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PAPAL DESTRUCTION OF CLASSICAL MANUSCRIPTS. SHAKESPEARE'S ARCADEACON OF BANGOR.

Pope Gregory VII. is accused by Machiavel and by A clever genealogist has lately been examining into Cardan of destroying a manuscript of Varro, then ex- my pedigree, which is one of the oldest of the Welsh tant in the library of the Vatican. The reason given descents, and collating it with others; and, amongst the for this illiberal conduct is as strange as the deed itself. rest, with that in Lewys Dwnn's Heraldic Visitation of The Pope, they say, having discovered that St. Augus- / Wales, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, and printed by tine had made a very free use of the inedited part of that distinguished antiquary, Sir Samuel Rush Mera that learned Roman's work, chose rather to burn the rick. He who is curious in such matters will find original than that his favourite polemic should be con- it in vol. II. page 290 (North Wales), and at the bottom victed of plagiarism. Several other classical manu- of the left hand page, thus headed — Yr ach yma oedd scripts, having been confounded with that of Varro, are yr gyntaf yn yr hên llyfr, i.e., This Pedigree was the supposed to have perished by the same barbarous hand, first in the old Book. This pedigree, though incomplete,

Gregory, notwithstanding the conceited sanctity of his is one of the fullest and longest in the book. The lineal last words _“I have loved righteousness, and I have descent from Jestyn ap Gwrgant, King of Glamorgan, hated iniquity, therefore I die in exile," had been the whose arms I bear ; down to Davidd Vangor, i.e. most ambitious and imperious of prelates. He wrote David of Bangor, is clearly shewn, and is corroborated to Henry the Fourth of Germany, “I wish I may by old Welsh Manuscripts and other authorities. perish if I do not deprive you of life and empire !" The This David of Bangor, the Dean, is named by Browne people of Sardinia having hesitated as to paying the Willis, David Daron; and, it is said, that in his house exactions of the Holy See, this meek servant of the at Bangor, that scheme of resistance was concerted, servants of God threatened their extermination in these which caused so much disquietude to King Henry the words, “ I will stir up against you the Normans and the Fourth. It is also said, that my ancestor, David Daron, Lombards who shall waste your island with fire and whose eldest son is styled Davidd Vilwr, i.e. David the sword.On another occasion, this same Pontiff expressed soldier (he married Jane, daughter and heiress of Black to his legate in Spain similar sentiments, “ I had rather David, the son of David Wynne, the son of Red Evan of that the whole country were overrun by the Saracens, Powys), was outlawed in 1406, for his complicity with than possessed by wretched Christians who refuse ho-Owain Glyndwr. He is, beyond all doubt, “the Archmage to the Holy Church.” He had proposed to unite deacon" of Shakespeare, in whose house Hotspur, Worall Christendom against the Saracens, but died at Salerno cester, Mortimer, and Glendower meet. See First Part in 1087, after having kindled a lasting flame throughout of King Henry the Fourth, Act III., sc. 1. Europe.

Shakespeare, it would seem, had erroneously styled

him Archdeacon, or, he might have been Archdeacon, as WAYSIDE CROSSES.

well as Dean. If any of your antiquarian friends can

throw light upon this matter, and upon the conduct During a recent ramble in France, I observed fre

and history of David Daron, the Dean; as well as upon quently small crosses of wood, roughly fashioned, placed

the manner and term of his outlawry, they will confer on the mound, at the foot of the wayside crosses. These,

a very great favour upon me. I am not a notorietyI concluded, were memorials or offerings deposited there

monger, and, at the same time, I have no wish for con. by the worshippers from the adjacent villages, or, may cealment. You are at liberty to make known to any hap, by the passer by; if so, it appeared to me as being gentleman desiring information, my name, and conan interesting and peculiar custom among the many dition, or to send him a copy of my arms, etc. errors and superstitions of the Romish Church.

RICHARD AP DavidD DARON. I should be glad to know if I am correct in my con North Wales, Jan. 19. jecture; and if not, to be set right. Torrington Square, Jan. 5.

