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EARLY ENGLISH SONGS.

respecting him, and it is supposed he was dead, when Thomas Ravenscroft, a celebrated composer, between

in 1633, the second edition of that book appeared. the years 1609 and 1614, edited and published the fol

| From the dedication of his Melismata— To the lowing four musical works

Right Worshipful, the true favourers of Musicke and Pammelia : Musicks Miscellanie, or Mixed Varietie

all Virtue, Mr. Thomas Ravenscroft, and Mr. William of Pleasant Roundelayes, etc., Printed for William Ravenscroft, Esquires, and the subscribing himself Barley, 1609, 4to.

• Your Worships affectionate Kinsman, T. R.;' it has Deuteromelia: or the Second Part of Musicks Melo been concluded this distinguished musician was of good die, or Melodious Music of Pleasant Roundelayes;

family, and is supposed to have been possessed of indeK. H. Mirth, or Freemen's Songs, etc. Printed for pendent property. The arms of the Ravenscroft family Thomas Adams, 1609, 4to.

are Argent, a chevron between three ravens' heads Melismata : Musicall Phansies fitting the Court, era City, and Country Humours, etc., 1611, 4to.

The late George Spencer, fourth Duke of MarlA Briefe Discourse of the True but neglected use of borough, presented in 1822, to the Members of the Charactering the Degrees (in Music). "Printed for Roxburgh Club, a thin volume, entitled-Selections Edward Allde, 1614, 4to.

from the Works of Thomas Ravenscroft; but the disThese four brochures being amongst the most curious

tinguished editor, if so he may be called, seems not to and rarest of their class, the readers of Current Notes have been aware the poetry of which his volume is will doubtless therefore not object to a few extracts mainly composed, was long anterior to the reign of from them of quaint old poetry choicely good,” as King James the First, the period of Ravenscroft's Isaac Walton designates them; preceded by some few various publications. Mr. Oliphant is justly severe notices of Thomas Ravenscroft, of whom, in the Bio- | upon the Duke's contribution. He observes-graphical Dictionaries of Musicians little is recorded. I feel bound, as a faithful chronicler, to add, that in spite From the few data observable in his works, it appears

of exterior show, wide margins, pompous title pages, and that Thomas Ravenscroft was born in 1592; that in due

expensive printing, his Grace's Presentation betrays on the time he became a chorister in St. Paul's cathedral, and

part of its editor, or his assistants, the grossest ignorance

of that which constitutes the chief value of the works in speaks of his tutor, Mr. Edmund Pearce, the Master of

question, viz., the Music. The blunders made by them are the Choristers, as ' a man of singular eminence in his truly ludicrous, and in fact, the whole is perfectly uninprofession.'

telligible, and worse than useless, inasmuch as it might University degrees were formerly taken at an earlier lead people to suppose that the music of that period was a age than at present, but Ravenscroft graduated at an species of unknown tongue, an incomprehensible jargon. I unusually early age, and took the degree of Bachelor of am only sorry to think that the name of Bartleman, which Music, when not more than fourteen years old. The I revere, should be handed down in the Preface as one of following laudatory lines, prefixed to his Briefe Dis- the assistants, for I do not believe that he could have been course, allude more particularly to this precocity of

in any way accessory to such wilful murder upon a species talent. The third line has a punning allusion to his

of music that he admired so much, and with which, I speak

from the authority of those who knew him well, few people nameRara Avis arte senex juvenis; sed rarior est, si

were better acquainted.* Ætate est juvenis, moribus ille senex.

I differ in opinion from this writer, that the Music Rara avis est Author (pæne est pars nominis una)

constitutes the chief value of the works in question; the Namque annis juvenis, moribus, arte senex.

poetry, I believe to be equally valuable, as I shall proNon vidit tria lustra puer, quia arte probatus,

ceed to shew. Vitâ laudatus, sumpsit in arte gradum.

Pammelia, 1609, the first in date, consists of one

| hundred songs and ballads of various kinds, accompanied Arte Senex, virtute senex, ætate adolescens

with the Music, a truly minstrel-like batch. I bone, rara avis es, scribe, bonis avibus.

Hey hoe! Ravenscroft dedicated his Briefe Discourse—"To the

To the greenewood now let us goe: Right Worshipfull, most worthy Grave Senators,

Sing heave and hoe ! Guardians of Gresham College in London ;' the reason

And there shall we finde being, as he says-I must and do acknowledge it as a

Both Buck and Doe; singular help and benefit, that I have received divers

The Hart and the Hinde, Instructions, Resolutions, and Confirmations of sundry

And the little pretie Roe, Points and Precepts in our Art, from the Musicke

Sing heave and boe! Readers of that most famous Colledge. Prefixed are panegyrical addresses by some of his most eminent

The old dog, the jolly old dog,

As he lay in his den-a; musical contemporaries - John Dowland, Nathaniel

Huffa, buffa, Giles, Martin Peerson, and others, sufficiently confir

Trolilo, trolilo, matory it was favourably countenanced by them.

