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tleman's country solicitors, was the cause of much delay;

EARLY MERCHANT'S MARKS. but as soon after the receipt of Lord Eldon's letter, the

The merchants of the middle ages, however wealthy, cause was decided, the old lady fancied her missive had

were not permitted to assume heraldic insignia, and thus had its effect, and thought he had after all looked to the rival the dignity of the gentry, they therefore universally matter in some way, and had somehow done something adopted symbolic devices, as marks to distinguish their to frighten the legal men to bring it to a close.

bales of merchandise, and these marks are at times Grammar School, Norton. WILLIAM R. BELL.

found delineated on shields, resembling in form those ANGELS VISITS.- Campbell wrote the Pleasures of

| upon which the heralds emblazoned their representative

fancies. Hence many an old tomb and church window Hope when very young, and he may possibly have been

| is found decorated with frequently a very ingenious

to indebted to Blair's Grave for the expression

amalgamation of threaded forms and tracery, at times Like Angel visits few and far between ;

so complex as almost to baffle elucidation. yet both Blair and Campbell may have derived the sen- The enclosed inscription and merchant's mark is a timent from an earlier writer, John Norris, who died in mural memorial brass, 1586, in the church of St. Mary 1711, in whose Transient Delights, occur these lines- Magdalene, in Old Fish Street. No name is mentioned, How fading are the joys we doat upon

but I presume it commemorates Thomas Berry, FishLike apparitions seen and gone:

monger, who “gave a messuage in Southwark, called But those which soonest take their flight

the Red Cross, with its appurtenances to the poor of the Are the most exquisite and strong

parish for ever.'
Like Angel visits short and bright,

In God the Lord put all your truste
Mortality's too weak to bear them long.

Repente your former wicked waies
Woburn, May 2.

B. B. W.

Elizabeth our Quene most iuste

Blesse her o Lorde in all her daies
AMADIS DE GAULA.

Su Lord encrease good Councelers
A friend of mine in Spain has sent me notes of some

And preachers off his holie worde

Mislike off all papistes desiers additional editions of the Spanish romances, which I

O Lord cut them off with thy sworde communicate as supplementary to those forwarded in

How small soever the gifte shalbe February last. These editions are all in folio, and I hope

Thanke God for bim who gave it thee those gentlemen in England, who have other editions will give an account of them in your Current Notes.

t B Z XII penie loves to XII poore foulkes I.-IV. Amadis de Gaula, Sevilla 1531, 1535, 1539,

Geve everie sabothe day for aye.
1565, 1586.
Medina del Campo, 1545.
Lavagna, 1551.
Lee Road, Blackheath.

J.J. I. V. Esplandian,

Toledo, 1521.
Salamanca, 1525.
Burgos, 1587.

FIERY BULL.-Who was the person referred to as VIII. Lisuarte de Grecia, Sevilla, 1548, 1550. “the Fiery Bull of Colchester," in the following title — No place or date.

Ten necessary Queries touching the Personal Treatie; IX. Amadis de Grecia, Valencia, 1582.

also a right description of a Cavalier ; with some drops to No place or date.

quench the Fiery Bull of Colohester, by JAMES TASWELL, X. Florisel de Niquea, Sevilla, 1546.

a True Lover of King, Parliament, Truth and Peace, 1648. Saragoza, 1568.

I have read the copy at the British Museum, but that Tarragona, 1584.

does not shew who was meant by the Fiery Bull ? XII. Silves de la Selva, Sevilla 1549.

May 13.

ENQUIRER. Another friend writes that in the library at Vienna, are the following editions :

As the tract is evidently written by a royalist, possibly 1.-IV. Amadis de Gaula, Sevilla, 1586.

the designation of the Fiery Bull' applies to Fairfax, who

refused all personal treaty with the besieged commanders. VIII. Lisuarte de Grecia, Zaragoça, 1587. XI. Rogel de Grecia, Salamanca, 1551. XII. Silves de la Selva, Salamanca, 1551.