R. P.

Frederick the Great, while reviewing some troops,

observed a soldier with the scar of a deep cut across the RUSSIA SUBSIDIZED BY ENGLAND.

cheek. The king asked him, “At what ale-house did Elizabeth Empress of Russia, by a Treaty in 1755, with

you get that scratch ?" "At Cöslin, please your MaKing George II., was to receive, for ten years, a subsidy

jesty, where your Majesty paid the reckoning," was the of 60,0001., during which time the Empress was to main

| prompt reply. How many are now in the same condition, tain, ready for the service of Great Britain, 73,450 men;

but who has to pay the reckoning has yet to be seen? it was further provided, that should they be actually employed in the field, the subsidy was to be augmented

The Fifth volume of Current Notes, with Index, in to 500,0001., per annum, but the troops were to be paid

extra cloth boards, uniform with the prior volumes ; may by Russia. What will the year 1955 produce ?

now be had, price TOREE SHILLINGS.

The present number being the commencement of a new

year, Subscribers are respectfully reminded that their subE. PHILPOT, Lyme Regis, is respectfully referred to scription for the forthcoming twelve months which are now Current Notes, 1853, p. 90.

due, can be forwarded in Postage Stamps.

No. LXII.]

“ Takes note of what is done-
By note, to give and to receive."-SHAKESPEARE.

[FEBRUARY, 1856.

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GREAT OYER OF POISONING.

observation, seeing that of all others, from the position of the murderers, the distinction of their characters, the malevolence of the conspiracy, and the range it was in purpose to have taken, it has no eqnal in history, neither before or since the perpetration of that diabolical deed.

The volume bearing the above title, embodies much that has not hitherto been printed, nor have the original papers been perused, or used by the historians of the reign of James the First, who seems to have been the presiding spirit of every bad quality, and by the subserviency of men, whose education should have embued them with more independence of character, many most disgraceful traits occur, simply from the reason to court his favour, and impose upon his weakness. The Howards of that day appear to have largely partaken of the royal patronage, and to have been utterly unworthy. The marriage of Lady Frances Howard with Robert D'Evreux, Earl of Essex ; the bridegroom but fourteen years of age, and the bride not more than thirteen, has been celebrated in history by Ben Jonson's highly poetical espousal drama, the Masque of Hymen. This was the first characteristical event in a long series of incidents, all tending to an unexampled career of guilty enjoyment, magnificence, crime, and degradation. Her intrigues, young as she was, were continued in such a reckless course, that she seemed to be abandoned to all sense of shame. She intrigued with Prince Henry, and her general wantonness became so flagrant, that even he retired from her in disgust. As a woman

thwarted in her object she appears to have breathed SIR THOMAS OVERBURY, KNIGHT, ÆTAT. XXXII. revenge, and according to the admission of Anne TurAt a period when the public attention is arrested by

ner, whose conduct was more menorable subsequently, the numerous accusations against individuals for having

the Prince was deprived of affording the Countess of insidiously exercised their skill in dispensing deadly

Essex further provocation, by poisoned grapes at Woodlpoisons to their kindred and wives ; the case of Sir

stock. Thomas Overbury occurs to excite our most particular

Robert Carr, a countryman of King James, became the favourite of the monarch, and disgusting as in all

particulars that connexion appears to have been, the *The Trial of the Earl of Somerset, for the poisoning of Countess, and her uncle, Henry Howard, Earl of Sir Thomas Overbury; edited by Andrew Amos, Esq., late Northampton, recognised in him the means of their further member of the Supreme Council of India ; Recorder of advancement, no matter by what crimes it was achie ed, Nottingham, Oxford, and Banbury ; Auditor and Fellow of and these conspiracies would seem to have been conTrinity College, Cambridge, etc., with portraits, 8vo., I trived at the now Northumberland House, in the Strand. pp. 552. The work recently published by Mr. Bentley, at FOURTEEN SHILLINGS, having become the property of Messrs. Willis and Sotheran, has been by them reduced in When the widow of Sir Walter Raleigh supplicated the price to Four SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE.

