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Dutch varken, as well as the Spanish barraco or ver
EARLY MERCHANTS' MARKS, raco, and Exmoor baarge. Its root is most likely! The following examples of Merchant's marks occur identical with that of the Latin aper and German eber, on sepulchral memorials in the churches of St. Margaret which, however, Schobel, Analogies Constitutives de and St. Nicholas, Lynn. la Langue Allemande, p. 22; analyses into aa-bär=the Mackerell in his History of Lynn has noticed these water or marsh beast, defining it “animal fort qui aime marks, but so incorrectly, and so wretchedly engraved, le séjour des marécages.” Bär he derives from the that I think it would be desirable to perpetuate them in Sanscrit arks, which he considers as a secondary form Current Notes. of arh strong (Teutonic urh, Greek ari, ēr), and the On the brass of Adam de Walsokne in St. Margaret's etymon of the Greek arktos and Latin ursus. Cognates church, is the following inscription, incorrectly printed are the Sanscrit rks'a, Zingari or Gypsy ritsch, and in Mackerell's Collections. Suomi or Finnish karhu, a bear. From bär come the
Hic Jacet Adam de Walsokne quonSaxon bar, Cornish bora, Dutch beer, Swedish borr, and
dam Burgens Lenn qui obiit quinto die English boar. The root ark, with the initial augment
mensis Junii Anno Dni Millesimo Trit, seems to be the Irish and Gaelic torc and Welsh
gentesimo quadragesimo nono .... trorch. The Greek kapros has a similar affinity with
..... Margareta uxor ejus in Cleye aper. Our brawn comes from aprugnus, an adnoun
nata quorum anime per Dei misericorformed from aper. The Shemitic and Sclavonian tongues,
diam in pace requiescant. Amen. so far as I have been able to trace them, contain no corresponding terms from the same roots; but it is remarkable that the Hebrew hhazir, Syriac hheziro, and Arabic hhenzer, come from a root hhazăr, which sig. In the same church, is the brass of John Atkin, thus nifies to transfix, pierce, perforate, bore, (Greek peir-, inscribed Latin for-, German bohr-, Irish bear, etc.) I may
Hic jacet corpus Jobannis Atkin, likewise mention that the Greek kapros denotes not only
Aldermani, Viri gravissimi, præhonesti, the male of the wild hog, but the organ of generation or
Reiq: hujus Burgi publicæ admodum phallos, which was used in the rites of Bacchus or
studiosi, cujus Maioratum Ao R. Rs. Priapus as an emblem of fecundity, like the Hindu
Jacobi 5° et 13° bonorifice ac pie gessit. lingam.
E Johanna uxore ejus unica duodecim South Shields, Sept. 10. William Brockie.
amoris sui pignora suscitavit quorum in
vivis tantum modo sunt novem GulielThe lines which eighteen centuries since, were ad
mus natu-primus ; Thomas, Jobannes, dressed to a fair Stoic:
Setheus, Anna, Clementia, Jobanna, Frideswitha, et MarTo the Immutable Fair one.
geria. Vixit annos 68 feliciter, 15 die Septembris Ao. Dal. Si, nisi quæ forma poterit te digna videri
1617. Chrõ obdormivit. Nulla futura tua est; nulla futura tua est.
The Monogram evidently formed of three letters have been deemed inimitable, and for delicacy and point | doubtless implieil John Atkin, Lynn. have no resemblance in any other language. The fol- In the chancel of St. Nicholas' church, incised on a lowing are among the many attempts which have been sepulchral slab, with this inscription made as a Translation,
Thomas Toll, Esq.
and Alies his wife rest heer,
Til Christ apeare.
Then thou alone, must by thyself be loved.
On referring to Mackerell, on the last plate, at p. None you'll incline to, you'll to none incline.
269. the monogram adopted by Thomas Toll, which If, saue whose charms with equal splendour shine, ought to consist of a combination of the three letters of
None euer thine can be ; none euer can be thine. his name, is thus unmeaningly delineated. Harbledown.
M. D. MORRIS.-Can any Correspondent of Current Notes inform me, whether it is intended to publish the work entitled, Celtic Remains; left in Manuscript by the late distinguished Welsh antiquary, Lewis Morris, Esq.; and if so, by whose care it will be transmitted through the press ? Brecon, September 18.
