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on which the church stood is now within the farm of them to Cardinal Beaton ; but as this particular class of Bogardo, and the immediate site of the church is staked coffin slabs is ascribed to the fourteenth Century, it is ont by a rustic railing. The holder of this farm in 1849, possible, it may refer to either Philip the Forester, or to had the graveyard or old burying ground trenched, with Sir David de Annand, as being the most likely of Sir a view of growing corn upon it, and during opera- Alexander Lindsay's predecessors who were buried at tions, the old tiled pavement of the church was disco- Finhaven.

nd, also, two coffin slabs, one of which had The other slab found in the old burying ground at entombed a man of arms; the other, one of the Finhaven, clearly indicates the status and character of vicars of the parish. These monumental remains now the person it commemorates. lie within the railing, but no other vestige of the church is extant.

The first of these coffin covers, as here represented,

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has the cross and sword incised, while the circular cross head decorated with the very unusual number of eight foriated points is executed in low relief. No example of this kind is described or figured in Boutell's Christian Monuments in England and Wales.* Or whom this mark of Christian remembrance was intended to commemorate, there is much perplexity of doubt-certainly it was not Sir Alexander Lindsay, or any of his descendants; he was buried where he died in the Isle of Candia, and none of his successors were interred at Finhaven till a comparatively late date. Lindsay's predecessors in the lordship of Finhaven are satisfactorily traced from the year 1250, when Cumyn, Earl of Buchan, then proprietor of the lands, and forester of the Royal Hunting Forest of Plater, within the boundary of which the lands and church of Finhaven were comprised, granted annually a certain surcharge out of them, to the monastery of Aberbrothoc. Philip, through whose boldness Robert the Bruce was enabled to capture the castle of Forfar from the English, was forester in 1308. Bruce's natural son, who fell at Dupplin, in 1332, held the same lands and office at the time of his death, and he was succeeded in them by Hew de Polayne, William Earl of Ross, and Sir David de Annand. This last was the immediate predecessor of Sir Alexander Lindsay, the rebuilder of the church.

To which, or, if to any of these earlier barons, the coffin lid pertains is alike matter of great uncertainty ; the Annand family held possessions in the district for a longer period than any other, since they also possessed the lands of North Melgund in the adjoining parish of Aberlemno till 1512, when a female descendant sold

It is very rudely incised, and in much the same style • To the labours of this able reverend antiquary, the

of sculpture as the one at Cupar Angis, placed there Editor gladly refers; his Monumental Brasses of England,

in the year 1400, in memory of an old monk of that 1819; and his Christian Monuments, embodying descrip.

· place on the margin left blank in the woodcut, tions of Slabs devoid of Effigies, and Semi-effigial Monu

in old English characters commencing above the head ments, 1854, should be found in every gentleman's library : of the figure, the following inscription remains they may now be secured, but the day is near at hand,

I ILIC iacET HONOVRABILIS VIR DNS RECHERD' BR... when they will be no longer procurable.

| VICARIVS DE FINHEVYN QVI OBIIT 20 DIE

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The stone has been much broken, and unfortunately and trees do move and run themselves. Thus it goeth when that part containing the last letters of the surname is we give up onrselves to our own foolish fancies and condefaced and partly wanting, and what may be deemed

ceits. This fool (Copernicus) will turn the wbole art of singular, neither the month or year appear to have

astronomy upside down ; but, the Scripture showeth and been chiselled to record his decease. The arms on the

teacheth another lesson, when Joshua commanded the sun shield at the feet of the effigy appear to be a rude re

to stand still, and not the earth. presentation of those of the Bruce family, a conjecture based on an old monument to William Bruce of Earls

HISTORY OF REYNARD THE FOX. hill at Leuchars, in Fifeshire, which has much the same

Goethe's German version of the long celebrated and arms, with a fleur de lis in chief for a difference. Pos- widely known fable or story of Reynard the Fox having sibly the vicar of Finhaven was a cadet of that ancient

| been rendered popularly familiar by Mr. Arnold's transfamily, although, as from the following remarks it will be

lation, the general acceptance with which it has been seen, I have failed to discover any one of that name as

welcomed, has induced the following remarks as illustraa prebendary of Finhaven.