king's mercy, and implored him to restore to her and The woodcut is from a print engraved by Reginald her children Raleigh's forfeited estate of Sherborne Castle, Elstracke, shortly after Sir Thomas Overbury's death; it is with brutish feeling he denied her the boon, exclaimingof such extreme rarity, that at General Dowdeswell's sale, | “I mun have it for Carr.” If this fact cannot pass in the Sir Mark M. Sykes purchased an impression for fifty pounds, present day without exciting indignation, what must have On the dispersion of the Sykes' collection, Woodburn was been the feeling produced by this atrocious act on the conthe buyer at seventy-four guineas.

temporaries of Raleigh and Carr ? VOL. VI.

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It was proposed to sue for a divorce between the Countess, by the hands of Mrs. Turner, with the positive knowand the Earl of Essex, and to effect a marriage between ledge of Lord Rochester, and the connivance of the her and this satellite of kingly adoption - King James Governor Elwes. These poisons, however, operated but not only sanctioned the proceedings, but impatiently slowly, and Rochester, in his frequent visits to the urged them on, and dictated their final conclusion. The Countess of Essex at her lodgings in Whitehall, having Countess, notwithstanding the flagrancy of her conduct, access thereto by a straight long gallery from St. James's protested her innocence, and the jury of matrons who Park,* frequently complained of the delay, and expressed were employed on the occasion were deluded by the sub- doubts whether Weston was not playing the knave, and stitution of the daughter of Sir Thomas Mounson, who forgetting to execute his part? The eight several being thickly veiled eluded the detection of her identity. poisons which were administered to Overbury, were first The divorce took place, but Overbury, who knew her given as a powder to renovate his health, and afterwards infamous bearings, and appears to have been the suc- introduced in jellies and tarts. Mayerne, the king's cessful director of Carr in his onward course, and to physician, was induced to send Overbury medicine, being have really entertained a true friendship for him, endea- then, as stated, in a consumption, and to have been invoured in every possible way to prevent the marriage- nocently made the tool of the parties by commending one that has no equal on record, as having been followed as medical attendant, one Paul de Lobell, an apotheby consequences in which morality, law, and religion cary dwelling in Lime-street, near the Tower. This were so greatly outraged for the indulgence of guilty | latter, for the sum of twenty pounds, administered a and impetuous passions.

clyster, on Sept. 14th,f that ended all anxieties Overbury was, by all the parties, considered as an on the part of the persons involved in the guilty transimpediment to the marriage-how to get rid of him was action. I Sir Thomas Overbury, already prostrated by the subject of many consultations. It was proposed to the frequent appliance of the poison, which Weston involve him in a quarrel with one of the courtiers, and affirmed to have been sufficient to destroy twenty other thus obtain his imprisonment. There were none who men, was a mass of sores, and reduced to skin and bone, would quarrel with him, and the scheme failed. Sir expired about five o'clock in the morning of Wednesday, Davie Wood, in some proceeding, had sought Carr's Sept. 15, 1613, and was buried in the body of the choir interest, and he consented, provided Overbury should be of the church within the Tower, between three and four a sharer with him ; this failed, and Sir Davie imbibedp.m. on that day. Rochester was created Earl of a hatred of Overbury, who he considered was the sole Somerset in November following, and their marriage took cause of his non-success. The Countess, aware of this place on St. Stephen's day, with unexampled pomp. ill-feeling, sought, under the promise of one thousand Murder may for a time be hidden from mortal ken, pounds, to induce Wood to effect Overbury's assassi- but some unforeseen circumstance generally uplifts the nation. Sir Davie accepted the terms, but required a veil, and discloses the villainy. The assertion that Sir surety from Lord Rochester of a pardon from the Thomas Overbury had been poisoned obtained sufficient king for the act; but as Carr could not ensure that notice, that the individuals concerned were at length instrument, Wood prudently declined proceeding. To charged with criminality, but not till after the death of poison Overbury was next determined, but the depriving the Earl of Northampton, he who had been the main him of liberty was essential to its accomplishment. contriver, and possibly suggested the poisons, and their Overbury was, by Carr's instigation, appointed to a mode of application. He died June 15, 1614, and ministerial appointment abroad; and he treacherously escaped a deservedly ignominious fate. Weston was induced Overbury to refuse it; for this, the latter was charged in the indictment with having administered to on April 21, 1613, committed “ for contempt” to the Overbury certain poisons severally named, between Tower. Sir William Waad, the governor, was dismissed May 9 and September 14; this last was not proved, under the pretext of unfitness, by having permitted the but Weston, Franklin, Elwes, and Anne Turner, all Lady Arabella Stuart a key to enlarge the limits of her perished by the hand of the hangman; their trials are range in the Tower; and succeeded by Sir Gervase embodied in this volume, and divulge astounding facts! Elwes, who “ bled” to the tune of 20001. for the place, besides a compliance with conduct required of him; and * Through this same“ straight long gallery” Charles the the gaoler, who had the care of Sir Thomas Overbury, First passed to Whitehall on the morning of his execution, was also moved to make way for Richard Weston, who January 30, 1649. had been by the Countess specially commended to that! + The charge, though urged against Weston, was not estab-1 appointment. All this was accomplished in the brief lislied, nor did Lobell, a Frenchman, appear in the affair ; space of fifteen days, and the poisoning was commenced