BOLINGBROKE'S MISTRESS.-On what authority is it Ticknor quotes the edition of Esplandian, Burgos, stated in Current Notes, 1855, p. 64, that Lady Bath 1587; and Mr. Julius, the German translator of Ticknor, had been Bolingbroke's Mistress ? Lady Bath was a notices the edition of Florisel de Niquea, Tarragona, | Miss Gumley, daughter of John Gumley, Esq., of Isle1584, as having been seen by him,

worth ; a large fortune, she was the sister of the wife Some curious questions arise from the dates of these of Francis Colman, Minister at Florence; and Pope's editions, which I hope to discuss in a future letter. verses upon her imply the very reverse of any levity of Middle Hill.

T. PHILLIPPS. character.

[graphic]

No. LXVI.]

“ Takes note of what is done-
By note, to give and to receive."-SHAKESPEARE.

[JUNE, 1856.

WIO WROTE TIE WAVERLEY NOVELS ? often assisted by Mrs. Scott, and the works were generally When nearly five-and-twenty years have elapsed since

revised by his brother Walter before going to press. “The

Antiquary” I can answer for particularly, because Mr. the decease of the reputed author of the Waverley

Thomas Scott told me himself that he wrote it, a very few Novels, the stillness of the grave is at length disturbed days after it appeared in this country. Any person who by the appearance of some uselessly detractive inquiries,

had the least intimacy with the paymaster would at once the purport of which is professedly to prove that Scott's recognise him as the author of these celebrated works. brother Thomas Scott was the writer of The Antiquary, The same native humour, the same cast of expression, and a considerable contributor to other novels, and that many that intimate acquaintance with Scottish manners and the admirable characters and delineations were the every Scottish annals, which are almost in every page of those day productions of his singularly gifted wife, Bessie works, could be traced in his conversation by any person of Scott; and that Walter Scott, simply conducted them

the least observation. Besides this, I have often heard Mrs. through the press, and had no claim, or at best only an

Scott describe the very originals from whom the principal assumed one, to the being considered the author. These

characters are drawn. The Antiquary himself was an inti

mate acquaintance of the paymaster; his name I have now inquiries have been submitted to the discernment of the

forgotten, but he lived in Dumfries, and that finely drawn admirers of Sir Walter Scott, in a pamphlet entitled

character, Dominie Sampson was an old college acquaintWho Wrote the Waverley Novels? being an Investi

ance. Flora M'lyor's character was written by Mrs. Scott gation into certain Mysterious Circumstances attending herself. I have seen several of the manuscripts, in Mr. their production, and an Inquiry into the Literary Aid Scott's possession, of his other works, but I do not recollect which Sir Walter Scott may have received from other seeing any of the novels in manuscript except the Antipersons, 1856, pp. 88.

quary. I am pretty certain that it is his own handwriting. The bases on which Mr. Fitzpatrick founds this in- The letter has been adopted at length, simply to aver vestigation, are the on dit printed in the Morning that it is wholly untrue. Walter's younger brother Chronicle, May 23, 1817-Mr. Walter Scott is said to Thomas was the helter-skelter devil-may-care fellow of be the author of the critique in the Tales of my Land- the lot, his rattling loquacious vivacity, at all times seemed lord' in the Quarterly Review, and it is insinuated in conclusive that he lone monopolise all th

conclusive that he alone monopolised all the genius and the concluding paragraph, that his brother is the writer spirit of the family, while Walter was apparently of a of the novels which have made so strong an impression | dull temperament, his youth did not exhibit the dawn on the public mind.* Also, the very remarkable letter'

even, of the sunshine of the after-day that was to as Mr. Fitzpatrick terms it, that is said to have appeared eternise the distinction of his family, and to render in the Quebec Herald, July 15, 1820. The letter dated

familiar as household words to future generations the York, observe not New York, Dec. 12, 1818, com characters and language of his Scottish descriptive mences

poems and novels. Those who entertain any doubts as With respect to these new publications, Rob Roy, &c., I

to Walter Scott being the author of the Waverley have no hesitation in saying I believe them to be the pro.

Novels, should first learn the peculiarities in position duction of the Scotts. I say the Scotts, because Mr.

and disposition of that singularly extraordinary man and Thomas Scott (who wrote the principal part of them) was

writer, before they too readily adopt a false conclusion.

