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And who is England's king, but great York's heir?
Then, tell me, what makes he upon the seas?

Stanl. Unless for that, my liege, I cannot guess.
K.Rich. Unless for that hecomes to be your liege,
You cannot guess wherefore the Welshman comes.
Thou wilt revolt, and fly to him, I fear. [not.
Stanl. No, mighty liege; therefore mistrust me
K. Rich, Where is thy power, then, to beat him
back?

K. Rich. Oh, I cry you mercy:
There is my purse, to cure that blow of thine.
Hath any well-advised friend proclaim'd
Reward to him that brings the traitor in? [liege.
3 Mes. Such proclamation hath been made, my
Enter another Messenger.

5

Where be thy tenants, and thy followers?
Are they not now upon the western shore,
Safe-conducting the rebels from their ships?
Stan. No, my good lord, my friends are in the
north.
[the north,
K. Rich. Cold friends to me; What do they in 15
When they should serve their sovereign in the west:
Stanl. They have not been commanded,inighty
king:

Pleaseth your majesty to give me leave,
I'll muster up my friends; and meet your grace,|20|
Where, and what time, your majesty shall please.
K. Rich. Ay, ay, thou wouldst be gone to join
with Richmond:
But I'll not trust you, sir.

Stanl. Most mighty sovereign,

You have no cause to hold my friendship doubtful;
I never was, nor never will be false.

K. Rich, Well, go, muster thy men. But, hear
you, leave behind
[firm,
Your son, George Stanley: look your heart be 30
Or else his head's assurance is but frail.

4 Mes. Sir Thomas Lovel, and lord marquis Dor
Tis said, my liege, in Yorkshire are in arms. [set,
But this good comfort bring I to your highness,—
10 The Bretagne navy is dispers'd by tempest:
Richmond, in Dorsetshire, sent out a boat
Unto the shore, to ask those on the banks,
If they were his assistants, yea, or no;
Who answer'd him, they came from Buckingham
Upon his party: he, mistrusting them,
Hois'd sail,and made his course again for Bretagne.

K. Rich. March on, march on, since we are up
If not to fight with foreign enemies, [in arms;
Yet to beat down these rebels here at home.
Enter Catesby.

25

Cates, My liege, the duke of Buckingham is taken,
That is the best news: That the Earl of Richmond
Is with a mighty power landed at Milford,
Is colder news, but yet it must be told. [here,
K.Rich. Away towards Salisbury; while we reason
A royal battle might be won and lost:-
Some one take order, Buckingham be brought
To Salisbury;-the rest march on with me.

-

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1

[Exeunt.

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Enter a Messenger. ¡
Mes. My gracious sovereign, now in Devonshire, 35
As I by friends am well advertised,
Sir Edward Courtney, and the haughty prelate,
Bishop of Exeter, his elder brother,
With many more confed'rates, are in arms.

SCENE V.

Lord Stanley's House.

Enter Lord Stanley, and Sir Christopher Urswick.
Stant. Sir Christopher, tell Richmond this from
That, in the stye of this most bloody boar [me;-
My son George Stanley is frank'd up in hold;
If I revalt, off goes young George's head;
The fear of that withholds my present aid.
40 But, tell me, where is princely Richmond now?

Chri. At Pembroke, or at Ha'rford-west, in
Stanl. What men of name resort to him? [Wales.
Chri. Sir Walter Herbert, a renown'd soldier;
Sir Gilbert Talbot, and Sir William Stanley;
Oxford, redoubted Pembroke, Sir James Blunt,
And Rice ap Thomas, with a valiant crew;
And many other of great name and worth:
And towards London do they bend their course,
If by the way they be not fought withal. [to him;
Stanl. Well, hie thee to thy lord; commend me
Tell him, the queen hath heartily consented
He shall espouse Elizabeth her daughter.
These letters will resolve him of my mind.
Farewell.

Enter a Messenger.

2 Mes. In Kent, my liege, the Guilfords are And every hour more competitors' [in arms; Flock to the rebels, and their power grows strong. Enter another Messenger.

3 Mes, My lord, the army of great Bucking-45 ham

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K. Rich. Out on ye, owls! nothing but songs of death? [He strikes him. There, take thou that, 'till thou bring better news. 3 Mes. The news I have to tell your majesty, 50 Is, that, by sudden floods and fall of waters, Buckinghain's army is dispers'd and scatter'd; And he himself wander'd away alone, No man knows whither.