the clyster was administered by Lobell's assistant, William on the 9th of May; all intercourse was denied to the

Reeve, who was sent to Paris immediately afterwards, by

: | Lobell, senior, to be out of reach of enquiry, and the fact unhappy victim of their vengeance, and the particulars

| transpired years after, on the confession of Reeve. detailed in the volume are most appalling. The poison

Their satiety in Overbury's blood was not sufficient for was supplied by James Franklin, a physician, " then | their resentment. Franklin and Turner, both spoke of dwelling on the back side of the Exchange," and taken other persons who were to have been poisoned by the instito the Countess by Anne Turner, the widow of “a Dr. gation of the Earl and Countess; among them were the Turner." From the Countess they passed to Weston, ' Princess Elizabeth and the Palsgrave Frederic.

as to their depravity of character, and the condition to

PARC-AN-CHAPEL, CAPE CORNWALL. which each had been brought by the gold and chicanery! Whilst engaged in collecting materials for the work of both the Earl and the Countess.

on the Crosses and Antiquities in the West of Cornwall, At length the Countess was tried on May 24, 1616, referred to in the last number of Current Notes, I had she pleaded guilty, but hoped for mercy; and being occasion to visit Cape Cornwall in quest of the ruins of pregnant, had determined not to perish on the scaffold, an ancient chapel said to be still there; these I found but to accomplish her own death by the placing of a wet with little difficulty, the spot being well known to many towel upon the abdomen after being delivered of the persons in the neighbourhood. In the west of Cornwall infant.* The Earl was tried on the following day, but are remains of many similar structures, a list and the denied all; his peers, however, found him guilty. localities of which will be found in the work above James, who had sworn to pardon no one implicated in mentioned. the affair, yet pardoned them ; the new favorite, George Villiers, extinguished every idea of Somerset's return to favour, and he lived unpitied and contemned.

At the present time, the Great Oyer of Poisoning possesses unusual importance. The evidence in all these cases has been legally investigated; the asserted great luminaries of the law, Coke and Bacon, in their characters, are here shewn to be contemptible parasites, the minions of a base monarch, and to have entertained few higher sentiments, or notions of honour, than their own advantage. The evidence of opinion, and every matter, The woodcut represents the ruins of the chapel at Cape that has arisen in other cases of atrocity, particularly Cornwall; the two walls on the north side, and the east those of poisoning, are all here carefully canvassed and end. The doorway, like that of Madron 'Well Chapel, considered. Documents, highly important, and unpub- is on the northern side: it is two feet wide, and five feet lished, discovered in the State Paper Office, enrich the high; and near the east end of the same wall, is a materials in profusion, and are edited with an aptitude small window, two feet wide. that increases their value.

