental acts and acts supplementary thereto:
1. The Vocational Education Act (Smith-Hughes), to provide for cooperation with the States in the promotion of vocational education. (Approved Feb. 23, 1917.)
2. The Vocational Rehabilitation Act, to provide for the promotion of vocational rehabilitation of persons disabled in industry or otherwise and their return to employment. (Approved June 2, 1920, as amended June 5, 1924, June 9, 1930, and June 30, 1932.)
3. An act extending the benefits of the vocational education and vocational rehabilitation acts to the Territory of Hawaii. (Approved Mar. 10, 1924.)
4. An act to provide for vocational rehabilitation of disabled residents of the District of Columbia. (Approved Feb. 23, 1929.)
5. An act extending the benefits of the vocational education and vocational rehabilitation acts to the Island of Puerto Rico. (Approved Mar. 3, 1931.)
6. An act (George-Ellzey) to provide for the further development of vocational education in the several States and Territories, authorizing for the years 1935-37, additional appropriations for vocational education. (Approved May 21} 1934.) This act continued authorizations of additional appropriations upon expiration of the George-Reed act of February 5, 1929, which had authorized additional appropriations for the years 1930-34.
7. An act (Social Security Act) authorizing additional appropriations for 1936 and annually thereafter for cooperation with the States and Hawaii in extending and strengthening their programs of vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled. (Approved Aug. 14, 1935.)
Appropriations of Federal funds for allotment to the States and for service and research to aid the States in developing their vocational and rehabilitation programs are made or authorized by these acts.
COMPOSITION OF THE FEDERAL BOARD FOR VOCATIONAL
The Federal Board for Vocational Education, created by the Vocational Education Act of 1917 as the national agency of cooperation with the States in the building up of public vocational training programs of less than college grade, consists of 4 members ex officio—the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Commissioner of Education; and 3 citizens appointed by the President—1 representative of manufacturing and commercial interests, 1 representative of agricultural interests, and 1 representative of labor.
So composed the Board is representative of educational interests in general, of public and private interests involved in the several broad fields of vocational training, and of employer-employee interests in such training. Representation of these interests on the Board safeguards vocational education as a development of our publicly supported educational systems, State and local, and as a program for promoting the economic welfare and security of workers in all fields.
By Executive order of June 10, 1933, effective August 10 of that year, the functions of the Board were transferred to the Department of the Interior, and the Board made an advisory board to serve without compensation. Three vacancies were created on the Board by expiration of terms of the appointive members. To fill these vacancies the President on August 14, 1935, submitted to the Senate the following Executive nominations:
A. Lincoln Filene, of Massachusetts, for the unexpired term of 3 years from July 17,1933, vice Edward T. Franks, term expired (representative of commerce and commercial interests.)
Clarence Poe, of North Carolina, for the unexpired term of 3 years from July 17, 1934, vice W. Harry King, term expired (representative of agricultural interests).
Henry Ohl, of Wisconsin, for the unexpired term of 3 years from July 17, 1935, vice Perry W. Reeves, term expired (representative of labor).
The Senate confirmed these nominations on August 16, 1935.
On review of the acts listed above it will be apparent that Congress has consistently developed the policy initiated in 1917 of providing national grants for support and promotion of State and local programs of vocational education and vocational rehabilitation. It extended this policy to include the vocational training and placement of physically disabled persons in 1920; extended the benefits of the vocational education and vocational rehabilitation acts to Hawaii in 1924; authorized appropriation of additional grants to the States and Territories for vocational agriculture and vocational home economics in 1929 (under the George-Reed Act which expired June 30, 1934) ; provided funds and administration for vocational rehabilitation service in the District of Columbia in 1929; extended the benefits of the vocational education and vocational rehabilitation acts to Puerto Rico in 1931; authorized additional grants to the States and Territories for vocational agriculture, trades and industries, and home economics in 1934 (on expiration of the GeorgeReed Act); and in an act (the Social Security Act) approved after the close of the last fiscal year, has authorized additional appropriations annually for vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled.
Section 4 of title V of the Social Security Act authorizing additional appropriations for 1936 and annually thereafter, for "cooperating with the States and Hawaii in extending and strengthening their programs of vocational rehabilitation of the physically disabled ", was not included in the security bill as originally introduced, but was inserted by the Ways and Means Committee of the House at the request of the National Rehabilitation Association. Administration of the increased funds provided will develop new demands upon the rehabilitation service of the Office of Education, for service to aid the States in expanding and strengthening their programs.
It may be noted further that during the past year legislation has been pending in Congress for further increasing grants authorized for vocational education.
In this matter of increasing the financial support and expanding the scope of the vocational education and vocation rehabilitation programs, States and local communities have assumed their share of responsibility, and have generally exceeded requirements in their appropriations from year to year of State and local funds for expenditure under State plans jointly with Federal funds.
ACCEPTANCE OF THE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION ACT BY
During the year just ended the General Assembly of the Territory of Hawaii enacted a law accepting the provisions of the National Rehabilitation Act. Although the Territorial appropriation for the current year is not sufficient to match the Federal allotment, it is reported that additional funds will be made available to carry on the program and match the allotment.
ACCEPTANCE OF THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION ACT BY ALASKA
By an act approved March 14, 1935, the Territory of Alaska accepted the Vocational Education Act of 1917 and acts supplementary thereto, designated the treasurer of the Territory custodian of Federal funds to be allotted to the Territory, designated the Territorial board of education as the agency to have full and complete authority to cooperate with the Federal office, and appropriated $30,000 for the biennium, 1935-37, and biennially thereafter, for matching Federal funds. The commissioner of education of Alaska came to Washington during the week of April 15, and the vocational staff assisted him in preparing the Territorial plan for vocational education, which was approved by the Territorial board of education, May 14, and by the United States Commissioner of Education, May 17, for the period beginning July 1,1935, and ending June 30, 1937.
This acceptance of the Federal act, and compliance with all the provisions of the act, entitles Alaska to allotments under authoriza