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8. Committee on Pedagogics.
9. Committee on Moral Education.
10. Committee on School Sanitation, Hygiene, and Physical Training.
11. Committee on Psychological Inquiry.
12. Committee on Educational Reports and Statistics.

ARTICLE V.-DUTIES OF STANDING COMMITTEES. The Committees of the Council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the same ; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.

Whenever called upon, the Committees shall continue the deliberative work of the Association on topics assigned to them, or prepare questions to be submitted to that body.

It shall be the duty of the Standing Committees to observe the new educational experiments and original investigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and report the same from time to time to the President of the Council.


The members of the Council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the Committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the Council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the Chairman of the Committee.

Meeting of Committees for Special Work. A half day at each annual session shall be set apart for “Round Table” discussions, and each Standing Committee may conduct its own meeting separately, inviting, at its pleasure, experts, original investigators or other persons to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.

ARTICLE VII.-DUTIES OF THE CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES. The Chairman of each Committee shall communicate the questions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his Committee, and send them such other communi. cations as may assist them in their work. He shall arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the Secretary of the Council of the progress made by his Committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his Committee, arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his Committee, are promptly forwarded. He shall state distinctly (in the form of questions, when feasible) the topics on which he desires to have a brief expression of opinion from the members of his Committee, and embody the substance of their answers in his report.

ARTICLE VIII.—THE WORK OF THE COMMITTEES. The work of the Committees of the Council shall be carried on in the regular meetings provided for above, and in such special meetings as can be arranged from time to time, according to the pleasure of the Committee, and principally in writing, by an exchange of briefly expressed opinions. It shall be the duty of each Chairman to devise a plan for the latter. Each member may be required to report on a part of the subject; or the whole topic may be submitted to each member, together with the opinion of the other members that have considered the topic before.


It shall be the duty of the Council to further the objects of the National Association, and to use its best efforts to promote the cause of education in general. The Council shall assign work to each Committee, and receive a report on the same; it shall cause to be published such reports of Committees, or part of the same, as in its judgment should be brought to general notice ; it shall present, through the President of the Council, an annual report of its work to the National Educational. Association.

Arrangement of Annual Programme. The President, in making up the annual programme of exercises, may select any of the twelve Standing Committees which will, in his opinion, prepare work for the ('ouncil of the most timely and vital character, and he shall not be limited in his choice by considerations of routine.

The Committee thus reporting may introduce before the Council such specialists, experts, original investigators or inventors of new methods as they may deem essential to present effectively their subject matter before the Council for discussion.

ARTICLE X.-AMENDMENTS. This Constitution may be altered or amended, at a regular meeting of the Council, by a two-thirds vote of the members present, and any provision may be waived at any regular meeting, by unanimous consent.

By-laws, not in violation of this Constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the Council.


1. Each active member of the Council shall pay annually two dollars, to defray the expenses of the Council.

2. The Secretary shall act as Treasurer of the Council.





The National Teachers' Association was organized at Philadelphia, Pa., 1857. James L. Enos, of lowa, was chosen chairman, and Wm. E. Sheldon, of Massachu. setts, secretary.




Treasurers. 1. Cincinnati, O... .1858.. Z. Richards, D. C......J. W. Bulkley, N. Y... A. J. Rickoff, Ohio. 2. Washington, D. C....1859.. A. J. Rickoff, Ohio .J. W. Bulkley, N. Y...C. S. Pennell, Mo. 3. Buffalo, N. Y...... 1860..J. W. Bulkley, N. Y......Z. Richards, D. C......0. C. Wight, D.C.

No sessions in 1861 and 1862. 4. Chicago, II..... 1863..J. D. Philbrick, Mass....J. Cruikshank, N. Y...0. C. Wight, D. C. 5. Ogdensburg, N. Y....1864..W. H. Wells, III.... .D. N. Camp, Conn.....Z. Richards, D. C. 6. Harrisburg, Pa. ..1865..S. S. Greene, R. I. W. E. Sheldon, Mass... Z. Richards, D. C. 7. Indianapolis, Ind. ... 1866..J. P. Wickersham, Pa....S. H. White, III... ....S. P. Bates, Pa.