[Exeunt.

1i. e. opponents. 2 The person who is called Sir Christopher here, appears by the Chronicles to have been Christopher Urswick, a batchelor in divinity; and chaplain to the countess of Richmond, who had intermarried with the lord Stanley. This priest, the history tells us, frequently went backwards and forwards, unsuspected, on messages betwixt the countess of Richmond and her husband, nd the young earl of Richmond, whilst he was preparing to make his descent on England. Dr. Johnaan has observed, that Sir was anciently a title assumed by graduates.

ACT

SCENE L
Salisbury.

ACT

Enter the Sheriff,with Buckingham, led to execution.
Buck. WILL not king Richard let me speak

with him??

V.

In God's name, chearly on, courageous friends,
To reap the harvest of perpetual peace
By this one bloody trial of sharp war.

5

Orf. Every man's conscience is a thousand To fight against that bloody homicide. [swords, Herb. I doubt not, but his friends will turn to us. Blunt. He hath no friends, but who are friends for fear;

10

Which, in his dearest need, will fly from him. Richm. All for our vantage. Then, in God's name march:

True hope is swift, and flies with swallow's wings; Kings it makes gods, and meaner creatures kings. [Exeunt.

Sher. No, my good lord; therefore be patient.
Buck. Hastings, and Edward's children, Rivers,
Holy king Henry, and thy fairson Edward, [Grey,
Vaughan, and all that have miscarried
By underhand corrupted foul injustice;
If that your moody discontented souls
Do through the clouds behold this present hour,
Even for revenge mock my destruction!--
This is All-Souls' day, fellows, is it not?
Sher. It is, my
lord.
[doomsday.
Buck, Why, then All-Souls' day is my body's
This is the day, which, in king Edward's time,
I wish'd might fall on me, when I was found
False to his children, or his wife's allies:
This is the day, wherein I wish'd to fall
By the false faith of him whom most I trusted;
This, this All-Souls' day to my fearful soul,
Is the determin'd respite of my wrongs,
That high All-seer whom I dally'd with,
Hath turn'd my feigned prayer on my head,
And given in earnest what I begg'd in jest.
Thus doth he force the swords of wicked men
To turn their own points on their masters' bosoms:
Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on my neck,30
When he, quoth she, shall split thy heart with sor-
Remember Margaret was a prophetess. [row,
Come, sirs, convey me to the block of shame;
Wrong hath butwrong, and blame the due of blame.
[Exeunt Buckingham, &c.

1351

15

25

SCENE III.
Bosworth Field.

Enter King Richard in arms, with the Duke of
Norfolk, Earl of Surrey, and others.

20

K. Rich. Here pitch our tent, even here in Bos-
worth Field.-
My lord of Surrey, why look
you so sad?
Surr. My heart is ten times lighter than my
[looks.
K. Rich. My lord of Norfolk,
Nor. Here, most gracious liege.
K. Rich. Norfolk, we must have knocks; Ha!
must we not?
[lord.
Nor. We must both give and take, my loving
K. Rich. Up with my tent: Here will I lie to-
[that.-
But where, to-morrow?-Well, all's one for
Who hath desery'd the number of the traitors?
Nor. Six or seven thousand is their utmost power.
K. Rich. Why, our battalia trebles that account:
Besides, the king's name is a tower of strength,
Which they upon the adverse faction want.-
Up with the tent.-Come, noble gentlemen,
Let us survey the vantage of the ground;-
Call for some men of sound direction":-
Let's want no discipline, make no delay;
For, lords, to-morrow is a busy day. [Exeunt.
Enter, on the other side of the field, Richmond, Sir
William Brandon, Oxford, Dorset, &c.
Richm. The weary sun hath made a golden set,
45 And, by the bright track of his fiery car,
Gives token of a goodly day to-morrow.
Sir William Brandon, you shall bear my standard.--
Give me some ink and paper in my tent;

I'll draw the form and model of our battle,
Limit each leader to his several charge,
And part in just proportion our small power.
My lord of Oxford,―you, Sir William Brandon,-
And Sir Walter Herbert, stay with me:-
The earl of Pembroke keeps his regiment;-

you,

In your embowell'd 3 bosoms,—this foul swine
Lies now even in the centre of this isle,
Near to the town of Leicester, as we learn ;
From Tamworth thither, is but one day's march.|55|Good captain Blunt, bear my good night to him,

+

SCENE II.
Tamworth, on the borders of Leicestershire. A camp.
Enter Henry Earl of Richmond, Earl of Oxford,
Sir James Blunt, Sir Walter Herbert, and 40
others, with drum and colours.