In the east end, which is between six and seven feet

high, is a comparatively large window, measuring on CAMOENS.—The newspapers notice the death of Sir the inside six feet in width; but it is less on the outThomas Livingston Mitchell, D.C.L., Surveyor-General side. The eastern part of the side, as seen in the of New South Wales, at Sydney, on the 5th of October woodcut, was faced with hewn stone, no doubt denoting last, aged 64. He had held this appointment for more the length of the chancel. On the south side all that than a quarter of a century; and the inhabitants testi- remains is the foundation. A modern building for fied their respect for him by a public funeral.

cattle has been erected at the extremity of the northern When, in 1853, he came to England for the last wall, and on my last visit to the spot, I found the time, he brought with him, for publication, a transla- eastern part of the chapel covered in, and used for a tion of the whole of the Lusiad of Camoens. He had similar purpose. served in his youth, it appears, in the Peninsula, and Externally, the length of the building is thirty-two was inspired with an ardent love for the poetry of feet, the width twelve feet. On the north side are Camoens, in consequence of an accidental visit to the remains of a wall which seems to have formed a celebrated Fount of Tears, in the vicinity of Coimbra, circular enclosure around the chapel; this was the the scene of the murder of Dona Ignez de Castro. In chapel-yard, and it is remarkable that the boundary the preface, we are told, the translation was made in a wall of Madron Well Chapel was of a similar form. small clipper, during a long and tedious voyage round This building has been called or known as St. Helen's Cape Horn.

E. H. A. Oratory; and in a water course near the ruins was

found a small cross, supposed to have been the gable George Weare Braikenridge. Esq., F.S.A. and cross that formerly pertained to this structure; it has F.G.S., of Broomwell House, Brislington, near Bristol. | since been placed in the chancel of St. Just church.* died after a few days illness, on the 11th inst., in his Penzance, Feb. 14.

J. T. Bligut. eighty-first year. His collections for the History and The Rev. J. Buller, in his Account of St. Just's parish, Topography of the County of Somerset, are of the 1842, p. 45, alludes to this discovery in these words :most varied, extensive, and valuable character.

The cross which once embellished the little chapel is of

the rudest form, and was rescued a few years since by him • This infant was subsequently Anne, Countess of Bedford, who records the fact, from the artificial water-course which and mother of Lord William Russell, who expiated his passes near, in which it was immersed. hatred of the Stuarts by his execution in Lincoln's-Inn- It may now be seen preserved as a valuable relic in the Fields. Qu. Was the infant daughter of Somerset named chancel of the parish church, with a brass-plate denoting Anne in compliment to the Queen of James the First ? its ancient locality.

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PARO-AN-CHAPEL, CAPE CORNWALL.

MADRON BAPTISTERY AND WELL. The warlike tribes which in the earliest period of her Some additional particulars respecting Madron Well, history occupied Britain, appear to have seized on every with a detailed account of the rites observed by those spot of vantage ground to construct places of defence. who sought its healing waters, are given in ObservaIn many instances portions of the cliffs on the sea coast, tions on an Ancient Manuscript, entitled Passio Christi, accessible only on the land side, were by them converted written in the Cornish language, and now in the into strongholds, by artificial fortifications in that direc- Bodleian Library; with an account of the Language, tion. The bold promontory of Cape Cornwall affords Manners, and Customs of the people of Cornwall, by an example of this kind of fortress, or cliff castle. Three William Scawen, Esq., Vice-Warden of the Stannaries. parallel lines were constructed across the low neck of The paper will be found in Davies Gilbert's Parochial land by which it is approached; each had its ditch and History of Cornwall, Vol. iv. p. 190. The writer lived rampart; and was extended from cliff to cliff on either in the Stuart reigns, and was a prisoner under Shrubside. Between these lines some very old enclosures sall, the Parliamentarian Governor of Pendennis Castle. have been made, and the land cultivated; the spade Bodmin, February 6,