As he lay in his den-a.
In 1621, Ravenscroft published his Whole Booke of
Psalmes, but from this period nothing is known

• Musa Madrigalesca, 1837, 8vo. p. 257.

Now God be with old Simeon,
For he made Cans for many a one,

And a good old man was he.
And Jenkin was his journeyman,
He could tipple off every Can,
And thus hee said to mee:

To whom drink you?

Sir Knave, to you!
Then, hey hoe, jolly Jenkin,
I spye a knave in drinking-

Come trole the bole to mee.

Banbury Ale! where? where? where? At the blacke-smith's house

I would I were there!

Jacke boy, ho boy, Newes :

The cat is in the well, Let us sing now for her knell

Ding dong, ding dong, bell!

Come drink to me and I will drink to thee,
And then shall we full well agree:
I have loved the jolly tankerd,

Full seaven Winters and more ;
I lored it so long

Till that I went upon the score.

John Vowell alias Hoker, of Exeter, printed in the twenty-eighth volume of the Archæologia.

From this time he (Sir Peter) continued for the most part in the Court, spending his time in all Courtly exercises to his great praise and commendation, and especially to the good liking of the King (Henry VIII.], who had a great pleasure in him, as well for his sundry noble qualities, as also for his singing, for the King himself being much delighted to sing, and Sir Peter Carew having a pleasant voice, would often use him to sing with bim certain songs they call Freemen's Songs, as namely, By the bancke as I lay, and, As I walked the wode so wylde, etc.

Ritson had an inconceivably strange notion of Freemen being an error for Three-men, because Shakespeare speaks of Three-men Song-men, that is, men who would sing Songs of three parts; but if he had taken the trouble to examine the book in question, he would have also found there Freemen's Songs to four voices, which sets the matter at rest. Drayton, in his Legend of Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, makes that nobleman say

Of Freemen's Catches to the Pope I sing,

Which wan much license to my countrymen;
Thither the which I was the first to bring,

That were unknown in Italy till then.
The work entitled Deuteromelia, contains thirty-two
Songs and Catches, from which I have extracted the
following:

Of all the birds that ever I see,
The Owle is the fayrest in her degree;
For all the day long she sits in a tree,
And when the night comes away flies she !

Te whit, te whoo!

Sir knave to thou.
This Song is well sung, I make you a vow,
And he is a krave, that drinketh now.

Nose, nose, nose, nose !
And who gave thee that jolly red nose ?
Sinamont and ginger, nutinegs and cloves,
And that gave me my jolly red nose !*

He that loves not the tankerd

Is no honest man ;
And he is no right souldier

That loves not the Can.

Tappe the Canikin, Toss the Canikin,

Trole the Canikin, Turne the CanikinHold good sonne, and fill us a fresh can, That we may quaffe it round about from man to man.t

Denteromelia: or the Second Part of Musick's Melodie, is even more interesting than its predecessor. The terms K. H. Mirth, and Freemen's Songs, have occasioned some discussion. Mr. Oliphant observes

It is supposed, the former stands for King Henry's Mirth, that is, Songs or Catches of a merry nature which were favourites with that jovial prince. I think it likely to be so, but am not aware of any thing either for or against the matter, except conjecture.

All doubt on the subject is however decided by the following extract from the Life of Sir Peter Carew, by

To-morrow the Fox will come to towne,

Keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe; To-morrow the Fox will come to towne, O keepe you all well there.

I must desire you neighbours all,
To bollo the Fox out of the hall,
And cry as loud as you can call,

O keepe you all well there.
He'll steale the Cock out from his flock,

Keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe; He'll steale the Cock e'en from his flock, O keepe you all well there.

I must desire, etc.

• In Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew, ascribed to 1606, is the following allusion to this catch or song

Curtis. — good Grumio, the news ? Grumio. Why, Jack boy, ho boy, and as much news as thou wilt.

Act IV. sc. 1. + To these ballads Shakespeare alludes in his Othello, ascribed to the year 1611; Act II. sc. 3, when Iago calls, Some wine, ho!

And let me the canakin clink, clink;
And let me the canakin clink:

A soldier's a man,

A life's but a span;
Why then, let a soldier drink !