Richm. Fellows in armis, and my most loving
Bruis'd underneath the yoke of tyranny, [friends,
Thus far into the bowels of the land

Have we march'd on without impediment;
And here receive we from our father Stanley
Lines of fair comfort and encouragement.
The wretched, bloody, and usurping boar,
That spoil'd your summer fields,and fruitful vines,
Swills your warm blood like wash, and makes his
trough

50

The reason why the duke of Buckingham solicited an interview with the king, is explained in K. Henry VIII. Act I. 2 i. e. the time to which the punishment of his wrongs was respited i. e. ripped up. i, e. true judge. Wrongs here means wrongs done, or injurious practices. ment; tried military skill.

And

5

And by the second hour in the morning
Desire the earl to see me in my tent:
Yet one thing more, good captain, do for me;
Where is lord Stanley quarter'd, do you know?
Blunt. Unless I have mista'en his colours much,
(Which, well I am assur'd, I have not done)
His regiment lies half a mile at least
South from the mighty power of the king.
Richm. If without peril it be possible, [him,
Sweet Blunt, make some good means to speak with 10
And give him from me this most needful note.

Blunt. Upon my life, my lord, I'll undertake it;
And so, God give you quiet rest to-night!
Richm. Good night, good.captain Blunt. Come,
gentlemen,

And help to arm me, Ratcliff.-Leave me, I say.
[Exit Ratcliff.
Richmond's Tent opens, and discovers him, and
his Officers, &c.
Enter Stanley.

Stanl. Fortune and victory sit on thy helm!
Richm. All comfort that the dark night can af-
Be to thy person, noble father-in-law! [ford,
Tell me, how fares our loving mother? [ther,

15

Stanl. I, by attorney, bless thee from thy mo-
Who prays continually for Richmond's good:-
So much for that.-The silent hours steal on,
And flaky darkness breaks within the east.
In brief, for so the season bids us be,
Prepare thy battle early in the morning!
And
put thy fortune to the arbitrement
Of bloody strokes, and mortal staring war'.
I, as I may, (that which I would, I cannot)
With best advantage will deceive the time,
And aid thee in this doubtful shock of arnis:
But on thy side I may not be too forward,
Lest, being seen, thy tender brother George
Be executed in his father's sight.

20

23

K. Rich. I will not sup to-night.→
Give me some ink and paper.-
What, is my beaver easier than it was?—
And all my armour laid into my tent? [diness.
Cates. It is, my liege; and all things are in rea-
K. Rich. Good Norfolk, hie thee to thy charge;
Use careful watch, chuse trusty centinels.

30

Nor. I go, my lord.

[Norfolk.

K. Rich. Stir with the lark to-morrow, gentle
Nor. I warrant you, my lord,

Farewell: the leisure', and the fearful time
Cuts off the ceremonious vows of love,
And ample enterchange of sweet discourse,
Which so-long-sundred friends should dwell upon;
God give us leisure for these rites of love!
Once more, adieu :-Be valiant, and speed well!
Richm. Good lords, conduct him to his regiment:
I'll strive, with troubled thoughts, to take a nap;
Lest leaden slumber peize' me down to-morrow,
When I should mount with wings of victory:
Once more, good night, kind lords and gentlemen.
[Exeunt lords, &'c.
O Thou! whose captain I account myself,
Look on my forces with a gracious eye;
Put in their hands thy bruising irons of wrath,

[Exit.

K. Rich. Ratcliff,—

Rat. My lord!