Nothing of Thomas Scott remains in his writing to • Investigation, p. 50.—The admission here said to have establish any or the smallest claims to his being a conbeen made by Scott, is repudiated by his flat denial that tributor wholly or in part to the Waverley Novels; Thomas Scott wrote the whole or any part of the novels ; doubtless the persons who figured in the novels, were as and again in a letter to Ricbardson, Jan. 18, 1819, Scott, in well known to Thomas as to Walter, and when they reference to the attempt made by the wife of one of the became public property by their peculiarities being Edinburgh judges to ascertain the author of the Waverley

rley | graphically delineated in the printed novels, 'the Scotts' Novels, wrote " I gave in dilatory defences, under

pleasurably stated that they too knew them personally. protestation, to add and eik ; in plain words I denied the

Let this also be remembered, that Thomas Scott, was a cbarge ; and as she insisted to know who else could write these novels, I suggested Adam Ferguson, as a person i reckless bon vivant, and as regards the interests of the huving all the information and capacity necessary for that family, it was well the Atlantic divided them—his expurpose." Ibid. p. 30. The fact was, there were so many cesses for the last four or five years of his life precluded concomitant circumstances all tending to prove Scott the his holding the pen with any steadiness, and Bessie anthor of the novels, that in the face of his broad denial, it Scott at her desk, was more often busied on the official was difficult to know in what manner to treat bis assertions. papers of her husband, than in writing letters, however

VOL. VI.

joyously indited, to her brother-in-law, the now ques- | win its way in the world without any of the usual recomtioned author of Waverley.* Yet, it cannot be denied, mendations. Its progress was for some time slow; but after that much of what is now passing was originally pro- | the first two or three m

the first two or three months, its popularity increased in a mulgated by the assertions and prevarications of Walter

degree which must have satisfied the expectations of the Scott. When the natural furor of his intellect streamed

author had these been far more sanguine than he ever enforth, he found it difficult to restrain himself within

tertained.

Great anxiety was expressed to learn the name of the ordinary bounds, he wrote, and once for all, if he at

author, but on this no authentic information could be attempted to amend, he injured what he had written, the tained. My original motive for publishing the work anony• stream became more muddy than before, and once mously was the consciousness that it was an experiment on printed, the subject was rarely honoured by himself with the public taste, which might very probably fail, and therea re-perusal—no matter whatever his after professions fore there was no occasion to take on myself the personal of editorial revision were, like the cobbler's wife that risk of discomfiture. For this purpose, considerable precauwent unshod, his writings lacked the promised revisal, tions were used to preserve secrecy. My old friend and however they might be called for or suggested. It was schoolfellow, Mr. James Ballantyne, who printed these not in him to bear the being thwarted; in matters of

nosels, had the exclusive task of corresponding with the business his probity was ever unquestionable, but in

author, who thus had not only the advantage of his profesliterary points, he held all assertions as fictions, he could

sional talents, but of his critical abilities. The original

manuscript, or as it is technically called copy was trandisguise truth in a joke, and reduce a moral axiom to a

scribed by confidential persons under Mr. Ballantyne's eye, bon-mot.

nor was there an instance of treachery during the many His earlier poems from their novelty were highly at

years in which these precautions were resorted to, although tractive, and his Lady of the Lake carried off the public various individuals were employed at different times. acclaim by storm, but

Double proof sheets were regularly printed off. One was No morning sun lasts a whole day;

forwarded to the author by Mr. Ballantyne, and the alterathe public appetite cloyed, and Rokeby, published early

tions which it received by his hand, were copied upon the

other proof sheet for the use of the printers, so that even in 1813, was comparatively a failure : its success was

the corrected proofs of the author were never seen in the unequivocally acknowledged to be greatly inferior to

printing office, and thus the curiosity of such eager inquirers the Lady of the Lake. It was even said that Rokeby

as made the most minute investigation was entirely at fault. was only entitled to notice from its having the name of Among other unfounded reports, it has been said that the the author on the title page. The Bridal of Triermain, copyright was during the book's progress through the press, without his name, followed in March, 1813, and passed offered for sale to various booksellers in London at a very wholly unnoticed. He determined on abandoning poetry inconsiderable price. This was not the case. Messrs. for prose, and by publishing anonymously, or under a Constable and Cadell who published the work, were the only pseudonyme, dirert the public attention from himself, and persons acquainted with the contents of the publication, and in the autumn of 1813, having found the fragment of

they offered a large sum for it, while in the course of Waverley that had been thrown aside since 1805, the

printing, which however was declined, the author not manuscript having at that time been unfavourably com

choosing to part with the copyright. mented on by a critical friend, he finished it according