F. S. A. I Such errors in engraving make the prints in these
departed ye 29 October, 16 53:
devices, which however are few and far between, in | way disposed to any resolution involving the surrender many of our County Histories valueless, as more care is of their Charter, or in respect to any motion to produce required in drawing these marks than even in heraldic it. Governor Treat urged the great expense and hardinsignia. These errors in engraving and printing are ships of the Colonists in planting the country; the blood the more to be regretted, since out of some twenty or and treasure they had expended in defending it against thirty examples noticed by Mackerell, I could in my both sarages and foreigners, and further the dangers recent search find only the three here described. and vicissitudes to which he had himself been exposed, Lee Road, Blackheath.
J.J. HOWARD. therefore to surrender the patent and privileges so dearly
bonght and so long enjoyed, was as he stated like to
giving up his life. The subject was debated and held CHARTER OAK AT HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT.
in suspense until the evening, by which time great On the 21st of last month, August, during a strong numbers of the people were assembled, and among them gale of wind, the far famed Charter Oak which stood many sufficiently bold and determined to any enterprise near the City of Hartford, was blown down and fell with that might be deemed expedient, or necessity require. a tremendous crash, leaving about six feet of its stem The Charter was at length brought in and laid upon remaining. It must have been a very old tree when the table, where the assembly were sitting, but the Columbus in 1492, discovered the New World.
lights were in an instant extinguished, and Captain The appellation of Charter Oak has in more instances Wadsworth of Hartford, in the surprise thus created, than the present, occasioned a requirement of some elu- silently secured and carried off the patent, which he cidation, and at no period more than now, could that secreted in a large hollow tree fronting the house of the explanation be more pertinently rendered.
Hon. Samuel Wyllys, then one of the magistrates of Soon after the restoration of royalty in England, in the colony. Those present in the Assembly continued 1660, the Connecticut colony sent the son of Governor orderly and peaceable; the candles were officiously reWinthrop of Massachusetts, to England, with a humble lighted, but the Charter was gone, nor could any disand respectful petition to king Charles the Second, in covery be made either of it, or of the person by whom which they solicited a charter under the royal signature. it had been removed. Mr. Winthrop being possessed of a valuable ring that Though foiled in the attempt to obtain possession had been presented by king Charles the First, to his of the Charter, Sir Edmund did not hesitate to immegrandfather, presented it on his audience to the king, diately assume the reins of government,* which as the and by this timely incident is supposed to have consider. minion of a wretched monarch he administered with as ably interested the monarch in his favour. The Charter much oppression in this, as in the other Colonies, till which passed under the Great Seal, April 20, 1662, on the arrival at Boston, of the declaration of the Prince established over the colony a form of government of the of Orange, Andros was deposed and imprisoned; their most liberal tendency, granting the most ample privi- former Governor was re-elected, and after an interrupleges, and confirming the fundamental law of Connec tion of little more than a year and a half, the people of ticut for one hundred and fifty-eight years, in fact till Connecticut resumed the previous form of government the year 1818.
that had been guaranteed to them by the Charter. Under James the Second, Connecticut was apparently The day after the tree had been blown down, the City doomed to suffer from the injustice and violence of the band performed for two hours solemn music over its last of the male sovereigns of the Stuart raee. Massa- prostrate trunk, and at sunset, the bells tolled to express chusetts had been deprived of her Charter, and Rhode the general regret at the event. Island had also been induced to surrender, when in July, 1685, a writ of quo warranto was issued against the governor and company of Connecticut. Vane
CIVILITY ON SIGN-BOARDS.-I once saw in Charlestrongly advised the colonial government to comply with
| ville, in the county of Cork, a sign which set forth, that the requisition, and surrender the Charter, but it was
the proprietor of the concern was licensed to sell drink determined otherwise, neither to appear to defend it,
with civil usage, the latter commodity at Varese in nor voluntarily to surrender it, notwithstanding the re
Italy, is expressed by cortesia, and obtains precedence
G. D. peated applications of Sir Edmund Andros. who had l of the grape --Cortesia con buon vino. the appointment of Governor of the New England Colonies.
* The records of the Colony state the fact in these words In October, 1687, the Assembly met as usual, and, -At a genera
momoland -At a general court at Hartford, Oct. 31, 1687, bis excelthe government according to the Charter continued till
tad till | lency Sir Edmund Andros, Knight, and Captain-General the end of the month, when on the last day, Sir Edmund
and Governor of his Majesty's territories and dominions in with his suite, and more than sixty regular troops came
New England, by order from his Majesty, James II., King
of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, the 31st of Octo Hartford, where the assembly were sitting, demanded tober. 1687. took into his hands the government of the the Charter, and declared the government under it to Colony of Connecticut, it being by his Majesty, annexed to be dissolved,
Massachusetts and other colonies under his Excellency's Even in this emergency, the Assembly were in no government. Finis.