tive of its history. The earliest recorded name of the parish priests of Enquiries of no common difficulty have occupied the Finhaven, is that of John de Monte Alto, a cadet of a attention of many erudite and learned men, and the origin Norman family, who held the neighbouring lordship of of the story of Reynard the Fox, seems to be unearthed Ferne, etc. He in 1379, was an attesting witness in amid the fragrancy of Oriental literature; in the the transfer of some contiguous lands, between his bro Anvár-i Subailí, or the Lights of Canopus, the Persian ther of Ferne and Sir Alexander Lindsay. John Knycht version of the Fables of Pilpay ; the original compilaheld the cure in 1435 ; and in 1474, John Lok was pre tion of which was in Sanskrit, by Vishnu Sharman, bendary. In 1510, the office was held by Henry Qihyt whom, Sir William Jones asserts, we ridiculously call (or White), who on the establishment of the College of Pilpay. The author, or the work, appears however to Justice, in Scotland, in 1532, was one of its original have been named Bidpai, and possibly explains the cause members. According to Henry White's obitus, he of the misnomer. In the Sanskrit, or Persian, instead died in June 1541, devising by his last will and testa- of the Fox, the Jackall is the hero of the tale, and the ment, the revenues of certain properties towards the humour of the story is nearly evaporated by making the maintenance of a priest for saying masses for his said hero a good and virtuous beast, instead of a bad and soul, which were to be annually celebrated with lighted | hypocritical one. tapers, etc., on the Sabbath following the feast of All Whence or whatever may be the source of this fable Saints, at the altar of St. Catherine, in the cathedral of or story, it certainly in its outline contains the germ of Brechin. The names of subsequent prebendaries present the extant History of Reynard the Fox; the second nothing in elucidation of those of their predecessors, and part of that history being in fact simply a skilfully diin the absence of other confirmative evidence I am dis- versified repetition of the first; both parts containing posed to consider the slab with its effigy, as belonging to particulars of Reynard's disgrace, and subsequent pardon some vicar who officiated at Finhaven, in the inter and favour. vening period between the time of Monte Alto and Many opinions have been entertained and expressed as Knycht.

to the intention and purport of the story of Reynard the Brechin.

A. J.

Fox; it is clearly a general satire upon all persons and

things, and upon the clergy in particular, hence possibly EARLY EDUCATION.-Choose l etimes the courses and siders that in the earlier versions no genuine satire

its adoption and commendation by Luther. Grimm convocations you mean your children should take, for then,

was intended, that is, so far as satire upon then existing they are most flexible ; not regarding altogether the disposition of the children, as thinking they will take but to

persons or contemporary things. As an instance, he

holds that the story of the Wolf's becoining a monk, that to which they have a mind. "It is true, that if the

had not originally a satirical allusion to the monks, but affection, or the aptness of the child be extraordinary,

is a perversion arising from his being described as grey, it would be wrong to cross it; but, generally, the precept will be found optimum elige; suave et facile illud

and hence old, and in consequence called grey coat, etc. faciet consuetudo-choose what is best, and custom will

In the meaning of the names borne by the principal

characters in the poem, Grimm observes these appellamake it pleasant and easy.- Bacon.

tions are of three kinds-firstly, Animal names having

a meaning in themselves, unlike names of men. SeCOPERNICUS OPPOSED TO TAE BIBLE.

