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No. LVI.]

“ Takes note of what is done
By note, to give and to receive.”-SHAKESPEARE.

[AUGUST, 1855.

MASSES FOR THE DEAD.

Alice West, in 1395, enjoined that four thousand four The Church as might be expected when Papacy was hundred masses should be sung and said for the soul of dominant in these realms, shared largely in the testa- Sir Thomas West, her lord and husband, for her own mentary disposition of property. In the twelfth and sou

soul, and for all christian souls, in the most haste that thirteenth centuries there were many bequests in aid of

may be, within fourteen nights next after her decease: service in the Holy Land, and when the furor for the

and the Canons of Christ Church were endowed with no . Crusades had passed, jewels, chalices and plate for the

larger sum than forty pounds to read and sing masses decoration of the altar; stuffs of silk or velvet, as fur

for her own soul and that of her lord so long as the niture for the same purpose ; cloth of gold or fine linen,

world shall last ! for the officiating vestures of the priests; illuminated

William Beauchamp, Lord Bergavenny, by his will books and richly chased or casketed relics are found

dated April 25, 1408, directed that ten thousand masses later profusely lavished on religious establishments.

were to be said for his soul in all possible haste after Yet, it was not wholly however from affection to the his deat

ne his death, by the most honest priest that could be found. Church that these and similar testamentary dispositions in like mi?

entary dispositions In like manner in 1409, seven of the most honest priests were so frequently made. The pangs and anxieties of that could be found were to receive five pounds each for a death bed doubtless often sharpened the stings of

singing a whole year for the soul of Elizabeth Lady conscience, and a superstitious belief obtained that

Despenser. heaven could be bribed into the remission of punishment

Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, youngest natural hereafter, by a sufficient application of piously imported

son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and Chaucer's largesses to its ministers, consequently the Church hoped

relative, Catherine Swinford, gave in 1426, fourpence for adequate supplies thus drawn from the timid or the

per mass for one thousand masses, to be said immediately penitent, but the Romish hierarchy was not content with

after his death, on the following day if possible, or the the uncertain advantages thus derived by voluntary

second or third at farthest ; but then, it must be underbounty, they rendered these and similar legacies compul

stood these highly priced services involved masses for a sory by threatenings of posthumous vengeance. Saintfoix

large list of departed souls ; his own, those of his father has recorded* that so late as the sixteenth century, the

century, the and mother, of all his benefactors, and though last, not French bishops claimed a right to refuse burial to per

least, all the faithful deceased. The priest, moreover, sons dying intestate, or what to them produced the same

might not sing ad libitum, but was constrained to the effect, those who had omitted the Church in their wills,

observance of certain particular forms; and in eight and the prohibition continued until the relatives paid the

hundred of these masses, two hundred were to be of the purchase of their interment.

Holy Ghost, two hundred of the Blessed Virgin, two Masses for the repose of the soul of the testator and

hundred of All Saints, one hundred of the Angels, and his ancestors were consequently of general occurrence

one hundred of Requiem æternam. in the last wills of persons of wealth and distinction,

1 In 1434, Joan Lady Bergavenny ordained that anon yet whatever might have been the veneration of the

he after her burying, there be done for her soul, five thoudeparting testators for those who celebrated these

sand masses in all the haste that they may be goodly. masses, or whatever might be their soul's belief in their

Possibly this promptitude was supposed to shorten the absolving influence from the pains and penalties of pur

soul's stay in purgatory. gatory, it is evident that in all cases, the awarding of

Henry Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, certain sums for such service had constantly the charac

second son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by ter of imposing a profitless contract with the chantry

Catherine Swinford, in his will and the codicils annexed, and other priests, and the endeavour was apparent to

dated January 20, 1447, is more than ordinarily soliciobtain from the ghostly fathers as much as was possible

tous to purchase the goodwill of heaven. An unusual in the shortest space of time for the least possible amount

attachment to life has been handed down as a special of money. Thus Joan Lady Cobham, in 1369, desires characteristic of this celebrated prelate; Shakespeare that seven thousand masses should be said for her soul

in eloquent phraseology alludes to this all-engrossing by the Canons of Tunbrugge and Tanfugge, and the four orders of Friars in London, the Preachers, Minors,

passionAugustines, and Carmelites, who for so doing were to be If thou beest death, I'll give thee England's treasure paid no more than 291. 38. 4d., or something less than Enough to purchase such another island, a penny per mass.

