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A. J.

ABERDEENSHIRE BENEFACTIONS.

SPES ET FORTUNA VALETE. Affixed to the kirk-yard wall of Foot Dee or Futtee, The following monumental inscriptions are based upon in Aberdeen, is the following record of the liberality of a the sentiments embodied in the old Greek epigram, descendant of the heroic Sir Robert Davidson, " provost recently noticed in Current Notes. The first is in the of braif Aberdeen," who fell at the battle of Harlaw in chancel of Mickleham church, Surrey. 1411.

Here lyeth buried under this stone the Body of John GEORGE DAVIDSONE ELDER BVRGES OF ABD.

Stydolf, Esq. which deceased the 8th day of May, in the BIGIT THIS DYK ON HIS OVIN EXPENSES, 1650.

Yere of our Lord, a thousand five hundred seventy-six.

Inveni portum, spes et fortuna valete, Below are the arms of Davidson, a fess, three peons in

Nil mihi vobiscum, ludite nunc alios. chief, a stag lodged in base, and the initials g. D.

Quocumque ingrederitur, sequitur mors In Monteith's Theater of Mortality, and in all sub

Corporis umbram. sequent works in which this inscription has been The other, is at Kingston-upon-Thames. noticed, the reading is erroneously rendered thus :

Lata locus mihi porta necis sic porta valeto : George Davidsone elder civis aberdonensis,

Lata per angustam non placet ire viam. biggit tbir church-yard dyke upon his own expenses.

Intravi angustam (si fas sit dicere) portam, George Davidson, proprietor of the lands of Pettens

Porta vale, (fas sit dicere,) lata vale. and Bogfairlie in Belhelvy, distinguished himself by

Inveni portum letum, dum lata per orbem

Non via nec firmum porta decere locum. other acts of munificence for the public good. Besides building the kirk-yard wall of Futtee, he erected and

The foregoing are copied literatim. endowed the church of Newhills, built the bridge of

Hawkshead, Sept. 5.

D. B. H. Bruxburn, and endowed several schools, these bene

FREDERICK THE GREAT. factions being wholly in Aberdeenshire. He died a

In Current Notes, 1854, p. 18, a former correspondent bachelor in 1663.

has forwarded some interesting particulars of the disBrechin, Sept. 3.

persion of Frederick the Great's scanty wardrobe, and
as early Exhibition Bills, are generally deemed matters

of curiosity, I enclose the following.
CROFT'S MUSICA SACRA.
Oxford, Sept. 8.

J. M. B. Lowndes in his Bibliographer's Manual, p. 511, to THE Nobility. Gentry, and the Public in the notice of Dr. Croft's Musica Sacra, or Select An

1 general, are hereby respectfully informed, that the thems in score, 1724, folio, appends this remark : THREE CELEBRATED FIGURES, (which are made in

A splendid edition published by subscription. The first the original mould taken off the real face of the lute work that was stamped on pewter plates, and in score. This

Illustrious KING of PRUSSIA, work published anonymously, contains the words of Select

Will be Sold by Auction, Anthems used in the Chapel Royal, Westminster Abbey,

By Mr. CHRISTIE, St. Paul's, etc., with a Preface containing a short Account On SATURDAY, the 19th instant, at two o'clock, at No. 4, of our Church Music, and an Encomium on Tallis and Bird.

Cockspur-street,

Together with the identical dresses he last wore.-Likewise The bibliographer is here wholly in error. The work his field bed-stead, sword, cane, etc.—All of which are auis engraved not stamped on pewter plates, the claim thenticated by undoubted authority. is only that of its being the first collection of Church To be seen till the time of sale, as usual, at No. 4, Cockmusic so produced-types having been previously used spur-street, bottom of the Hay-market. for that purpose. The Musica Sacra consists of Anthems,

Admittance One Shilling, with the music in score, wholly composed by Dr. Croft ; Cockspur-street, May 15, 1787. the reference therefore to the anonymously published words of Select Anthems, without the Music, attributed

PRIOR'S CHLOE. as editor to Dr. Croft, is wholly to a different work,

On the fly leaf of a presentation copy in morocco of thus entitled :

Prior's Poems, printed for Tonson, 1709, 8vo., inscribed

to “ Eliz. Rowney junior," are the following lines Divine Harmony; or a New Collection of Select Anthems used at Her Majesty's Chappels Royal, Westminster Abbey,

I read with pleasure what fond Prior says St. Pauls, Windsor, both Universities, Eaton, and most

In softest verse unto his fair Cloe's praise, Cathedrals in Her Majesty's Dominions. Designed for the

But know his Images far exceed what's true, use of such as attend Choir Service, etc. Printed and sold

Such could be justly said of none but you.