MONKEY MONEY.-I have recently met with the called Pugillares; or leaves made of barks of trees : I phrase "Monkey's money,' in reference to one man's have seen specimens of each in Italy. They did not grinning at another who demanded a sum owing. May make use of paper, for they had no linen ; they knew I ask, whence does this originate, or has it an allusion hemp as an herb, but applied it not to this purpose. In only to the ordinary vague chatter of the animal ? the time of Charles VII., of France, 1422-60, linen Hastings, Sep. 9.
E. S. made of hemp was so scarce that his Queen had but The French have a proverb • To pay in Monkey's coin,' two st
onkevia coin' two shifts of that material, and Rabelais, at the end of i. e. to laugh at a man instead of paying bim, wbich is said his third book, mentions hemp as a newly discovered to be thus derived. The tariff of st. Lewis the Ninth, who | plant, under the term Pentaguellion, which had not reigned in France from 1226 to 1270 ; for regulating the been in use above a century. duties upon articles and produce brought by the gate of the Little Châtelet into Paris, among other items ordained, that
DERIVATION OF THE TERM, FLINT GLASS ? whoever brought a monkey into the City for sale, should pay four deniers; but if the monkey pertained to a Merry
The words, Flint glass, as descriptive of our most Andrew, the owner by causing his monkey to dance and pellucid glass has long been to me a doubtful matter, disport before the collector of the dues, was not only exempt whether it was so called from the material of which it from paying any duty for the said monkey, but passed freely | was manufactured ? but on looking over the Proceedings with ought else he might have with him.
of the British Archæological Association, at Chester in The same code of dues directed that Jugglers, provided
1849, I find the Rev. T. B. LI. Browne, the Vicar of they sang a couplet of a ballad before the toll-gatherer, were
Flint, in a paper read before the Association, at Flint, to pass exempt from all imposts.
thus alludes to the enquiry
Flint was very early the seat of considerable metallurgical DORACE MISCONSTRUED.
operations, rendered evident from the fact of numerous M. De Beauchamps in his Recherches sur les Theatres Roman and other coins being found at places, the British de France, notices the performance of Voltaire's first names of which are indicative of such operations having drama, Edipus, which was represented for the first time, been carried on there. With respect to the name of Flint, on Friday, Nov. 18, 1718. He observes much has been Pennant states he was unable to as assign any derivation of said for and against this drama, which had a prodigions the word, as our country is totally destitute of the fossil success, and appends a numerous list of printed critical usually so called;" in this however, the celebrated Tourist pamphlets which it occasioned; he however seems not | and Autiquary was mistaken, that mineral technically to have been aware of the successful ruse that was termed Chert, being found in great abundance, particularly played off against it, on the first night of its representa
i in many of the lead mines.
The term Flint glass it is highly probable was derived tion. Edipus was performed on the opening night of the
from the fact of its being first manufactured at Flint. season, the Theatre during the recess had been newly
e Theatre during the recess had been newly | Where the present Town-hall stands was formerly glassdecorated, and on the proscenium, above the curtain, works, and a few years since while sinking the foundation was placed as a motto, the initials —
of the gateway, at Mr. Haywood's, great quantities of frag0. T. P. Q. M. V. D.
ments of melting pots and glass were found ; and as the These letters created a general interest, and many mineral flint is a compound part of all kinds of glass, there were the solutions as fitted the comprehensions of the is no reason to suppose that this term should be applied audients, till the witty yet sarcastic Piron, whispered solely as indicative of that description which is manuto a few ladies, they were intended to designate
factured by the aid of lead, whilst on the other hand, it is
highly probable, that the first locality for that part of the Edipe Tragédie pitoyable que Monsieur Voltaire donne. I glass manufacture should be at a spot where the lead reThis was quite sufficient, the slanderous definition flew quired for its formation could be obtained in abundance, like lightning, and was heedlessly accepted as the true particularly as in addition to the raw materials, the vicinity meaning, the incessant uproar that followed precluded
red precluded of Flint has abounded in ancient times with fuel, whether
of the actors from being heard, and the drama was with
that was derived from forests or mines.
I must confess I am still sceptical, and shall be greatly drawn as altogether unsuccessful. During the criticism which it occasioned, the fact of this perversion of the
obliged to any correspondent of Current Notes, who will luckless motto transpired, and the real meaning of these
contribute any notices in reference to the derivation of
the term, Flint glass. mysterious initials being authoritatively made known as
S. J. H.
• implying -
LIBERTY SUPPRESSED IN FRANCE.