So thou wilt let me live and feel no pain. * Historical Essays upon Paris, Vol. I. p. 32.

Henry VI. Second part, Act III. scene 3. VOL. v.

He died April 11, 1447, and Rapin has recorded the

THE SKIMMING-DISH HAT. Cardinal died in despair that his riches could not The enamoured rhymist who in his jollity of soul exempt him from mortality.

began his exordium with In his will he required that ten thousand masses

To Ladies eyes a round, boys, should be said for his soul as soon as possible after his

We can't refuse, we can't refuse ! decease, namely, three thousand of requiem, three thou

| had he lived in our days, and noticed the round hats sand de rorate cæli desuper, three thousand of the Holy

| worn by our ladies of all ages and classes, would doubtGhost, and one thousand of the Trinity. He appointed

less have been as laudatory of their hats, which seem three masses to be celebrated by three monks every day

to have no bounds in their circular extent. Fashion in the chapel of his sepulchre at Winchester, and the

has a strongly diversified impulse, and appears in some name of Ilenry Cardinal to be pronounced each time.

matters to bear an all-powerful sway even over the good To the abbey and convent of St. Augustine he remitted

sense of many, or why this general adoption of a hat a debt of 3661. 138. 4d., in consideration of their em

that renders some faces ludicrous in the extreme ? In bodying his name in three masses daily. In like man

| the reign of Louis the Sixteenth, a period of much inner, and on a similar condition, he remitted to the Con

: consistency and erratic rule, which presented a direful vent of Christ's Church, Canterbury, one thousand

presage of what did follow, though the court and its papounds, that they provided three monks to celebrate

rasites were too blind to foresee the more than probable three masses for his soul daily for ever in his Church of

results; the hat as at present worn by the ladies had Winchester, and that they observed his obit every year.

the same prevalence of fashion, but was then induced Sir John Nevill in 1449 required his executors to

by a cause not very generally known. The king and “ ordayne an honest and a kunning priest” to sing for his

for his his brothers were no Josephs, and in one of the dairies soul twelve months, whose salary was to be ten marks.

attached to the grounds of the palace was a young Ann, Duchess of Buckingham, in her will proved

woman of more than ordinary beauty and attractions. Oct. 31, 1480, directed twenty pence to be given to

Monsieur d'Artois had glanced his eye on this charming every priest in Sion, and in the Charter Houses of

servant of the crown, and doubtless fancied his position, London and Shene, for five masses and as many diriges

gave him every authority to press his suit. Proof for the soul of her most dear and best beloved husband,

| against his importunities, she one day bade him to be Humphrey, Duke of Buckingham, her own soul, and all

seated, and placing a skimming dish upon his head, ran her children's souls. She willed also 6s. 8d., to the

out of the dairy at the instant that some of the couranchorite in the wall beside Bishopsgate, to pray in

tiers were in quest of him. The surprise of the twenty masses for the souls before mentioned.

moment and the odd figure Monsieur presented, excited Sir Thomas Lyttleton, the celebrated Judge and

a general laugh, nor did the matter stop here, it was author of the well known Treatise on Tenures, who died

whispered from one to another, till it reached the ears at Frankley in Worcestershire, August 23, 1481, in his