E. Noel. by S. Keble, at the Turk's Head in Fleet Street, 1712, 8vo.

ERRATA.-P. 53, col. 1, line 8 from foot, for SAIR The Preface noticed by Lowndes, and the Encomium

read CAIR. 1. 7, for speir read sPAIR. P. 54, 1. 1, for on Tallis and Bird, are prefixed to this volume, not to the

wall read well. P. 63, col. 1, 1. 16 from foot, for pingi Musica Sacra, 1724. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

read jungi ; l. 10, for adpingi read adjungi ; and 1. 9, for alius read aliis.

WILLIS'S CURRENT NOTES.

No. LVIII.)

“ Takes note of what is done-
By note, to give and to receive."-SHAKESPEARE.

[OCTOBER, 1855.

NUREMBERG MASK FOR PUNISHMENT.

SCHOLA SALERNITANA.

Much interested with the various contributions to Having in previous numbers of Current Notes given

Current Notes on the question to whom the Schola several illustrations of the former uses of implements

Salernitana was really dedicated, I have been greatly of punishment and torture, as applied to females under

pleased to find the subject, though medical, has been the appellation of Branks or Scold's-bridles ; the follow

one of general interest. Some years since, I purchased ing may possibly afford some interest, from its having

mg for a mere trifle an old edition of the Aphorisms of been in the olden time chiefly employed for the cor

Hippocrates, with comments on Galen, Heurnius, and rection of minor offences committed by men, by exciting

Fuchsius, having bound in the same volume, an early ridicule against the wearer; and for such purpose was frequently placed on the heads of soldiers for breaches

manuscript translation of the Schola Salernitana, in

which, on examination are some verses, which do not of discipline.

appear in any printed copy to which I have had access.
I have the translation by the famous Dr. Philemon
Holland, 1617, and a similar one dated 1609. I have
also referred to Sir Alexander Croke's and to other
editions. At this moment, the most interestirg portion
are the introductory lines, which in my opinion settles
the question as to the “ England's King,” noticed imine-
diately after, in the leading verse of the poem :

This worke yclept the flowre of Medicine,
Compilde at first in verses Leonine,
By Lohn of Millaine, Doctor of Salerne;
But by th' whole colledge as yr great concerne
Was dedicate to Robert heire o' the crowne
Of England, (thogh Henry helde it as his own ;)
On his return from conquerde Palestine,

Th' eleven hundredth yeare of Xi divine.
Dr. Friend, in his History of Medicine, states this
work was compiled about the year 1100, and made so
great a noise in that and succeeding ages as to be
thought worthy the comments of Arnoldus de Villa
Nova. After all, the ancients like the moderns wor-

shipped the rising characters of the age, and it is thereIt is formed of bands of iron, which fold over the fore not at all improbable, that it was at first dedicated head and are fastened behind by a padlock. A pair of to EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, as he had the repute of asses ears are placed on the sides, and spectacles admiring foreign in preference to native talent, and on attached to the face; a double plate closes over the every opportunity proved that partiality ; but that after mouth, and a whistle passes up the nostril, which, his death, when Robert the son of William the Conshould the wearer attempt to speak, produces a loud queror, on his way from Palestine sought refuge in sound. The mask is painted in flesh colour, the eye- Salerno, it is natural to suppose that the eldest son of a brows and ears are shaded with dark grey, and a mouth powerful monarch, and one who had honoured their is delineated upon the plate covering the lower part of college by consulting the professors on the subject of his the face.