condly, Proper names of men, given to animals on account LUTHER, in his Table Talk, notices

of their meaning. Thirdly, Similar names given to I am now advertised that a new astrologer is risen who animals with reference to some Historical Personages ; presumeth to prove that the eartb moveth and goeth about though, as he says, it is not easy to distinguish between - not the firmament; the sun and moon, not the stars - the second and third of these classes. These names have like as when one sitteth in a coach, or in a ship that is been appropriated to personages historically known, and moved, thinketh he sitteth still and resteth; but the earth

have even been adopted with modifications by writers of

eminence, but these adaptations have generally exploded based on Goëthe's poetical recital adopting the usual by reference to the chronology of the periods in which heroic couplet as the most familiar representative of the these persons supposed to be so personified existed. hexameters of his original, and in all respects is fully Grimm's opinions are notwithstanding entitled to much such as is required by the reading public; while the respect, as it must be confessed he has succeeded in satis- engravings from the designs of Mr. Joseph Wolf, are factorily disposing of various theories which have at pre-eminently distinguished for their adınirable exceltimes been advanced in elucidation of the allegorical lence of artistic skill, and the generally forcible illusmeaning of the poem

trations they render to the unequivocally broad HudiTill Grimm took up the subject it was universally be- brastic humour of the work. lieved the Low German or Saxon poem, Reynke de Vos, printed at Lübeck, in 1498, in quarto, was the original story, while it was even then a diversified opinion

SCHOLA SALERNITANA. whether the authorship rested with Heinreck von Alckmer, or Nicholaus Baumann, writers who were

The authority of Muratori, and of Gibbon, to prove said, or supposed to have lived at the close of the who was the King of England to whom the verses of fifteenth or commencement of the sixteenth century; 1

the Schola Salernitana were dedicated, having been but this was an erroneous acceptation, the manuscript of

more than once quoted, it may not be amiss to place a much earlier Flemish version, attributed to the middle

before the readers of Current Notes who have taken an of the thirteenth century, or earlier, was purchased by interest in the discussion, the words of these two celethe Belgian Government, at the sale of Mr. Heber's brated authors, in order that they may of themselves library. The author of this Flemish version is said to judge of the credibility which their opinions invests the have been named Willem die Madock (or Matoc), or side to which they are really inclined. Muratori's Willem van Uterhoven. From this, a version in prose

a version in prose words areand verse was printed in quarto, by Gheraet Leeu at Nel secolo XI., la Città di Salerno singolarmente fiorì Gouda, in 1479; Caxton translated this volume and per l'Arte della Medicina, e abbondò d'uomini molto rinoprinted it in 1481, in one of the chapels attached to West mati in essa : del che fa tuttavia testimonianza il Libro inminster Abbey. Leeu's edition of Die Historie van titolato La Scuola Salernitana, che alcuni credono dedicato, Reynaert de Vos was again printed at Delft in Holland,

circa l'anno 1099, a Roberto, figlio di Guglielmo Primo, in 1485, and amid the facilities proffered by the exten

Re d'Inghilterra; ma altri piu probabilmente a Edoardo sion of the art of printing, translations in most of the

Re d'essa Inghilterra, prima dell'anno 1066 ; giacchè la

| dedica del Libro il chiama Angliæ Regem. Fors'egli ricercò continental tongues became disseminated, and created a

a il parere di quei medici per conservare la Sanità; giacchè generally extended ramification of the Reynardine fables.si

les. si grande era il credito di essa Città per la Medicina, che They are subsequently found in all languages,and editions anche uomini di alto affare passavano in essa per isperanza of multitudinous places and dates—no story was more di guarire i loro Mali.t popular, it diverted childhood, pleased if it did not in

nominal Gibbon's words, which are of similar import, may be struct those of maturer years, and was the amusement there and solace of greatly advanced age.

" thus quotedFashion and the quest of novelty during the eighteenth Salerno was enriched by the practice, the lessons, and century seem to have caused a partial forgetfulness of the writings of Constantine, an African Christian, the pupil Reynard by the generality of readers, till it was of Avicenna. The School of Medicine long slept at the awakened by the pictorial display of stuffed animals name of a university ; but her precepts are abridged in a sent by Hermann Ploucquet of Wurtemberg, to the me

string of aphorisms, bound together in the Leonine verses, morable Exhibition in Hyde Park, in 1851, when several

or Latin rhymes of the twelfth century. Muratori carries of the groups were in positions conformably to Kaul

their antiquity above the year 1066, that of the death of

Edward the Confessor, the Rex Anglorum to whom they bach's Illustrations to Goëthe's poem of Reineke Fuchs.

be's poem of REINCRC fucns. I were addressed. Admirable in themselves, they induced a more general attention to the story, and the several versions of it ; to

Bristol, November 9.