35

K. Rich. Send out a pursuivant at arms
To Stanley's regiment; bid him bring his power
Before sun-rising, lest his son George fall
Into the blind cave of eternal night.-

Fill me a bowl of wine:-Give me a watch':-40That they may crush down with a heavy fall

The usurping helmets of our adversaries!
Make us thy ministers of chastisement,
That we may praise thee in thy victory!
To thee I do commend my watchful soul,
Ere I let fall the windows of mine eyes:
Sleeping, and waking, O, defend me still! [Sleeps.
Enter the Ghost of Prince Edward, Son to Henry
the Sixth.
Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow!
[To K. Rich.
Think how thou stabb'dst me in the prime of youth
At Tewksbury; despair therefore, and die!—
Be cheerful, Richmond; for the wronged souls
[To Richm.

Let us consult upon to-morrow's business;
In to my tent, the air is raw and cold.
[They withdraw into the tent.
Enter, to his tent, King Richard, Ratcliff, Norfolk,
and Catesby.
K. Rich. What is't o'clock?

Cates. It's supper-time, my lord; It's nine o'clock.

[To Catesby.
Saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow.-
Look that my staves be sound, and not too
Ratcliff,-
[heavy.
Rat. My lord!
[thumberland 45
K. Rich. Saw'st thou the melancholy lord Nor-
Rat. Thomas the earl of Surrey and himself,
Much about cock-shut time, from troop to troop,
Went through the army, cheering up the soldiers.
K. Rich. I am satisty'd. Give me a bowl of 50
I have not that alacrity of spirit,
[wine:
Nor cheer of mind, that I was wont to have.
So, set it down.-Is ink and paper ready?

Rat. It is, my lord.

K. Rich. Bid my guard watch, and leave me. About the mid of night, come to my tent,

55 Of butcher'd princes fight in thy behalf:
King Henry's issue, Richmond, comforts thee.

'That particular kind of candle is here meant, anciently called a watch, because, being marked out into sections, each of which was a certain proportion of time in burning, it supplied the place of the more modern instrument by which we measure the hours. 2 Staves are the wood of the lances. As it was usual to carry more lances than one into the field, the lightness of them was an object of consequence. 'i. e. twilight.-Cockshut is said to be a net to catch woodcocks; and as the time of taking them in this manner is in the twilight, either after sun-set or before its rising, cockshut light may very properly express the evening or the morning twilight. i.e. by deputation, or by virtue of letter of attorney. By staring war is probably meant war that looks big. Leisure in this passage stands for want of leisure. j. e. weigh me down; from peser, French.

4

7

·

Enter

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Enter the Ghost of Henry the Sixth. Ghost. When I was mortal, iny anointed body [To K. Rich.

[To K. Rich. All. Awake! and think, our wrongs in Richard's bosom Will conquer him ;-awake, and win the day! [To Richm Enter the Ghost of Lord Hastings. Ghost. Bloody and guilty, guiltily awake; [To K. Rich.

Thy adversary's wife doth pray for thee.
Enter the Ghost of Buckingham,

Ghost. The first was I, that help'd thee to the
[To K. Rich.

crown;

5

By thee was punched full of deadly holes:
Think on the Tower and me; despair and die;
Henry the sixth bids thee despair and die!-
Virtuous and holy, be thou conqueror! [To Richm,
Harry, that prophesy'd thou shouldst be king,
Doth comfort thee in thy sleep; live, and flourish.
Enter the Ghost of Clarence.

The last was I, that felt thy tyranny:
O, in the battle think on Buckingham,
And die in terror of thy guiltiness!

10

Dream on, dream on, of bloody deeds and death;
Fainting, despair; despairing, yield thy breath!-
I dy'd for hope', ere I could lend thee aid:
[To Richm.
But cheer thy heart, and be thou not dismay'd:
God and good angels fight on Richmond's side;
And Richard falls in height of all his pride.
[The Ghosts vanish,
[K. Richard starts out of his dream,
K. Rich. Give me another horse,bind up
my wounds,-
Have mercy, Jesu!-Soft; I did but dream.-

15

Ghost. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow! [To K, Rich. I, that was wash'd to death with fulsome wine, Poor Clarence, by thy guile betray'd to death! To-morrow in the battle think on me, And fall thy edgeless sword; despair, and die !Thou offspring of the house of Lancaster, [To Richm The wronged heirs of York do pray for thee; Good angels guard thy battle! Live, and flourish! 200 coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me!— Enter the Ghosts of Rivers, Grey, and Vaughan.{ Riv. Let me sit heavy on thy soul to-morrow [To K. Rich. Rivers, that dy'd at Pomfret; despair, and die! Grey. Think upon Grey, and let thy soul despair!25 [To K. Rich. Vaugh. Think upon Vaughan; and, with guilty fear, Let fall thy lance! despair, and die!