own ailments, would afford occasion for the dedicatory During the last year it was obtained from the old lines to him. This conjecture is further confirmed by castle at Nuremberg by Mr. Fairholt, and from him the additional verses on Fistula, to which complaint it has passed to Lord Londesborough. It is engraved in is said Duke Robert was then subject. the recently published sixth part of the Miscellanea An imitation of this poem was written by Ægidius, Graphica, an admirably conducted work, devoted to the archiater to Philip Augustus, at the close of the Twelfth illustration of Lord Londesborough's Collection of Anti-century. This Ægidius was a Benedictine monk, and quities, and which the Editor would unequivocally yet his subject, the Virtues of Medicines, and on Urines and respectfully commend to the reader's notice,

Pulse, in hexameter verses without regard to syllables ; VOL. V.

[graphic]

he calls Galen and Constantine too prolix, and Philare- | Tenth Century, and frequented by patients from France tus too short.

and Spain, although 'l iraboschi doubts the fact; Bossi In conclusion, I may state, the Translation of the however in support of his assertion, refers to Vitalis, a Schola Salernitana contains ninety-seven verses, and is writer of the Twelfth Century, who affirms that that worthy a closer examination. The differences of this school was established two centuries before his time. Manuscript when compared with the printed editions What follows will best appear in his own words, and are numerous, and I am inclined to think, that it is a will correct a former erroneous conjecture of mine, fuller copy of the original than any printed one; and if Gratuita è pure l'asserzione del Tiraboschi, che quella not too long I should like to see it printed in Current scuola molto dovesse alle opere di Costantino Africano; Notes, with all its peculiarities of style.

come è assai dubbio il fatto, ammesso anche dal Gianpone, Manchester, Sept. 27. CHARLES CLAY, M.D. che risvegliato fosse in quella città ed in que' popoli lo studio

della medicina a cazione dei molti libri di quell'arte in quelle EDWARD THE FIRST, TIE “REX ANGLORUM.provincie recati dai Saraceni, eto. Della scuola Salernitana After the lapse of so many ages, it is extremely

sono tuttora celebri i precetti per conservare la sanità, india

rizzati al Re d Inghilterra, o forse a Roberto di Normandia, difficult, or rather impossible to determine who was the

pretendente a quella corona ; e come già da me si accennò Rex Anglorum noticed in John of Milan's curious me- vel & 4. compilati furono que' precetti in versi da Maestro dical work entitled Schola Salernitana. History is Giovanni da Milano, detto dottore egregio di medicina, come totally silent on the subject ; to name therefore any par- | da un antico codice si raccoglie. ticular king, as the patron of that once celebrated school, The circumstances mentioned in favour of Duke can only be a matter of conjecture.

Robert's claim as the patron of the medical school of In a former numer of Current Notes, p. 60, I men

Salerno, are not supported by any recorded fact in History; tioned Edward the Confessor solely on the authority of

on the contrary, they seem to point to King EDWARD two eminent and indefatigable antiquaries and historians,

Tue First, as the • Rex Anglorum,' the intended Royal Muratori and Gibbon ; but having now carefully con

personage. Prince Edward embarked at Portsmouth, in sidered the subject, I do not find any historical fact to

May, 1770, and thence passed through France, Italy and

a favour either Muratori's conjecture, or Tiraboschi's as

Sicily, on his way to Palestine. On June 17, in the folsertion. The latter cites a manuscript which he appears

lowing year, he was wounded by an assassin, with a never to have seen, stating actually, as he says, that the

poisoned dagger, the venom of which was extracted by work in question was addressed to Robert the Second,

his wife, the Princess Eleanor, who, by sucking the wound Duke of Normandy-di fatto al Re Roberto indiritta. Leffected a cure, which medicine could not effect. His He does not quote directly from the manuscript, but

father, King Henry the Third, died Nov. 16, 1272, and Ed. from the Catal.' Cod. MSS., Bibl. Regiæ Paris., Vol. IV.

ward though absent was soon after proclaimed King. In page 294, where he found the title

the spring of 1273, Edward, on his way homeward, landed 6941. Salernitanæ Scholæ Versus ad Regem Rober

in Sicily, where he was honourably received at the court of tum.