* That this was highly popular is evidenced by the fact, that in Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, a Comedy first printed in 1613, the last four lines of this song are quoted. Paul Bedford has of late rendered the words and air familiar to thousands.

He'll steale the Hen out of the pen,

INSCRIBED WALL RHYMES.
Keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe !

On the wall of what has long been termed “ Queen
He'll steale the Hen out of the pen,
O keepe you all well there.

Mary's Room,” in Edinburgh Castle, were the following
I must desire, etc.

lines :

Lord Jesus Christ, that crounit was with thorne,
He'll steale the Duck out of the brook,

Preserve the birth quheus Badgie heir is borne,
Keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe;

And send hir sonne successione to reigne still,
He'll steale the Duck out of the brook,

Lang in this realme, if that it be thy will !
O keepe you all well there.

Als grant O Lord, quhae euer of hir proseed,
I must desire, eto.

Be to thy glorie, honor, and prais, so beid.
He'll steale the Lamb e'en from his dam,

19 Junii, 1566. Keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe, keepe;

James the Sixth of Scotland was born in that room,
He'll steale the Lamb e'en from his dam,
O keepe you all well there.

on the day noted at the foot of these rhymes. They I must desire you neighbours all,

were extant there in 1772, are they so now? To hollo the Fox out of the hall,

On a wall in the Abbey Church at Edinburgh were And cry as loud as you can call,

the following lines :O keep you all well there.

Ah me! I grauel am, and dust, In 1557-8, the first year of the Registers of the

And to the grave, return I must: Stationers' Company, it is recorded John Wallye and

O painted piece of living clay,
Mrs. Toye had licence to print a ballad, called

Man, be not proud of thy short day.
Who lyve so merry and make such sporte,

1646. As thay that be of the poorest sort ?

The words in italic are anagrammatical of William The following appears to have been the ballad there | Grahame.

J. F. noticed. Who liveth so merry in all this land

BROOMES, NEW BROOM ES ! As doth the poor widow that selleth the sand ?

In the old drama entitled the Three Lailies of London, Chorus. And ever she singeth as I can guess,

printed in 1584, 4to., is the following poetical cry of a Will you buy any sand, any sand, Mistris ? vender of heath brooms in the happy days of Good Queen The broome-man maketh his living most sweet,

| Bess. With carrying of broomes from street to street;

Enter Conscience with broomes at her back, singing as Chorus. Who would desire a pleasanter thing,

followeth. Than all the day long to do nothing but sing?

New broomes, green broomes, will ye buy any? The chimney-sweeper all the long day

Come Maidens, come quickly, let me take a peny.
He singeth and sweepeth the soote away;
Chorus. And when he comes home although he be weary,

My broomes are not steeped
With his sweet wife he maketh full merry,

But very well bound :
The cobler he sits cobbling till noone,

My broomes be not crooked,

But smooth cut and round. And cobbleth the shoes till they be done;

I wish it would please ye,
Chorus. Yet doth he not feare and so doth say:

To buy of my broome;
For he knows his work will soon decay.

Then would it well ease me,
The marchant-man doth saile on the seas,

If market were done.
And lye on the ship-board with little ease;
Chorus. Alwayes in doubt the rocke is neare,

Have you any olde bootes,
How can he be merry and make good cheare ?

Or any old shoone:
The husband-man all day goeth to plow,

Powch-ringes or buskins,

To cope for new broome ?
And when he comes home he serveth his sow;
Chorits. He moyleth and toyleth all the long yeare,

If so ye haue Maydens

I pray you bring hether,
How can he be merry and make good cheare?

That you and I frendly
The serving-man waiteth frö street to street,

May bargen together.
With blowing his nailes and beating his feet;
Chorus. And serveth for forty shillings a yeare,

New broomes, greene broomes, will ye buy any?
That 'tis impossible to make good cheare.

Come Maidens, come quickly, let me take a peny. Who liveth so merry and maketh such sport

The broom-seller of the reigns of Charles the Second As those that be of ihe poorer sort ?

and James the Second, is one of the illustrations of Chorus. The poorest sort, wheresoever they be, Marcellus Lauron's London's Cries, engraved and pub

They gather together by one, two and three; lished by Pierce Tempest in 1688.
And every man will spend his penny:
What makes such a shot among a great many? | “ Conscience was not a Broome-man in Kent Street."
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.

Harl. Miscell., Vol. V. p. 379,

UNICORN AS BORNE IN HERALDRY.