F. S. Donato. satisfy which, various publications have emanated, and elicited the certainty of the public desire to obtain a

Knipton.- What is the etymology of the word popular version, and one that should be deemed an orna-Kninton

orna. Knipton, the name of a village on the river Devon, in ment in the library. Mr. Arnold's translation is wholly Leicesters

mis whony Leicestershire. It was anciently written Gniptone, or

Cnypton. * Alkmer was the author of the version printed in 1498,

Knipton, Nov. 20.

W. FLETCHER. from its rarity long almost unknown. It was reprinted at Rostock, in 1517, without name of Editor or Printer. There were three subsequent editions, printed at the same place in * Dissertazioni sopra le Antichità Italiane; Opera Pos1522, 1539, and 1543, all in quarto, the former of these tuma in Roma, 1755, 8vo., Tomo II., Dissert. 44. was edited by Baumann, and while the Lubeck edition was t Decline of the Roman Empire, edit. 1825, vol. VII., undiscovered, Baumann was by many held as the writer. p. 139.

THE BRONZE GALLEY AT SEBASTOPOL. What is more probable than that the Czar with his semiOn the hill to the right of Fort Nicholas, which pro

Scythian, semi-Oriental trust in Imagery may have jects out into the harbour, as seen from the western

built that brazen galley to frown along the Western heights of Sebastopol, towers prominently a majestic Sea, and to become, alas, the treacherous Labarum of bis monumental trophy, surmounted by a bronze galley

fatal war. of elegant form and elaborate enrichment. Upon the

Morwenstow, Nov. 1.

R. S. HAWKER. entry of the allies, many were the conflicting assertions made respecting its purpose; by some it was heedlessly

INSCRIPTION ON A ROCK IN GALLOWAY. said to have been commemorative of the Empress Ca

I send the enclosed drawing of an Inscription on a therine; by others that it was a symbolic emblem of rock in Anwoth parish, in Galloway, N.B., in the hope Sebastopol. The position of this magnificent structure some of your Antiquarian correspondents may be able to was doubtless intended to serve for more than its appa- give a solution of it. The characters are neatly and rent intention, and the following observations, forwarded exactly executed, and are admitted by all who have seen by a respected correspondent, seem to proffer conjectures them to be very ancientin aid of a very satisfactory elucidation.

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The bronze galley of Sebastopol is in all likelihood and though they seem to belong to Scotland, they are the Labarum of the Eastern Empire. Its origin was found in varions places in this country, as at Keilor, this. The Ark of Noah, that supernatural abode wherein Arbroath, and elsewhere, which shows they had a sigwood, couched upon water, accomplished the rescue of nification which was generally understood at the time our race, was the elected Symbol in the early Ages of they were chisellid on the hoary rocks on which they rethe Visible Church ; the place of safe sojourn for man, main as a puzzle and wonder to all who behold them. the exile upon Earth! Thus, the actual and the emblem Should any of your numerous readers be able to give shape of the Ark, graphic or graven, was that of the a satisfactory explication of these characters, it will, I ancient vessel of every land, double prowed, to glide am sure, create much gratification to many in this part every way as the church would move; and crescent- of the kingdom, and in particular to formed, the Image of the Moon in her youth, that Twynholm, Nov. I.