Charles the First, Earl of Anjou and Provence, and King The compiler of the Catalogue was doubtless led into

of Naples and Sicily, and there first heard of his father, error by the romancing preface of Zacharie Dubois, or, Kin

O!: King Henry's death. After a short stay here, he was Zacharias Sylvius, as he designates himself in the Paris

conducted by Charles to the Roman court, where, with edition of 1627. The statement also, that Guaimar,

his familiar friend, Pope Gregory the Tenth, King prince of Salerno, invited the Normans into Italy, is a

Edward the First spent some time, and thence passed into pure fiction, as this prince's eyes were put out in 896.

Burgundy. We next find him at the French Court, I Normanni,' ¿.e. the Danes and Norwegians had in

where he was received with distinguished honours by his vaded Italy so early as the time of Charlemagne, about

cousin King Philip the Third, to whom Edward did hom812; but the descendants of Rollo and his followers, the

age for his hereditary lands, and received formal possesNormans, properly so called, who with their swords made

sion of them. Having visited other parts of France, he their way into Apulia and afterwards into Sicily, did not lembarked for England, and landed at Dover, on August obtain any footing in Italy prior to 1008. Their history,

2, 1274, and was crowned at Westminster, on the Sunand that of Tancred and his twelve sons, and especially

day after the feast of the Assumption, being the 19th of

that month in the same year. serted here. Rollo himself was not settled in Normandy

In 1282, Pedro of Arragon, in right of his wife, harbefore the year 912.

ing claimed the crown of Sicily, the dispute, it was Bossi, who in his elaborate and learned work, the

agreed, Charles and he should determine by single comIstoria d'Italia Antica e Moderna, printed in 19 volumes, 1

Si bat, at Bordeaux, in the presence of King Edward the 1819-23, 8vo., continually cites Muratori, Giannone, and

First, as Umpire; but on the day appointed, * and while Tiraboschi, and frequently notices the School of Salerno, makes no mention whatever of the words • Versus ad

• Easter-day, 1282, the first bell at Vespers being the Regem Robertum,' said to be seen ipso facto in the signal for the massacre. The Papists in this, and in that of Paris Manuscript, but in Vol. XIV. lib. 4, cap. 28, $6., St. Bartholomew, 1572, appear to have had no hesitation in says the School of Salerno was already celebrated in the appropriating the hour" of the observance of their religious

Charles awaited bis arrival, Pedro seized upon the king

HORNBOOK OF TAE OLDEN DAY. dom of Sicily, and perpetrated that horrible massacre of

- Most venerable Code! the French, men, women, and children, eternised in his

Learning's first cradle and its last abode. tory as 'the Sicilian Vespers.' Shortly after, Charles Prince of Salerno, son of the King of Naples, was taken

Hornbooks are now so completely superseded by the prisoner by Pedro, and closely confined till 1285, when

Battledore, and the various forms of Reading made he was ransomed by King Edward for the sum of thirty

Easy, that they are rarely met with, and few perthousand silver marks; and became Charles the Second,

sons believe that such was formerly the means adopted

to teach the infantine ideas how to shoot. King of Naples.

In manuSee Echard's History of England; Heylyn's Cosmo

scripts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a graphy, Sicily and Naples; and Bossi, vol. XV. c. 11.

nearly similar mode of disposition of the contents of the Hawkshead, Oct. 8.

D. B. H.

Horn-book may occasionally but rarely be met with; the alphabet being in all instances seen by the writer

preceded by the +, hence the alphabet thus disposed The library of the recently deceased Duke of Genoa, was called “the Cris Cros," or Christ Cross Row.* consisting chiefly of works on Military Science, and Some writers state it was so designated because a cross among them more than four hundred volumes of Manu was prefixed to the alphabet in the old primers ; but as scripts, in the Italian and other languages, is by order probably from a superstitious custom of writing the of the Duchess, being made available for the use of the alphabet in the form of a t, by way of charm; a public, to whom the library is to be opened on January custom which has been solemnly practised by bishops 1, 1856,

in the consecration of churches.to

The Primer (Primarius, Lat.) was a small book of

prayers in which children were taught to read, so named JACOBITE MEMENTOES.