INVOCATION TO THE VIRGIN. In Robson's Glossary of Heraldry, the Unicorn as | Over the outer arch of the porch of Farleigh-Hungerused in armorial bearings is described as an imagi- ford Church, co. Somerset, built by Walter Lord nary animal, represented as having the head, neck and Hungerford, and consecrated on St. Leonard's day, body of a horse, the legs of a buck, the tail of a lion, Nov. 6, 1443; is a semi-circular stone, on which is and a long horn growing out of the middle of the fore-cut a small cross, and under it, two Latin hexamcter head.

verses The Rev. Sloane Evans in his excellent Grammar of Heraldry, speaking of the Unicorn, says it is the symbol

MVNIAT HOC TEMPLV CRVCE GLOof strength of body and virtue of mind. It also denotes

RIFICANS MICROCOSMV: O GENVIT extreme courage and well befits the Warrior who had rather die than fall into the hand of the enemy.

XPM MISERIS PCE FIAT ASILVM. The Rhinoceros, it may be remarked, has been fre- which without the abbreviations, may be read thusquently supposed to be an equally proper translation for

Muniat hoc templum cruce glorificans microcosmum :* the Hebrew word translated · Unicorn in the Scriptures,

F. R. N. H.

Quæ genuit Christum miseris prece fiat asylum.

. Critics in prosody will not fail to observe that the i, in INVOCATION OF THE VIRGIN ON TOMBS.

microcosmum, is improperly shortened. The word MicroThe reason why so few monumental inscriptions in cosm, compounded of two Greek words, signifying little' which the prayers of the Virgin were asked, are now and “world,' is found frequently among the old writers in extant is easily understood. The first Protestants the sense of Man. Thomas Thorney, in some verses adevinced a more violent antipathy to the reverence paid dressed to the author, Gerard's Herbal 1597, folio; so uses by the Catholic Church to the Saints, than to any other

it:article of the faith. Before the Reformation they were

Oft have I heard and oft have read without doubt very common : no one can have read any

In bookes of learned lore, of the literature of England of a date anterior to the

Tbat man the name of Little World,' change of religion, without having observed the great

Or · Microcosmos,' bore. reverence Englishmen then showed to the Mother of So Bastard in his Chrestoleros, 1598, 4to, has the followGod, and how ecclesiastic and layman, bishop and ing epigram :priest, noble and peasant, vied with each other in giving

De Microcosmo. her honour. The popular devotions, the dedication of

Man is a little world, and beares the face churches, the formularies of wills, and the songs of the

And picture of the universitie : poets are all evidence of this love for

All but resembleth God, all but his glasse,
Oure blessed Lady Christes Mother dere.

All but the picture of his Majestie.

Man is the little world (so we him call) Those who are curious in this matter, will find much

The world the little god-God, the great all! to interest them in Dr. Rock's Church of our Fathers vol. iii. pp. 241-346 ; from which work the following

Falstaff, in Shakespeare's King Henry IV. part II. act are extracted.

iv. sc. 3. says of good sherris sack-It illumineth the face,

which as a beacon gives warning to all the rest of this Sancta Trinitas unus Deus miserere nobis

little kingdom, man, to arm, Et ancillis tuis sperantibus in te.

John Davies of Hereford, in his poem entitled, MicroO mater Dei memento mei.

cosmos; or Discovery of the Little World, 1603, 4to., Jesu mercy, Lady help.

observes :
Mary moder, mayden clere,

So in our little world, this soul of our's,
Prey for me William Goldwyre:

In whom we do this world's abridgement see.
And for me Isabel his wyf,

John Earle, successively bishop of Winchester and SalisLady, for thy joyes fyf.

bury, wrote a moral work that has passed through many Hav mercy on Christian his second wyf,

editions entitled, Microcosmography; a piece of the World Swete Jesu, for thy wowndys fyf.

discovered, in Essays and Characters, first printed in 1628.

Sir Thomas Browne, in his well known Religio Medici, On the grave-brass of William Berdewell, in West says—For the world, I count it not an Inn, but an HosHarling Church, he is figured with a scroll proceeding | pital; a place not to live, but to die in. The world that from his mouth, bearing this invocation to Christ :

I regard is myself; it is the 'microcosm' of my own frame

that I cast my eye on. I study to find out how I am a Jesu fili Dei miserere mei !

microcosm,' a little world. while a similar scroll from his wife implores

Later, Nathaniel Wanley compiled a volume, of which

the title as “Wanley's Wonders' is a household word to Sancta Dei genetrix ora pro me !

thousands ; entitled, Wonders of the Little World, or a Bottesford, August 30. EDWARD PEACOCK. General History of Man, it was first printed in 1678, folio.

In the Gentleman's Magazine, 1794, p. 599, is the UNIVERSALITY OF THE NEWSPAPER. following poetical version of this inscription.