No session in 1867. 8. Nashville, Tenn.. 1868..J. M. Gregory, Mich.... L. Van Bokelen, Md...J. Cruikshank, N. Y. 9. Trenton, N. J ........1869..L. Van Bokelen, Md. W. E. Crosby, Ohio....A. L. Barber, D. C. 10. Cleveland, O......... 1870..D. B. Hugar, Mass.......A. P. Marble, Mass ....W.E. Crosby, Ohio. 11. St. Louis, Mo.... ....1871..J. L. Pickard, Ill.... W. E. Croshy, Ohio....John Hancock, Ohio. 12. Boston, Mass..... 1872..E. E. White, Ohio... ....S. H. White, m..... ..John Hancock, Ohio. 13. Elmira, N. Y.. 1873..B. G. Nor:hrop, Conn....S. H. White, II. John Hancock, Ohio. 14. Detroit, Mich.. 1874..S. H. White, Ill... ..A. P. Marble, Mass ...John Hancock, Ohio. 15. Minneapolis, Minn.. .1875.. W. T. Harris, Mo... W. R. Abbot, Va. A. P. Marble, Mass. 16. Baltimore, Md.. 1876..W. F. Phelps, Minn. W. D. Henkle, Ohio....A. P. Marble, Mass. 17. Louisville, Ky 1877. .M. A. Newell, Md... ....W. D. Henkle, Ohio....J. O. Wilson, D. C.

No session in 1878. 18. Philadelphia, Pa......1879..John Hancock, Ohio,....W. D. Henkle, Ohio....J. O. Wilson, D. C. 19. Chautauqua, N. Y....1880..J. O. Wilson, D. C.......W. D. Henkle, Ohio. ...E. T. Tappan, Ohio. 20. Atlanta, Ga.... 1881..Jas. H. Smart, Ind.. W. D. Henkle, Ohio. E. T. Tappan, Ohio. 21. Saratoga Springs. 1882.. Gustavus Orr, Ga.. W. E. Sheldon, Mass...H. S. Tarbell, Ind. 22. Saratoga Spa. 1883. . Eli T. Tappan, Ohio .....W. E. Sheldon, Mass...N. A. Calkins, N. Y. 23. Madison, Wis. .1884..T. W. Bicknell, Mass..... .H. S. Tarbell, R. I......N. A. Calkins, N. Y. 24. Saratoga Spa... 1885. F. L. Soldan, Mo.... W. E. Sheldon, Mass...N. A. Calkins, N. Y. 25. Topeka, Kan. 1886..N. A. Calkins, N.Y. W. E. Sheldon, Mass...E. C. Hewett, ml. 26. Chicago, III. 1887..W. E. Sheldon, Mass....Jas. H. Canfield, Kan..E. C. Hewett, I). 27. San Francisco, Cal...1888..Aaron Gove, Col...... .Jas. H. Canfield, Kan.. E. C. Hewett, Ill. 28. Nashville, Tenn...... 1989..A. P. Marble, Mass.. ..Jas. H. Canfield, Kan..E. C. Hewett, III. 29. St. Paul, Minn.. 1890..Jas. H. Canfield, Kan W. R. Garrett, Tenn... E. C. Hewett, Ill. 30. Toronto, Can... 1891.. W. R. Garrett, Tenn.. .E. H. Cook, NJ..... .J. M. Greenwood, Mo. 31. Saratoga Springs. .1892..E. H. Cook, N. J. .R. W. Stevenson, Kan..J. M. Greenwood, Mo.


Organizatior, 1857, Philadelphia, Pa.-Lecture by Prof. Wm. Russell, of Massachusetts : “The Objects and Demands for a National Teachers' Association.” FIRST ANNUAL MEETING, Cincinnati, O., 1858. Z. RICHARDS, D. C., President.

The President's Inaugural Address—“ Mission of the Association." “The Educational Tendencies and Progress for the Past Thirty Years." By Prof.

Daniel Read, of Wisconsin University. "The Laws of Nature." By Prof. John Young, N. W. Christian University, Ind. “Moral Education." By Supt. J. D. Philbrick, of Mass. " The Teacher's Motives." By Hon. Horace Mann, Mass. Discussions : “Parochial Schools."

SECOND ANNUAL MEETING, Washington, D. C., 1859. A. J. RICKOFF, Ohio,

President. The President's Inaugural Address. “The Importance of Civil Polity as a branch of Popular Education.” By Prof.

Daniel Read, of Wisconsin University. The Place Christianity should Occupy in American Education..” By Elbridge

Smith, Norwich, Conn. “Errors in the Agencies in the Pursuit of Knowledge.” By Rev. J. N. McJil

ton, Md.