J. M. mystic Lady of the Sea ! So was traced on Egyptian walls, the galley of Ogyges; and so in their marbles FREDERICK THE GREAT AND TOTTLEBEN. was shown the antique vessel of the Phænicians and the Considerable interest is at this moment attached in Greeks, until the boat of Gennesaret took up and de- reference to the ancestry of General Tottleben, the able livered onward the symbolic form to signify the Nave or defender of Sebastopol by his masterly application of the Church of the Apostles, on every shore and sea. means for repelling the invincibility of the Allies. The Therefore, it was, that when Constantine framed his following letter from Frederick the Great, addressed to supernatural banner, he pourtrayed thereon a Crescent- the Grand Bailiff and the Burgomasters of Antwerp, in ship lifted on high upon the stock and transome of a interest of one of his officers, Colonel Tottleben, appears Cross, and underneath he wrote the legendary Promise to relate to the General's grandfather(?), who would seem of Victory from God, in such a sign--IN HOC, VINCE to have been a Prussian. The whole is a love affair, suffithe starry words he saw in dreams of night.

ciently romantic in its commencement, but gradually The word Labarum is a name of very harassed import involving the parties in an unpleasant situation. Colonel among learned men, but the nearest approach to its ori- | Tottleben had carried off the ward of some rich burgo gin appears to be traceable in the dialect of Armenia, master of Amsterdam, who had designed her and her and around Mount Ararat, where the vessel of Noah fortune for one of his own family. The Colonel is pursued stood still. There, they to this day call the Ark“ Baris," and taken at Weimar, and every means used to bring and possibly some Eastern prefix or change may consti- hin, to destruction ; he is incarcerated and tried for the tute the total name. Be this as it may, we know that offence, and would, without a defence, have been conConstantine did lift the Labarum ; that his Arkite EnsignJeminer, if some friend had not furnished him the was so called, and that it was a Church-crested Cross. means of procuring legal assistance, by which his case is

placed in its true light. It is shewn that the young cela s'est fait de son libre consentement, et avec toutes les İady, who was an orphan born in the East Indies, had formalités, qui rendent le marriage valide en tout païs du been encloistered without receiving the education proper monde. L'unique defaut qu'on pourroit y objecter, c'est to her station, and treated harshly because she would

w celui du consentement des Tuteurs: Mais outre que selon not receive the husband proposed for her. The monarch

| vos propres loix, ce consentement n'est pas d'une necessité

absoluë, et que les Tuteurs ne peuvent pas le refuser, à enters into the detail of the case, and asserts that the

moins d'alleguer des raisons tres graves, contre la personne Burgomasters unjustly charge Tottleben with having de l'epoux, il est à observer, que les deux epoux sont tout obtained the protection of his ministers by corruption, a fait estrangeres à vôtre egard, que l'epouse etant née aux for that he was recommended to his notice by the same | Indes, ne s'est jamais fait inscrire au nombre de vos habitans, friend who had furnished him with the means of defence; que si vous l'avez considerée, comme sujette de votre ville, and that after having investigated the original papers of cette sujettion n'a eté que temporaire, et n'a pu avoir de the process, the King offered to become the mediator force, que durant le tems, qu'elle y a demeuré, et que ce between the Colonel and the guardians of his wife, and lien cesse naturellement dés qu'elle transporte d'ailleurs son to be trustee for the assurance of the whole principal domicile l'administration de ces biens par la chambre des of her fortune against all accidents; thinking that the

orfelins ne l'attachant pas plus à vos loix, que tant d'autres young people had already been too much persecuted for

etrangers, qui ont du bien dans votre banque, et dans vos

autres fonds publics. Supposé neantmoins, que vous croyiez an affair which has happened a thousand times without

avoir des raisons, pour obliger les deux Epoux à se conthe same stir having been made.