Byron, in a letter to Murray, dated July 24, 1814, to his own conception, and the following is Scott's own

wrote—“ Waverley is the best and most interesting

novel I have redde since—I don't know when.” The version of its appearance : Waverley was published in 1814, and as the title page

reviewers, notwithstanding all Scott's endeavours to was without the name of the author, the work was left to

evade detection, were however on the right scent—"We

have heard this romance ascribed to a bard of the first * A correspondent to Current Notes writes-My mind has order, and there seems to be sufficient internal evidence long ago been made up on the question, and certainly I to warrant a belief that the report is accurate."* The should dislike being drawn into any controversy on the fact appears to have escaped Mr. Fitzpatrick, that the point at issue, considering that such a step would swallow son of Joseph Strutt the antiquary, then and since loudly up most unprofitably very much precious time.

asserted Scott produced Waverley from the manuscripts Scott possessed marvellous facility in writing, and when which his father had submitted to him for perusal. One we learn he kept at it, four, five, or six hours a day, what

among the many reasons which are urged why Scott he did is only consistent with such labour. He was one of

was not the author of the Waverley Novels, is, that at a remarkable family. The mother, now deceased, of an

Abbotsford he was hospitable in the highest degree, and intimate friend of mine, was full cousin to Sir Walter. She had borne him when he was a child in her arms, and

so fully entered into all their field diversions and other though she was far advanced in life, and by no means was

amusements, that he himself seemned more the votary of either a learned, or what is called a book read woman, yet

pleasure than as one solicitous of the opportunity of reI have heard her relate anecdote and family occurrences in tirement, for his literary avocations, yet this apparent such a copious yet perfectly correct manner, that it was waste of time was but assumed, and intended to baffle truly wonderful. A short-hand writer might have taken even the closest observer, for while Waverley was down and printed every word she spoke, and the most fas- passing through the press, in his letter to James Baltidious proof-reader could not possibly have improved what she said, or detected a single false or redundant word in the * New Monthly Magazine, Sept. 1814, p. 156. whole.

lantyne, dated Sept. 2, 1813, he thus bitterly complained to Mr. French's " Parallel Passages," Mr. Fitzpatrick of these obstructions—"My temper is nearly worn to a seems to consider as not Scott's—The parties who prohair's breadth. The intruder of yesterday hung on me bably sent the rough sketch for filling up and revision, till twelve to-day. When I had just taken my pen, he were alone competent to write its historical introducwas relieved like a sentry leaving guard, by two other tion.* With the Parallel Passages before him, it is lounging visitors."

surprising Mr. Fitzpatrick should thus run a tilt against Scott's Pegasus was ever on the wing; from his first all apparent probability. Mr. French, who seems fully placing his foot on the soil of Abbotsford, it was with aware of the ungracious position he had assumed, him a castle in the air—an aërial vision that imbued writes : even his day and night dreams, it engulphed all his Guy Mannering is said to have been written with extreme gains, and was the ever greedy insatiate cormorant that rapidity, occupying the author only a few weeks in its comwas constantly craving : his building, purchasing and position; and this circumstance has given colour to the planting, was the impelling power to constant exertion; assertion that Scott is not the exclusive author; but when he could not hesitate to reflect, and his castellated crea- it is seen that the novel is in reality only an adaptation-in tion, while it drew from his labours a sum exceeding the same way in which modern English dramas are adapted 50,0001., rendered, as in most similar ventures, but a from the French-the wonder caused by the rapid execution poor requital; the produce of the estate being, it is said,

vanishes. But, another still remains! Who can fail to

marvel at the masterly skill with which crude materials never more than 7001. per annum. The pen, though dipped in liquid gold, could not write off or cancel the