On the first of October next, all the one and two sous the drama was again played, the unlucky perversion of pieces of the copper coinage of France, bearing the head the motto was forgotten, and the run followed for forty
wed for forty-of Liberty, cease to have any currency in monetary
f Liberty case five successive nights. The line is from Horace.
payments. The copper coins of one and two liards, and
of one centime, bearing the head of Liberty, by a decree THE BEING PUT TO ONE'S SHIFTS.
of Napoleon III., which was published in the Moniteur, Gabriel Naudé, Physician to Louis XIII., observes, / enacted these minor symbols of Revolutionary periods the ancients in writing made use of waxen tables,' to be out of circulation on the first of July last.
“Takes note of what is done-
GRAVE OF ROB ROY.
That futurity might know by whom this was raised, Balquhidder, the residence and the scene of many of it was further inscribed—This stone was erected by the exploits of Rob Roy MacGregor, the hero of Sir
Lieutenant John Gregorson, 1770. Walter Scott's highly popular romance of that name;
The stone, on the south side, no inscription, but and also the place of his burial, is a Highland parish in having a sword as here represented rudely incised in the south-west of Perthshire, distinguished by its beau-paletiful lakes and wild scenery. The kirktown or hamlet is about twelve miles from the well known village of Callander, and to the west of the kirk are the Braes of Balquhidder,' commemorated in Scottish song by the unfortunate Tannahill.
The widely spread traditions of Rob Roy have eter- l is commonly, but erroneously, believed to cover the nised in popular recognition the parish of Balguhidder, grave of Rob Roy; on the contrary, as the writer has but it would be idle to adduce any detailed notice of been informed by several intelligent and trustworthy that extraordinary individual, his family history and residenters in Balqubidder, this stone denotes the last exploits having been so ably recorded by Sir Walter deposit of Rob's wife Helen, a daughter of Campbell of Scott, in the introduction to his celebrated romance. Glenfalloch, and of one of his sons; while the real The passing mention will, therefore, be sufficient, that resting place of the bold outlaw' is below the third or within his own house, at Balquhidder, he died about centre stone elaborately ensculpt; by far the most inte. 1738, an old man, retaining to the last the same strange resting of these memorials of the dead, and like the characteristics which he had exhibited through a long preceding, is now engraved for the first time. and adventurous life. His character, it is almost need less to add, had much of the same impetuosity and selfdaring which marked the personal conduct and disposition of the English Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, better known as Robin Hood, and of which the concluding
M stanza of Wordsworth's admirable poem, written on visiting Rob Roy's grave at Balquhidder, renders with no little force a just idea —
These monumental stones are all of rough native graAnd thus among these rucks he lived,
nite, and from the great similarity of some of the emThrough summer's heat and winter's snow; blems upon that which covers the grave of Rob Roy, The eagle, he was lord above,
with those found upon several of the ancient sculptured And Rob was lord below.
stones of Scotland, of which a large collection has On the southern slope of a mountain, with a broadly recently been published by the Spalding Club, under expanded view, is situated the old parish kirk and burial the editorial care of their respected secretary, John ground of Balquhidder. The kirk bears the initials of Stuart, Esq., advocate, there is reason not only to supMacGregor, Knight of Glencarnock, and his lady, with pose, but to believe, that ages before the name of Macthe date 1631; but recently, a new fabric, in the old Gregor was known in the braes, of Balquhidder, this English style of architecture, having been built outside monumental slab denoted the grave of some person of the burial ground, the former kirk has been unroofed, locally distinguished, but whose name, with any other and thus rendered a picturesque ruin. The burial-place memorial or particulars have long since been shrouded of the MacGregors is at the east end of the old kirk, in in oblivion. that part of the kirk which was called capbail big, i.e., The rudely incised figures upon this stone, which is the small chapel or chancel. There are three grave- about six feet long by sixteen inches wide, may be constones pertaining to the family, all are lying closely jectured to indicate the predilections or pursuits of the together, and the most northerly, erected to the memory person it was purposed in the olden time to commemoof Rob Roy's eldest son, Coll or Colin, is raised upon rate. The cross-patent near the breast of the grotesquely four rude pillars, and bearing the arms of the MacGre | represented human figure, or possibly cross-patée, for it gors, with these words
is difficult to define which of the kinds it purports ; or Here lies interred the corps of Colin McGREGOR, whether it is intended to represent either, being after who died in the year 1735; aged 31 years.
all, probably, an emblem of Christianity, may be looked VOL. VI.
