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THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
(abno B. Cammebeb, Director)
An expanded National Park Service during the 1935 fiscal year established an outstanding record of achievement. The great Public Works and Emergency Conservation programs, initiated or approved during the preceding year, were in full swing on July 1, 1934, and during the ensuing year were carried on at high speed.
Supervision of work under the emergency programs resulted in a heavy strain on all park supervisory personnel, both in the Washington Office and the field, and entailed an unusual amount of overtime work on a staff long inured to overtime. To insure protection of the natural features of the parks and prevent any operations not in conformity with park policies and ideals, the supervisory forces were greatly augmented under the emergency programs. Technicians skilled in engineering, landscaping, architecture, forestry, wildlife problems, geology, and other natural sciences carefully watched details of field work to enforce compliance with approved plans on all projects.
The sympathetic support of the Secretary of the Interior and other officials of the Department of the Interior and the cooperation of specialists in various other Federal bureaus were invaluable during this period of high-peak activity.
In keeping with its record of achievement the Service reports the most interesting travel figures in the history of the national parks and monuments. Public use of these areas for the travel year which ended September 30, 1934, was the greatest ever experienced. The total number of visitors to the national parks, monuments, military parks, and other areas of the system amounted to 6,337,206. Travel to those national parks for which statistics were published last year showed an increase of 22 percent over the preceding year. No comparative statistics for the total travel are available, since the transfer of numerous areas from the jurisdiction of the War Department and Department of Agriculture was made toward the end of the previous travel year, and complete travel figures for them could not be obtained.
During the summer of 1934 President Koosevelt, with his sons, Franklin, Jr., and John, visited the Hawaii National Park. On August 5, with Mrs. Roosevelt, the President visited Glacier National Park where over a Nation-wide hook-up he emphasized the recreational and spiritual advantages to be gained from visits to the national parks. Of interest was his suggestion at that time that the slogan " 1934—A National Park Year " be changed to "Every Year a National Park Year." Mrs. Roosevelt also visited several other national parks and in a radio talk last spring spoke enthusiastically of her experiences in these areas.
In line with the President's suggestion that every year be a national park year, the preseason travel of 1935 showed a gain over that for the same months of the previous year. Present indications are that last year's record will be well surpassed when the travel season closes on September 30. On June 30 an increase of 2 percent in visitors to the wilderness parks was recorded, with the weekly gain constantly mounting.
Through an allotment from emergency funds the National Park Service was enabled to participate in the California Pacific International Exposition at San Diego. In the exhibits special emphasis was laid upon the activties of the Civilian Conservation Corps in the national parks and monuments. The operation of a model laboratory by enrollees in a booth of the Natural History Museum Building is attracting much attention, as is the model Civilian Conservation Corps camp adjacent to the Federal Building. In the camp a detachment of 50 enrollees demonstrates typical conservation; activities on park lands, such as tree planting and trail building. Dioramas, motion pictures, and colored enlargements depict scenes in the national parks.
Field officers of the National Park Service met in conference in Washington last November with officials of the headquarters office and specialists of cooperating bureaus to discuss questions of park policy and administration. This conference was productive of farreaching results, occurring, as it did, at a time when the Service was expanding its activities in all lines. It was particularly effective in orienting a number of administrative officers newly appointed in the field and Washington.
EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK
Continuation of the President's Emergency Conservation Work program permitted the National Park Service to benefit to a still greater degree in the conservation activities for the protection of the national parks and monuments, and provided material expansion in the program for State, county, and metropolitan parks.
The interest which has been stimulated in conservation work in the United States through the Emergency Conservation Work program has, to a large degree, been responsible for a new interest and appreciation of recreational facilities and has made the citizens of the Nation conscious of the desirability of extending national park and monument boundaries and of the establishment and enlargement of State, county, and metropolitan park areas. As a result, further acquisition of land for State parks came through donations by private individuals or corporations, and, in a number of States, through continued or resumed park-land purchases. In some instances county or city funds were expended in the purchase of desirable park lands.
While no States newly entered the park field during the past 12 months, the addition of new parks and enlargement of older holdings proceeded steadily. The National Park Service records an increase in State parks of 67,300 acr«s of land during the 7 months from September 1, 1934, to April 1, 1935, and additional acreage has been acquired since then. These additions have been in the States of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia.
In order to assist in formulating park policies and programs dealing with the States, the following advisory committee on State parks was appointed to serve without compensation:
Col. Kichard Lieber, president of the national conference on State parks, and past director of the Conservation Commission of Indiana, as chairman; Horace M. Albright, past director of the National Park Service; Harland Bartholomew, city planner of St. Louis; Tom Wallace, newspaper editor and park enthusiast, Louisville; and Miss Harlean James, secretary of the American Planning and Civic Association. William E. Carson, past chairman of the Virginia Conservation and Development Commission, also was appointed as collaborator to assist in State park work.