The lights burn blue.-Is it not dead midnight?
Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh.
What do I fear? myself? there's none else by:
Richard loves Richard: that is, I am I.
Is there a murd'rer here? No;-Yes; I am:
Then fly,--What, from myself? Great reason: Why?
Lest I revenge. What? Myself on myself?
I love myself. Wherefore? for any good,
That I myself have done unto myself?
300, no; alas! I rather hate myself,

For hateful deeds committed by myself,
I am a villain: Yet I lye, I am not.
Fool, of thyself speak well :-Fool, do not flatter.
My conscience hath a thousand several tongues,
35 And every tongue brings in a several tale,
And every tale condemns me for a villain.
Perjury, perjury, in the highest degree,
Murder, stern murder, in the dir'st degree;
All several sins, all us'd in each degree,
Throng to the bar, crying all,-Guilty! guilty!
I shall despair,-There is no creature loves me;
And, if I die, no soul shall pity me:-

Nay, wherefore should they? since that I myself
Find in myself no pity to myself.

45

Methought, the souls of all that I had murder'd
Came to my tent; and every one did threat
To-morrow's vengeance on the head of Richard.
Enter Ratcliff.
Rat. My lord,-
K. Rich. Who's there?

Rat. My lord, 'tis I: The early village cock
Hath twice done salutation to the morn;
Your friends are up, and buckle on their armour.
K. Rich. O, Ratcliff, I have dream'd a fearful
dream!-
What thinkest thou? will our friends prove all
Rat. No doubt, my lord.
[true?
[dows.

K. Rich, Ratcliff, I fear, I fear,-
Rat. Nay, good my lord, be not afraid of sha-
K. Rich. By the apostle Paul, shadows to-night
Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard,
Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers,
Armed in proof, and led by shallow Richmond.

And in a bloody battle end thy days!
Think on lord Hastings; and despair, and die!-
Quiet untroubled soul, awake, awake! [ToRichm. 40
Arm, fight, and conquer, for fair England's sake!
Enter the Ghosts of the two Young Princes.
Ghosts. Dream on thy cousins smother'd in the
Tower!

Let us be lead within thy bosom, Richard,
[To K. Rich.
And weigh thee down to ruin, shame, and death!
Thy nephews' souls bid thee despair, and die.-
Sleep, Richmond, sleep in peace, and wake in
joy;
[To Richm. 50
Good angels guard thee from the boar's annoy!
Live, and beget a happy race of kings!
Edward's unhappy sons do bid thee flourish.
Enter the Ghost of Lady Anne.
Ghost. Richard, thy wife, that wretched Anne 55
thy wife,
[To K, Rich.
That never slept a quiet hour with thee,
Now fills thy sleep with perturbations:
To-morrow in the battle think on me,
And fall thy edgeless sword; despair, and die!-60
Thou, quiet soul, sleep thou a quiet sleep;
[To Richm

Dream of success and happy victory;

i. e. I died for wishing well to you.

It

It is not yet near day. Come, go with me
Under our tents; I'll play the eaves-dropper,
To hear, if any mean to shrink from me.
[Exeunt K. Richard, and Ratcliff
Richmond wakes. Enter Oxford, and others.
Lords. Good morrow, Richmond, [men,

Richm. 'Cry mercy, lords, and watchful gentle-
That you have ta'en a tardy sluggard here.
Lords. How have you slept, my lord?

[book,

K. Rich. Then he disdains to shine; for, by the

Richm. The sweetest sleep, and fairest-boding 10 He should have brav'd the east an hour ago:
dreams,
A black day it will be to somebody.-
Ratcliff,

•—

K. Rich. He said the truth: And what said Surrey then? [pose. Rat. He smil'd and said, the better for our purK.Rich. He was i' the right; and so, indeed, it is, 5 Tell the clock there.-Give me a kalendar.[Clock strikes.