Thomas R. Couch. and the mattock have indeed, year after year, been so Of St. Mardren's Well, (which is a parish west to the busy with the old fortifications, that the casual visitor Mount) a fresh true story of two persons, both of them may pass through without observing them ; but he can- lame and decrepit, thus recovered from their infirmity. not well fail to see among these enclosures, a low roofless These two persons, after they had applied themselves to ruin, which on inspection will be found to have been divers physicians and chirurgeons for cure, and finding no erected with a considerable degree of care, at a distant success by them, they resorted to St. Mardren's Well, and period. The quoins and courses of the eastern portion according to the ancient custom, of which they had heard, of the building are of well cut granite; and in the

the same which was once in a year, to wit, on Corpus eastern gable are the remains of a comparatively large

Christi evening, to lay some small offering on the altar window, which in its internal display exhibits some

there, and to lie on the ground all night, drink of the

water there, and in the morning after, to take a good fine proportions.

draught more, and to take and carry away some of the The entrance to this ruin is by an arched doorway in water each of them in a bottle, at their departure. This the north wall, near the western end, and facing the course these two men followed, and within three weeks they Bristol Channel, or, if you like it-the Irish Sea. found the effect of it, and by degrees their strength

On the south side, near the western end, and in close increasing, were able to move themselves on crutches. connection, is another building that appears to have The year following, they took the same course, after which been erected at the same time. This, within a few they were able to go with the help of a stick; and at years, has been neatly roofed over with slate, and is length one of them, John Thomas, being a fisherman, was, used for the purposes of an outbuilding to the little farm

and is able at this day, to follow his fishing craft. The there. A small and rude enclosure nearly encircles

other, whose name was William Cork, was a soldier under the ruin. If the tenant, who lives in the cottage hard

the command of my kinsman, Colonel William Godolphin,

(as be has often told me) was able to perform his duty, and by, or any of his family who may happen to be working

died in the service of his majesty, King Charles the First. on the land, are asked the name of this spot, the en- But herewith take also this: one Mr. Hutchins, a person quirer will be told-Parc-an-Chapel, or the Chapel in well known in those parts, and now lately dead, being the Field. He may also hear, that whilst the church parson of Ludgvan, å near neighbouring parish' to St. at St. Just was some years since being restored under Mardren's Well, he observing that many of his parishioners the inspection of the Rev. J. Buller, then vicar, he often frequented this well superstitiously, for which he caused to be conveyed thither from this locality, a cross

reproved them privately, and sometimes publicly in his that belonged to the chapel.

sermons ; but afterwards, he the said Mr. Hutchins, I cannot undertake to say there may not have been

meeting with a woman coming from the well with a bottle another Parc-an-Chapel hereabouts, and now destroyed;

| in her hand, desired her earnestly that he might drink or, that I may have been misinformed as to the name

thereof, being then troubled with cholical pains, which

accordingly he did, and was eased of bis infirmity. of the ruin here described; but as a ruin, I believe, it is

The latter story is a full confutation of the former for if still extant.

the taking the water accidentally thus prevailed upon the Exon, February 1.

H. A. C. | party to his cure, as it is likely it did, then the miracle LETTER SEALS.-What is the surest method of sealing |

which it was intended to be by the ceremony of lying on letters, so that they may not be opened in transitu ?

the ground and offering, is wholly fled, and it leaves the Ryde, Isle of Wight, Feb. 11.“

virtue of the water to be the true cause of the cure. And A. F. T.

we have here, as in many places of the land, great variety No more effective security for sealed letters has been of salutary springs, having diversity of operations, which devised than simply using a wafer to a non-adhesive by natural reason have been found to be productive of good envelope, and then applying a thin layer of the finest effects, and not by miracle, as the vain fancies of monks sealing wax. This impressed with the seal bids defiance and friars have been exercised in heretofore. to their being opened without shewing the attempted violation. The wax not to extend beyond the size of the seal. Schiller's works are prohibited by the Austro-Italian The application of heat or steam will only harden the wafer. bishops.

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