former à vos loix, ils ne seront pas difficulté de s'y soumettre, MESSIEURS, J'ai recu la lettre que vous m'avez ecrite et comme ils m'ont representé, que le credit de leur partie, en date du 23 Juillet passé, pour me prevenir contre le dont la superiorité ne s'est manifesté que trop dans toute la Colonel de Tottleben, et pour l'accuser de rechercher ma procedure, les empechoit de comparoitre personnellement, protection par des corruptions et par d'autres voyes illicites. et que par la meme raison aucun Avocat ni Procureur Vous alleguez en preuve une de ses lettres, que vous avez n'osoit se charger, de leurs interets, c'est sur leurs instances, interceptée, et ou il remercie son Correspondant, de l'avoir que j'ai chargé et autorisé mon Intendant des Domaines mis en etat par ses avances de vaincre ses ennemis à Weimar, le Sr. Douglas de faire toutes les demarches, que vos ùs et et de se procurer un acces salutaire à Berlin. Trouvez bon, coutumes exigent pour legaliser le mariage en question, que je vous dise, que je n'y saurois voir la noirceur, que aussi bien que de convenir avec vous, en y interposant même vous pretendez y trouver. Vous avez fait poursuivre le mon nom, s'il le faut, de toutes les precautions, que vous Colonel de Tottleben jusqu'à Weimar, et vous l'avez fait jugerez necessaires, par rapport au bien de la femme du encoffrer comme un criminel, pour une affaire, qui s'est Colonel de Tottleben, de maniere que son Capital lui reste pratiquée mille fois parmi vous, sans que vous vous soyez assuré contre toutes sortes d'evenements. Comme cet arjamais avisés d'en faire tant de bruit, et de pousser les rangement satisfait et remedie à toutes les objections, qu'on choses à des semblables extremités. Obligé donc de se de-a faites jusqu'ici contre le marriage en question, je me fendre, le pouvoit il sans argent, tandisque vos commis en promets de vôtre equité, que vous vous y preterez avec repandoient à pleines mains pour le ruiner? Sorti ensuite plaisir, et que vous rendrez prompte et impartiale justice victorieux de l'accusation, que vous aviez intentée contre aus deux Epoux, qui n'ont que trop souffert jusqu'ici par lui, par le secours d'un ami, qui a bien voulu risquer quelques les persecutions de leur partie. Vous augmenterez par là avances, pour lui faire soutenir les fraix de la prison et de la reputation de sagesse, et d'integrite, que vous vous etes la procedure, faute de quoi, il n'auroit jamais pû ni se acquis à juste titre, et vous ne laisserez pas de m'obliger justifier, ni se rendre ici, n'est il pas naturel, et dans l'ordre, tres particulierement, et de m'engager à m'employer avec qu'il en marque sa reconnoissance à son bienfaiteur et qu'il plaisir toutes les fois, que je trouverai occasion de contribuer avouë, que c'est à ses secours, qu'il est redevable de sa à votre satisfaction et à vos avantages. Sur ce je prie victoire à Weimar, et du bon accueil qu'il a trouvé à Berlin. | Dieu de vous avoir en sa sainte et digne garde. à Berlin Car quant aux corruptions, dont vous le chargez d'avoir | 3 Aout, 1751. voulů user auprès de mes ministres, je suis bien aise de vous avertir, que ceuxci n'entrent absolument pour rien dans l'affaire du dit Colonel, et que ce n'est ni par leur canal, ni sur leur rapports, que j'en ai pris connoissance, mais que cet officier s'etant addressé immediatement à moi pour demander ma protection, je ne la lui ai accordée, qu'apres, qu'il ni eut mis devant les yeux les pieces originales du procès de Weimar. C'est là que j'ai compris clairement, qu'il n'est question dans cette affaire, ni de rapt, ni d'enlevement, comme il vous plait de le qualifier, et que tout ce qu'on peut reprocher au Colonel de Tottleben, c'est d'avoir sauvé une orfeline etrangere, qui l'en avoit solicité elle même et qui s'etoit jettée de pleingré entre ses mains, pour se sonstraire, elle et son bien, à la cupidité de ses Tuteurs,

Subsequently, as Count Tottleben, he is mentioned qui l'avoient sequestrée du commerce du monde, et comme

frequently in the history of the wars of that period ; encloitrée, sans lui donner meme une education convenable

and appears to have entered into the Russian service. à son etat uniquement pour s'accommoder de ses richesses,

A portrait before the writer is designated, Le Comte de en la donnant à quelcun de leur Famille, pour lequel elle | Totleben, General d'Armée au service de S.M.I. de avoit une aversion insurmontable. S'il l'a epousée ensuite, | Russie, etc.

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