have been worked into one of the most delicious tales in

modern literature ? every-day demand upon his energies a partner or participator in the printing-office of the Ballantynes, he be

| The answer to this is sufficiently prompt and conclucame involved in their embarrassments, the whirl of

sive-None but those who would detract from his transevents led to his forestalling coming profits on writings,

cendent merit. Scott, like Raffaelle and Michael Anonly projected not written, bills were drawn, frequently

gelo who painted from nature, did not disdain to borrow on maturity, only to be renewed, and counterpoised by

ideas from the most crude and inherent objects, hence in similar accommodations on the other side. Something had

after ages the Madonnas of the one charm and delight

the observer, while the Last Judgment of the other, ento be prepared, without his name, if the work was not sufficiently attractive with it-hence the application of

forces the grandeur of awe and reverence. every reserve and endeavour to preclude discovery—but

Scott, in the introduction to Guy Mannering, details the material, the flow of writing and the spirit was the

some of the sources from which the material was desame, and those to whom he asserted he was not the

rived, but as Mr. French observes—there does not author were not convinced. To remove their scepticism,

appear the most distant hint that the author had bor. he has said that other persons were the real Simon

rowed his plot from the events of real life. That omisPure; driven at bay by friends who were not thus to be

sion, Mr. French purports to supply by Parallel Passages bamboozled, he has persisted; till unwilling to offend,

from the Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman, matters passed on, those who knew him ceased to ques

printed in 1743-7, in three volumes, duod., and from the tion, since no satisfactory result followed, and he was

Gentleman's Magazine, 1744, in juxta-position with but too glad to escape by any one assuming the position,

others from Guy Mannering. With this course no one to which none save himself was justly entitled.

can quarrel, for to what after all does it amount? That Scott's Lord of the Isles was announced in November,

Scott read for a subject, and passing the matter through 1814, as the Prince of the Isles, to be ready at Christ

the alembic of his brain, refined it to the gold in which mas; it was published in quarto in January, 1815, but

it now appears. But the Memoirs referred to by Mr. he again found that not even the name of Bruce 'could

French, are not in the library at Abbotsford-there is,

however, Fortune's Favourite : containing Memoirs, etc., compensate in the public estimation the want of what had been the most captivating charm of his earliest pro

of Jacobo Anglicano, a Young Nobleman, 1744, 8vo., ductions—the development of new powers, and styles of

with this manuscript note by Scott - The Annesley Case versification. And in the following month, February,

introduced into Peregrine Pickle.' Here, then, is the not only was a cheaper edition, in 8vo., announced, but

source, and not the Memoirs, as supposed by Mr. it was soon followed by Guy Mannering, or the Astro

French; the Gentleman's Magazine is also in the loger, by the Author of Waverley, of which there were

library, and with Smollett's writings Scott was fully announcements in December, 1814. Mr. Fitzpatrick |

conversant. observes,-Scott in his Introduction to Guy Manner

It is idle to pursue discussion further. Mr. Fitzing says that he looked about for a name and a subject,

patrick will fail in producing anything to attach estaband from this observation we may infer that such was

lishing claims for his protegées, the Scott's—no simple his invariable habit when commencing a fictitious nar

wreath will be culled by him to set amidst the grass of rative. The practice is, I believe, usual among authors.*

two uninscribed and forgotten graves, to indicate that Guy Mannering, however, notwithstanding his reference

genius sleeps below; and the perusal of his Investiga

tion will only impress upon the reader some emotions of • Investigation, p. 80.

* Investigation, p. 61.

surprise that his good sense was not exercised in discri

If up there sprang a gude black cock, minating fact from falsehood; and that even Colonel To whistle him down wi' a slug in his dock, W- 's evidence which Mr. Fitzpatrick considers And clink him into my lunzie poke, more striking than Dr. G- -'s, goes no further than

Right seldom wad I fail. the suppositious impression that neither Thomas Scott

These lines in the printed edition stand thusnor his wife wrote any of the novels, but that they as

· If up a bonny black cock should spring, sisted their brother in supplying anecdotes and traits of

To whistle him down with a slug in his wing, character.* Scott, like the potter, seized the most

And strap him on to my lunzie string, earthy matter, and skilfully moulding it to the forms

Right seldom would I fail. his mind indicated, gave to all that beauty, elegance and

The lines substituted are inferior to the original durability, which will ever create admiration, and ennoble

verses, which are coarse but vigorous, and such as might his name among the literary celebrities of the British

naturally be expected to flow from the vulgar lips of the Empire.