“Suggestions on Popular Education." Mr. H. L. Stuart, N. Y. “Condition of Education in Mexico." By J. Escobar, Mexico. Resolutions on the death of Hon. Horace Mann, and on The Place of Christian

Religion in Public Schools.

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THIRD ANNUAL MEETING, Buffalo, N. Y., 1860. J. W. BULKLEY, N. Y., Presi

dent. The President's Inaugural Address—" Objects and Mission of the National Teachers'

Association." “The Scholarship of Shakespeare." By Prof. Edward North, Hamilton Col., N. Y. Our Professional Ancestry." By Prof. Richard Edwards, St. Louis, Mo. “ The Philosophy of Education." By Supt. W. H. Wells, Chicago, Ill. The Study of Matter and the Progress of Man.” By Prof. Edward L. Youmans,

N. Y. “The Teacher and her Work." By Mr. John Kneeland, Boston, Mass. The Special Educational Wants of our Country.” By J. W. Hoyt, Wis. “ The National Importance of the Teacher's Profession." By Rev. J. N. McJilton,

Baltimore, Md. “ The Gods.” A Poem. By Anson G. Chester, Buffalo, N. Y. Reports of Committees : First, on School Statistics,” by Prof. C. S. Pennell,

Mo.; and, second, on a "Phonetic Alphabet,” by Z. Richards, D. C. 1861 and 1862.—No meetings.

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FOURTH MEETING, Chicago, Ill., 1863. J. D. PHILBRICK, Mass., President.

The President's Inaugural Address—“The Nature and Objects of this Association." “ The Bearings of Popular Education on Civilization.” By Mr. T. D. Adams,

Mass. “ The Causes of Failure and Success in the Office of Teacher." By Prof. E. A.

Grant, of Ky. · Philosophy and Methods in Education.” By Supt. J. M. Gregory, Mich. “School Gymnastics." By S. W. Mason, Boston, Mass. “The Teacher as an Artist.” By Z. Richards, Washington, D. C. The Powers to be Educated.” By Dr. Thomas Hill, Mass. Object Teaching." By Supt. E. A. Sheldon, Oswego, N. Y. The Organization of Primary Schools.” By Mr. Wm. E. Crosby, Ohio. Competitive Examination for Admission to West Point.” By Dr. H. Barnard,

Conn. “The Union of Labor and Thought.” By Supt. J. L. Pickard, Wis. FIFTH MEETING, Ogdensburg, N. Y., 1864. Wm. H. WELLS, III., President.

The President's Address—“ Educational Advancement.” “Should a Professor of Didactics be Employed in Every Principal College ?” By

Dr. Thomas Hill. Read by Supt. J. D. Philbrick, Mass. “Object Teaching." By Dr. H. B. Wiltur, Syracuse, N. Y. “ Teachers' Associations.” By J. W. Bulkley, Brooklyn, N. Y. "Liberal Education." By Supt. S. P. Bates, Pa.

National Bureau of Education.” By Prof. S. H. White, Ill. Competitive Examination for Public Service." By Dr. H. Barnard, Conn. RESOLUTIONS : First, That, in the opinion of this Association, the educational

interests of our country would be greatly advanced by the establishment of

a Bureau of Education. Second, That a committee of three be appointed, whose duty it shall be to secure,

if possible, the establishment of such an agency at Washington during the next session of Congress ; and also to report the results of their action at the next meeting of the Association, with their views upon the subject of a National Board of Education, and the appointment of a Secretary of Public

Instruction. A committee was appointed for the purpose of carrying out the resolutions, consisting of Messrs. H. Barnard, Z. Richards, and S. H. White. SIXTH MEETING, Harrisburg, Pa., 1865. S. S. GREENE, Providence, R. I.,

President, The President's Address- The Educational Duties of the Hour : a National

System of Education." “On the Power of the Teacher.” By Supt. W. N. Barringer, N. J. “ Distinctive Characteristics of Normal Schools." By Prof. Richard Edwards, Ili. “ The Best Method of Teaching the Classics.” By Prof. Albert Harkness, R. I.

Common place Books.” By Prof. James D. Butler, Wis. “Object Teaching." Report of a Committee. By Prof. S. S. Greene, R. I. A National Bureau of Education.” By Supt. A. J. Rickoff, Ohio. “ Education as an Element in the Reconstruction of the Union.” By Supt. J. P.

Wickersham, Pa. SEVENTH MEETING, Indianapolis, Ind., 1866. J. P. WICKERSHAM, Pa., President. The President's Inaugural Address, on “ American Education for the American



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