That ever enter'd in a drowsy head,
Have I since your departure had, my lords, [der'd,
Methought, their souls, whose bodies Richard mur-
Came to my tent, and cry'd-On! victory!
I promise you, my heart is very jocund
In the remembrance of so fair a dream,
How far into the morning is it, lords?
Lords. Upon the stroke of four.
Richm, Why, then 'tis time to arm, and give 20
direction. [He advances to the troops.
More than I have said, loving countrymen,
The leisure and enforcement of the time
Forbids to dwell upon; Yet remember this,—
God and our good cause fight upon our side;
The prayers of holy saints, and wronged souls,
Like high-rear'd bulwarks, stand before our faces;
Richard except, those, whom we fight against,
Had rather have us win, than him they follow.
For what is he they follow truly, gentlemen,
A bloody tyrant, and a homicide;
One rais'd in blood, and one in blood establish'd;
One that made means to come by what he hath,
And slaughter'd those that were the means to help
A base foul stone, made precious by the foil [him: 35
Of England's chair, where he is falsely set;
One that hath ever been God's enemy:
Then, if you fight against God's enemy,
God will, in justice, ward you as his soldiers:
If you do sweat to put a tyrant down,
You sleep in peace, the tyrant being slain:
If you do fight against your country's focs,
Your country's fat shall pay your pains the hire;
If you do fight in safeguard of your wives,
Your wives shall welcome home the conquerors;
If you do free your children from the sword,
Your children's children quit it in your age.
Then, in the name of God, and all these rights,
Advance your standards, draw your willing swords:
For me, the ransom of my hold attempt
Shall be this cold corpse on the earth's cold face;
But if I thrive, the gain of my attempt-
The least of you shall share his part thereof,
Sound, drums and trumpets, boldly and cheerfully:
God, and Saint George! Richmond, and victory! 55
[Exeunt.

Re-enter King Richard, Ratcliff, &c. K. Rich. What said Northumberland, as touching Richmond?

Rat. That he was never trained up in arms.

Who saw the sun to-day?

Rat. Not I, my lord.

Rat. My lord!

K. Rich, The sun will not be seen to-day;
15 The sky doth frown and lour upon our army.
I would, these dewy tears were from the ground.
Not shine to-day! Why, what is that to me,
More than to Richmond? for the self-same heaven,
That frowns on me, looks sadly upon him.
Enter Norfolk.

Nor. Arm, arm, my lord; the foe vaunts in the
field.
[horse :-
K. Rich. Come, bustle, bustle;-Caparison my
Call up lord Stanley, bid him bring his power:―
25I will lead forth my soldiers to the plain,
And thus my battle shall be ordered.
My foreward shall be drawn out all in length,
Consisting equally of horse and foot;
Our archers shall be placed in the midst:
30 John duke of Norfolk, Thomas earl of Surrey,
Shall have the leading of this foot and horse.
They thus directed, we will follow

In the main battle; whose puissance on either side
Shall be well winged with our chiefest horse.
This, and Saint George to boot!-what think'st
thou, Norfolk?

Nor. A good direction, warlike sovereign.— This found I on my tent this morning.

[Giving a scrowl. 40 K.Rich.Jocky of Norfolk, be not too bold, [Reads. For Dickon thy master is bought and sold. A thing devised by the enemy.— Go, gentlemen, every man unto his charge: Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls; 45 For conscience is but a word that cowards use, Devis'd at first to keep the strong in awe; Our strong arms be our conscience,swords our law. March on, join bravely, let us to 't pell-mell; If not to heaven, then hand in hand to hell.

50

5

What shall I say more than I have inferr'd?
Remember whom you are to cope withal;
A sort of vagabonds, rascals, and run-aways,
A scum of Brittains, and base lackey peasants,
Whom their o'er-cloyed country vomits forth
To desperate ventures and assur'd destruction.
You sleeping safe, they bring you to unrest;
You having lands, and blest with beauteous wives,
They would distrain the one, distain the other.
And who doth lead them, but a paltry fellow,
160 Long kept in Brittaine❝ at our brother's cost?"

3 Tu

1 To make means, in our author's time, always signified-to come at any thing by indirect practices. ? Saint George was the common cry of the English soldiers when they charged the enemy. boot here would seem to mean to help. The ancient abbreviation of `Richard, i, e. a company, Bretagne.

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