"horse louper,'' Laird though he was. scotT'S ALTERATIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

In Scott's Lady of the Lake are these lines— The following memoranda relative to Sir Walter

Foxgloves and night shade, side by side ; Scott and his works, may be deemed not unworthy of a

Emblems of punishment and pride. place in your Current Notes.

A gentleman who had some difficulty in compre. The manuscript of Waverley commences with chap. V., | hending the meaning of this passage addressed a letter and contains somewhat more than half the printed work : of it was purchased for forty guineas by James Hall, Esq.,

of enquiry to the author, who thus responded :brother of Capt. Basil Hall, and by him presented to

Sir, I am honored with your letter, and am highly flatthe Library of the Faculty of Advocates. At the com

| tered by a gentleman of your classical attainments having mencement is inserted the following letter from Sir

found pleasure in my poetical attempts, and having thought

| any part of them worthy of the beautiful latin dress you Walter's son-in-law, addressed to Mr. Hall.

have honored my highland damsel with. Sussex Place, Regent's Park. I fear I shall lose in your good opinion, by frankly con.

May 17, 1850. fessing that I am unable to give any satisfactory solution My dear Hall.—No Saducee can dare to question the as to the two lines, tho' my attention has been frequently authenticity of your autograph of Waverley. I am fortu called to them by similar enquiries. My poetry has always nate enough to possess the Rob Roy, and even between passed from the desk to the press in the most hurried manthose two, the hand had changed a good deal. In your ner possible, so that it is no wonder I am sometimes puzzled manuscript it is exactly as in that of Marmion.

to explain my own meaning. Ever yours, J. G. LOCKHART. In the present case, protesting always that I shall have Upon looking over the original manuscript in the well

the benefit of any better explanation which a friendly comknown handwriting of Scott, a person can hardly help

mentator may find out for me; I incline to think that I

must have cunfused the night-shade with hemlock, used you smiling at the idea that it was merely a copy of Thomas

know, for the execution of criminals, and so far therefore Scott's original, made for the purpose of deception.

an emblem of punishment; and that the fox-glove from Such is, I think, one of the charges brought against the its determined erect figure and decisive colour, might be no reputed author. If it was made with that object, it is bad emblem of pride. the cleverest piece of deception of the kind that ever was I am afraid this will hardly satisfy my fair admirer, being manufactured. It is written on differently sized.paper, 1 one degree worse than Bardolph's solution of the word is full of corrections and re-corrections, alterations and “ accommodate." interlineations. If any unbiassed person would examine Indeed, I have sometimes thought of altering or omitting it, as deposited in the library of the Faculty of Advocates, the lines, which are nonsense as they stand, but I have they would indubitably admit that it possesses every |

always forgot to do so, and esteem myself fortunate in my

negligence, since it has procured me the honor of your appearance of authenticity.

correspondence. Many of the alterations are not improvements, for instance, Balmawhapple interrupts the Baron's French

I am, sir, your obliged humble servant,

Abbotsford, Melrose, chanson by striking up

WALTER SCOTT.

October 20, 1812.
It's up Glenbarchans braes I gaed,
And ow'r the bent of Killiebrair;

These lines, nevertheless, in the revised edition of the
And mony a weary cast I maid

Poems, dated Abbotsford, April, 1830, stand as origiTo cùitlet the moor-fools tail.

nally printed, without any comment or explanation. In a note to the edition revised by the author, Sir Edinburgh, June 4.

JAMES MAIDMENT. Walter tells us this fragment was the induction of Macdonald, the author of the tragedy of Vimonda. The next is his own.

M. Augustine Thierry, the historian of the Conquest

of England by the Normans, died in his seventieth • Investigation, pp. 47, 48. † Kittle, i. e.,. to tickle. year, at Paris, on Thursday, May 22.

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