The Director continued to serve as the Interior Department representative on the Advisory Council to Hon. Robert Fechner, Director of Emergency Conservation Work, with the Associate Director as alternate. Chief Forester J. D. Coffman acted as liaison officer for the various bureaus of the Department of the Interior and supervised the program for the national parks and monuments. Assistant Director Conrad L. Wirth, Chief of the Branch of Planning, directed the Emergency Conservation Work in the State parks and related areas.
All Civilian Conservation Corps work within areas under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service continued to be carefully planned by experienced landscape architects, engineers, foresters, wildlife experts, geologists, aud archeologists so as to preserve the distinct natural features. In addition, in the historical and military parks historical technicians were utilized to insure the careful preservation and interpretation of the historical values.
During the third enrollment period, April 1 to September 30, 1934r which came partly within the fiscal year 1935, 102 camps were operated in national parks and monuments and 208 in State parks and related areas, the camps being located in 40 different States. During the fourth enrollment period, October 1, 1934, to March 31, 1935, 79 camps were operated in national parks and monuments and 293 in State parks and associated areas, the camps being in 41 States. When the drought relief Emergency Conservation Work program was established, six drought relief Emergency Conservation Work camps were assigned to national parks and monuments and 52 such camps to the State parks and other areas subject to the administration of the State Park Division.
The legislation extending the Emergency Conservation Work for another 2-year period enabled the President to authorize an increase in the scope of the program; and a total of 600 camps was allotted to the National Park Service for the fifth enrollment period, April 1 to September 30, 1935, with 118 camps in national parks and monuments and 482 in State-park areas. Plans are under way to continue the camps for the sixth enrollment period, October 1, 1935, to March 31, 1936. When, in January 1934, the Emergency Conservation Work program was extended to the Hawaiian Islands, with 57T enrollees on four islands working from camps and from their homes, general supervision was assigned to the National Park Service. Subsequently, the program for the participation of the Territory of Hawaii has been increased so that 1,212 enrollees now are allotted to that work. In the second enrollment period one 200-man camp was established at Hawaii National Park, and it has continued in operation to date. Also in December 1934, two camps, one composed of 60 enrollees on the Island of St. Thomas and another of 100 enrollees on the Island of St. Croix, were assigned to the Virgin Islands.
Approximately 150,000 young men in all have been engaged in the work subject to the National Park Service, with the employment of about 6,000 professionally and technically trained individuals to direct the work.
A statement of material accomplishments under the Emergency Conservation Work program in National, State, and allied areas under National Park Service supervision is given in table 9.
KECREATIONAL LAND-USE REPORT TO NATIONAL RESOURCES BOARD
The Recreation Division of the National Resources Board, set up within the National Park Service for the purpose of preparing that section of the Board's report entitled "Recreational Use of Land in the United States ", submitted a preliminary report on October 1 and the final report on November 1.
With the limited time allotted to its preparation, a detailed study of the underlying basic facts concerning recreational needs and existing facilities throughout the Nation could not be undertaken. It was possible, however, to accumulate much valuable information on the subject in the brief time available.
The report strongly showed the need for a broad and exhaustive Nation-wide survey on this subject and contained an urgent recommendation therefor. As a result, plans for such a survey have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior and hopes are entertained that an allotment for the purpose may be made available from emergency funds.
The recreation division of the report was prepared by a committee consisting of George M. Wright, Chief of the Wildlife Division, chairman; Assistant Director Conrad L. Wirth; and Chief Forester John D. Coffman. Herbert Evison, Supervisor of State Park Emergency Conservation Work, served as principal assistant to the chairman, and the services of L. H. Weir, recreational specialist of the National Recreational Association, were obtained on a full-time basis during the preparation of the report.
In view of projected plans for a further study of the broad field of recreation, continuation of the committee was deemed desirable. Mr. Wright continues as chairman, Mr. Wirth is vice chairman, and Mr. Evison executive secretary.
LEGISLATION PENDING TO PROVIDE FEDERAL COOPERATION IN STATE PARK DEVELOPMENT
Bills to provide Federal cooperation in the development of State parks were reintroduced in the Seventy-f ourth Congress and received favorable committee reports in both the Senate and House of Representatives.
The proposed legislation would give the Secretary of the Interior power to authorize the National Park Service, cooperating with other Federal and State agencies, to make a comprehensive study of the public parks, parkways, and recreational-area programs of the United States, and to aid the States in planning, establishing, improving, and