from the Romish book of Devotions, which King Henry David Lord Ogilby, afterwards fourth Earl of Airly. VIII., in 1545, ordered to be printed in English, and joined the Stuart cause at Edinburgh in October 1945 “ set furth by the Kinges Majestie and his Clergie, to at the head of a regiment of six hundred men, princi

be taught, lerned and red." This gave the name of pally his own friends and retainers from the County of Forfar. Lord Ogilby's regiment took an active part at

• On the introduction of printing, other and imposing the battle of Culloden, which proved so disastrous to the

forms of inducing children to learn were adopted by

monkish instructors, as in the instance of the block printed interest of the Chevalier, and Lady Ogilby equally as

sheet, entitled Propugnacula, seu Turris Sapientiæ; the loyal as her husband accompanied him to the battle

Bulwark, or Tower of Knowledge. Such broadsides were field, where she was taken prisoner and conducted to

doubtless in the fifteenth century in common use in moEdinburgh Castle, from which in the course of a few nasteries and schools. The so named Propugnacula, has months she escaped. The silver drinking cup, and the its appellation on the left upper corner, printed in the form sword worn by Lord Ogilby at Culloden, commemorative of a Tower ; the alphabet in capitals, ascends by way of spoils of that bloody conflict, are now in the possession moral sentences, thus the following is the last line but one of Mr. James Dickson, Distributor of Stamps, at Kir

on the foundation of the Towerriemuir. The cup bears the arms of Ogilby of Airly,

1 A. Fundamentum Turris Sapientiæ et Humilitas que est and the sword has the following inscriptions in French

Mater Virtutum. and German :

On the turrets are the words, Innocencia, Puritas, Timor

Dei, Caritas, Continencia and Virginitas. These sheets Si la Fortune me tourmente.

subsequently obtained the name of a. b. c.'s, and more • L' Esperance me contente.

recently under that title, various admonitory publications addressed to children of a larger growth emanated from the

press. Among them-
Wer nicht lust hat zu Schönen pferds,

An A. B. C. to the Christian congregation,
Ein blanckes Schweerdt,

Or a patheway to the heavenly habitation;
Ein Schines Weib,

a broadside to which the name of Thomas Knell is subHat kien Soldaten hertz in Lieb.

scribed, with-Imprynted at London by Rycharde Kele. The latter may be thus rendered

No date is attached, but Kele's last known dated production

is of the year 1552. Who has not pleasure in fine horses,

Quite in accordance with the dictum of Dr. Watts,-
In a bright Sword,

A verse may catch him who a sermon flies ;
And beautiful Woman,
Hus no Soldier's heart in his body.

admonitory rhymes, called ballads or ballates, were also

similarly 80 named, and in 1557, John Wallye or Waley Brechin, Oct. 8.

A. J. in Foster-lane, and Mistress Toye, had licence from the

Stationers' Company to print a ballad of “the a. b. c. of

a preste called Huegh Sturmey;" and another entitled faith, as fitting opportunities for the perpetration of the “ the Aged Man's a. b. c." most atrocious inhumanities.-ED.

+ Picart's Religious Ceremonies, vol. I. p. 131.

the Primer to elementary guides of a similar purport The wire, stick or straw, that served to point to the with the Hornbook.

letters which the child learning the alphabet was reFrom Christ Cross Row, probably for shorter pro- quired to name, was called “a fescue;" and on early nunciation, it became popularly the Cross Row.* marked dials the figure XII or noon, was supplied by a Robert Wyer was the printer of a poetical production, cross; to this there is a humourous allusion in the in seven line stanzas, entitled — The Mayden's Crosse Puritan, 1607 Rowe, ending with Finis qd. Robert Wyer; a termi- ! Fall to your business roundly; the fescue of the dial is nation which probably implied Wyer was not only the upon the Christ-cross of noon. printer but also the author. In 1569, Thomas Colwell had lycense for the pryntinge of a Newe Yeres Gyfte,