upon as indicative of the faith of the deceased; the nions; and that he caused the temples of his false gods dogs, emblematical of his ardour or attachment to the to be dedicated to the service of the True God. sports of the chace; and the sword, rudely carved and in place of their priests, he appointed preachers of ill proportioned to the rest of the figures, may emblema. the Gospel, and for their flamines, he created bishops to tise his individual prowess.
| the number of twenty-eight; and of these, three were The last described stone, like that having simply the instituted archbishops-one at London, whose province sword, are both partially mutilated, owing to the pen- was the southern part of England; a second, at Caerchant which many unreflective tourists have to carry off legion upon Uske, his province was Wales; and the some fragment of known relics of the past. The prac-third at York, unto whose jurisdiction the bishops of tice is highly reprehensible, and cannot be too much Scotland and North England were subject. condemned.
The Gospel under such influence prospered greatly, Besides these interesting monuments
and even when a terrible persecution of the Church, by of the MacGregors, there is in the burial
the Saxons, prevailed in almost every other part of the ground an oddly shaped stone, resem
land, it found in Wales many open and undaunted probling in form and size a horse's collar.
fessors, who never allowed the light thereof to be utterly Traditionally it is said to have been an
extinguished. There was, in fact, no public authorisainstrument of punishment in the days
tion of the Christian religion anywhere but in Wales. of superstitious requirements, and that
That a monastery was founded at a very early period it was formerly placed on the shoulders
in Bangor is evident, from the recorded notice of the of the delinquent, whose head pro
spirited reply of the monks thereof to Augustine, on truded through it. The aperture is
his coming to England, long after the supposed estasufficiently large enough for that purpose, but as the blishment of that monastery; when, on his landing in writer has never before seen or heard of a similar obiect. Kent, King Ethelbert bestowed on him the royal city of it is here figured, in the hope that some correspondent
Canterbury, as an episcopal see, and the King's palace of Current Notes inay advance some particulars respect
for a cathedral church, to be erected unto Christ, Pope ing its use.
Gregory the Great having, in 601, honoured Augustine Brechin.
with the pall, and thereby appointed him Metropolitan of Britain, he summoned a council in the borders of
Worcestershire, that he might be somewhat nigher to BRITISH CHURCII NOT SUBJECT TO ROME. the British clergy and bishops, in Wales, and warned
them to appear. Augustine in that assembly demanded The following memorials have been collected, to form from them obedience to the Bishop of Rome, and the an appendix to Bishop Godwyn's Catalogue of the Pre
reception of the Roman ceremonies into the service of lates of England and Wales, which latter country stops the British Church. short at p. 430, with those of Llandaff; the reverend This innovation the Britons rejected, and after a long author being precluded by death from adding those of disputation on both sides, another session or synod was Bangor or St. Asaph, as he had purposed.
agreed on, at which a greater number of the British Bangor, a city of Caernarvonshire, in North Wales,
| clergy were present, and amongst them seven bishops. is situated in a valley, within a short distance of the
The monastery of Bangor contained at this time, it is charming and much-frequented bay of Beaumaris. It said, so great a number of monks, that when the whole is enclosed on the south side with a very steep moun
monastery was constituted into seven parts with their tain, and, comparatively speaking, by a little hill on the rulers, no part contained fewer than three hundred men, north. Camden derives its name à choro pulchro, from all of whom obtained their maintenance by the labour a beautiful quire; or, as others suppose, quasi locus of their hands. chori, the place of a quire.
To the demand made by Augustine of submission to The cathedral is in the form of a cross: the eastern the dominance of the Bishop of Rome, the abbot, in the part is embattled, and at the west end is a low massive
name of his Church, made this memorable reply :wer, 'surmounted by four pinnacles. This Be it known and without doubt unto you, that We, tower and the nave, soine parts of the transepts, and all and every one of us are obedient and subject to the most of the windows of the choir are perpendicular. The
Church of God, and to the Pope of Rome, and to every south aisle of the nave is decorated, and there are some
godly Christian, to love every one in his degree in perfect luttresses and other portions of early English charac
charity, and to help every one of them, by word and ter. The north aisle to the choir is divided, and used deed, to be the children of God: other obedience than as a chapter house and vestry. The font, of an octago- this I do not know due to him, whom you name to be nal and perpendicular character, is very handsome. Pope ; nor to be Father of Fathers; to be claimed and
Bishop Godwyn has given an interesting account of to be demanded; and this obedience we are ready to the foundation of episcopacy, wherein he states that one give, and to render to him, and to every Christian conof the earliest kings was baptized, and following his tinually. Besides, We are under the government of the example, many of his people in all parts of his domi- | Bishop of Caerlcon upon Uske, who is to oversee under