Compare the Orator with the Newspaper, and a faint May He whose Cross for man has glory won,

glimpse of the pre-eminently ubiquitous power of the Far from this Church all harm remove;

latter may be obtained. The Orator addresses himself And may Her prayers who calls that Saviour son,

to and may be heard by a few hundreds, possibly thouA refuge to the wretched prove !

sands, but the newspaper may be and is perused by The Rev. John Edward Jackson, now rector of millions. Evanescently the words of the Orator pass Leigh Delamere, co. Wilts, in his Guide to Farleigh- into the air and are no more heard - the language of Hungerford, has this prose translation

the Newspaper stamped on the widely spread tablet May He who by the Cross glorifies man, protect this

remains almost imperishable. The arguments of the Church, and may the mother of Christ become an asylum

Orator may follow in such rapid succession, that by the to the wretched, by her prayer for them.

majority of the audients they are not comprehended, and The first line of the Latin verses alludes to the Saviour,

their convincing or persuasive tendencies are lost; the the second to the Virgin Mary. The prayer contained

reasoning of the Newspaper, without fear of perplexity

! in the former of the verses seems to be a reference to

may be scanned at leisure, each point tells, and the

reader's determinative faculties are arrested in full the words of St. Paul.

force. The passion of the Orator may excite an assemBut we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the bly, but the feeling imparted by the newspaper electrifies angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and I a continent, nay the globe itself. The Orator is for an honour ; that He, by the grace of God, should taste death

edifice, the Newspaper is for the world - the one has for every man. For it berame Him from whom are all

existence for an hour, the other lives for all time. The things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons into glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect |

Orator may be compared to the lightning, the vividity of through sufferings.—Hebr. ch. ii., v. 9, 10.

which flashes for a moment, but again on the instant

leaves all in darkness; while the Newspaper is like the The allusion to the Intercession of the Virgin Mary,

Virgin Mary: sun, diffusing its light over the whole earth, brightening expressed in the latter hexameter will be accounted for

the wide expanse, and fixing on the basis of its own by bearing in mind, that at the time when this stone

eternity. Printing has been happily defined “the art was placed here, the national religion was that of Rome.

which preserves all arts;' printing makes the Orator

himself more than an Orator! it seizes and embodies ANCIENT EPITAPHIAL INSCRIPTIONS.

his dying words, breathes into them the breath of At South Morton, Berkshire.

vitality, and they live when even the corporeal reality Sub jacet ecce pede Ricardus Morus, in ede

of the speaker has ceased to be. The Newspaper is the Kene, qui discretus fuit ampla pace quietus.

speaking gallery through which the Orator peals C quater et Mille, quater et bis sex obit ille,

diffusely his thunder in the ear of ages, and thus though Luceque sexta ter Junii, fit hujus sibi mater;

silent in the tomb, becomes the Mentor over the cradle Fecit plura loco, bona sunt suffragia pro quo.

of rising generations. Post Christiana sua vita subit ad relevamen, Quos Manus alma tua salvet, precor, O Deus! Amen. . CHARLES THE FIRST AND HENRIETTA MARIA.

Carolus Henriettæ nuper sociata Mariæ
At White Waltham, Berkshire.

Quæ mare disjungit littora junxit Amor.
Jhesu Mercy.

Where is this confused distich to be found ? It
Hic jacet MARGARETA quondam

seems to be an inscription under the portraits of the Uxor JOHANNIS Hille que obiit 12

King and Queen.
Die mens. Julii Anno Dni Millo.

Hawkshead, Sept. 7.

D. B. H.
ccccxlvo.
Cujus anime propitietur Deus.

SCOTTISH IRON "YETS' OR GATES.
Amen.

The licence to Ogilvy of Inverquharity, to strengthen
Lady helpe!

his house with ane Irne yet,' noticed at p. 62, of

Current Notes, has a priority of date than there stated. At East Horsley, Surrey.

Alexander Ogilvy named in the document, was living Quisquis eris, qui transieris,

from 1434 to 1482, the licence has therefore reference Sta, perlege, plora.

to the seventh year of either king James the II. or III. Sum quod eris, fueramque quod es:

if of the former, the year would be 1444, or of the latter, Pro me, precor, ora.

with greater probability 1467. Hic jacet JOHANNES Bootae, quondam

These iron gates, which superseded the portecoulisse Episcopus Exonien. qui obiit I. die

of an earlier period were evidently from the tone of the Mensis Aprilis Ao. Dni Mcccclxxviij.

licence, the usual security attached to the castles and These are copied literatim.

mansions in Scotland in the fifteenth century. Hawkshead, Sept. 5. D. B. I.

W. E.

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