Decker's Gull's Horn-book, 1609, was a satirical or a New Christe-crosse Roo, called Purge the oldu

guide or rather censure of the fashionable follies of the

Town.
Lavyn that yt may be Newe doo.f.
Heywood in his Six Hundred of Epigrammes, 1562,

Peacham, in his Worth of a Penny, states4to., has one “ of the letter H," in which he asserts—

For a penny you may buy the hardest book in the

World, and which at some time or other hath posed the H is worst among letters in the Crosse-row.

greatest Clerks in the World ; viz., a Horn-book—the Shakespeare in his Richard the Third, 1597, Act 1, making up of which book employeth above thirty Trades. sc. 1, v akes Clarence complain to Gloucester, because! A Mr. T. Playtes issued a prospectus of a Horn-book his name is George; the King

for the Remembrance of the Signs of Salvation, in - Hearkens after prophecies and dreams,

Twelve volumes, 8vo., with Three hundred and SixtyAnd from the cross-row plucks the letter G; Five thousand references, or one thousand for every And says, a wizard told him that by G

day in the year! His issue disinherited should be.

Locke in his Thoughts upon Education, printed in Florio defines the word “ Centurubla. a childes | 1693, speaks of the ordinary road of the hornbook and horne-booke hanging at his girdle." This should be primer; and in most of the shop-lists of the chap-book good authority, for Shakespeare in his Love's Labour publishers at this period, they are enumerated for the Lost, 1598, has in Holofernes characterised Florio, and hawkers, or flying-stationers, with Bibles, Testaments, in Act V. sc. 1, makes Moth assert to Armado—" he Concordances, spelling books, primers, horn-books ; teaches boys the horn-book.” The French La Croix writing-paper, paper books, and marriage certificates par Dieu, Cotgrave defines as “the Christs-crosse- / on parchment stamped. rowe, or horne-booke wherein a child learnes it."

Shenstone, born in 1714, in his delightfully quaint Ben Jonson in allusion to the horn-book, makes poem entitled The Schoolmistress,' commemorates Corvino, in his Volpone, 1605, while referring to the the venerable preceptress of the dame school, near Hales alleged infidelities of Celia towards her husband, point Owen in Shropshire, in which as a child he was taught to his head, and exclaim

the rudiments of the horn-book

Lo! now witb state, she utters her command,
The letters may be read, through the horn,

Eftsoons the urchins to their tasks repair;
That make the story perfect.

Their books of stature small they take in hand
Act IV. sc. 2.

Which with pellucid horn secured are,

To save from finger wet the letters fair. • Johnson in explanation says, the first line is the cross

The alphabet on a square piece of gingerbread, for

merly among the articles sold at Fun's Saturnalia, row, so named because a cross is placed at the beginning, to show that the end of learning is piety. Grose, who

Bartholomew Fair, appears to have been commonly in fattened on the jocoseries of antiquarianism, has recorded use more than a century and a half since. Prior, in a somewhat similar definition. An Irishman explaining his Alma, notices the reason why the alphabet is called the Criss-cross Row,

To Master John the English maid, said it was because Christ's cross was prefixed at the be

A horn-book gives, of gingerbread; ginning and end of it. Olio, 1798, p. 195.

And that the child may learn the better, + Kemble might have adduced this among his authorities

As he can name, he eats the letter. * for the pronouncing ache, a pain, as the letter H. # The Horn-book is depicted in paintings by continen

The Catalogue of the British Museum Library detal artists in the sixteenth Century. In one, painted by scribes a “Horn-book the Alphabet, Syllabarum, Lord's Bartolommeo Schidoni born in 1560, and who died in 1616; Prayer, etc., written in black letter of the type and known as the Horn-book, and formerly in the Ashburnham orthography employed in the first half of the sixteenth Gallery, the girl holds the horn-book with the handle up century.' Press mark 828 a 55." This description is wards, possibly her task was ended. In another painted very questionable. In Halliwell's Notices of Fugitive by Crespi, and known as the School-mistress, the matron

Tracts, printed for the Percy Society, he describes a has the horn-book placed before the child, resting on her knee, and with her finger points to the letter she requires to be named.

• Canto II. Works, Edit. 1721, vol. ii. p. 64.

Here

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