101, m ns of the ladies of the court, who in satisfying their will appears singularly devout and liberal. Three good

curiosity had hats made in the form of a skimming dish, priests were to be found to sing three trentals, so that

and these being found not inconsistently to add charins every priest by himself said one trental, and they were

to many a really pretty face; it became general, and as to have right sufficiently for their labour. Another priest was to sing five masses and a rowe; and the Prior

popular as now. of the Monastery of our Blessed Lady at Worcester was TILED IN.- We say of a man in good circumstances, to receive one hundred shillings yearly, for singing daily or of one in a thriving condition; or of one who appears at seven in the morning at the altar of St. George and to be relieved from any particular application to business St. Christopher. Every monk of the said convent who as a means of maintenance, he is tiled in. I have said a mass of requiem every Friday was to have two asked frequently what does this phrase mean? The pence paid to him for his trouble, by the hands of the answer has been his hat covers his head, and I am told, sexton ; and whenever the convent sang the annual a hat is a tile! It is clear there is some hidden meanPlacebo, Dirige, and Requiem, they were to have 6s. 8d. ing in the saying, will any reader of Current Notes for their disport and recreation, and one hundred solve it ? pounds in fee, for performing that divine service.

Bath, August 13.

E. B. H. The practice of these fallacies and delusions which the The phrase is possibly derived from the fact, that rich Papal religion so insidiously inculcated in the minds of men in the olden time lived in houses of which a principal its votaries were summarily annihilated in the subver enrichment was the tiles laid in the foors, or which lined sion of the monasteries and chantries by King Henry the walls, in radiant and splendid colours. This species of the Eighth, and his successor King Edward the Sixth.

decoration of houses, was formerly held in high esteem, and was a distinctive mark of wealth in the possessors,

hence arose the old Spanish proverb, Nunca hará casa con The celebrity of the visit of King Henry the Eighth 1

azulejos-He will never have a house adorned with glazed to Francis the First, in 1520, will be as nothing in tiles; that is, be will never thrive, or be a rich man. To History, coinpared with that of Queen Victoria to the be tiled in, therefore implies, he has already sufficient to Einperor Napoleon.

maintain the expenses of his house.

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CHINESE MYTHOLOGY ON PORCELAIN.

knowledge of perspective, and of the harmony of colours, The following Notes, though written by the late Mr. , we are only deficient in understanding the mixture of James Christie, so long since as 1807, will be found to the materials, and the plastic part, to rival the producproffer much curious detail in reference to the embel

tions of Eastern Asia in this line. The former may be lishments and mythological figures on various objects of

made good to us by our superior chemical science, the Oriental Porcelain, and will doubtless be considered as

latter will no doubt be acquired by patience and care. explanatory of many incidents and persons generally

Every one must therefore, applaud the curiosity which

leads to forming such collections, and must cease to considered inexplicable. The scanty reports of Missionaries, and even of later

wonder at the high price at which objects of such beauty travellers in China, leave much to be known respecting

and importance have been estimated. that country; and the difficulty of the Chinese language

The kind of Porcelain chiefly prized, is termed prevents our deriving much intelligence from the natives.

ves. Mandarin, or Egg-shell. It displays the greatest Amidst this dearth of information, it is satisfactory to ingenuity in the fabric, its characteristic is extreme know that we possess valuable documents at home. delicacy, and the objects depicted upon it are of the The proficiency of the Chinese in the chief branch of most exquisite pencilling and enamel. The marks howtheir manufactures, the state of their fine arts, and ever by which the Mandarin Porcelain may be known even the religious opinions of the people may be collected are not decidedly agreed upon : some persons have from their Porcelain. *

ventured to recommend it by the thinness and transIn the numerous private cabinets in this metropolis

parency of the material ; others by the contrast of some are specimens of the most precious kinds of Porcelain,

rich colour on the outside, with a green verditer within ; for which the Chinese have been for many centuries

others again rely, and perhaps with juster reason, upon pre-eminent, and the manufactories of our own country

the quadrangular cluster of characters inscribed on the already experience the benefit of these models. With

| bottom of the vessels. These groups, it is believed, are the advantages of more correct principles of design, the

the the most ancient characters of China, changed from

their hieroglyphical to a quadrate form, and are used The etymology of the word “ porcelain,' has long been as a court character. The inscription merely records the subject of different opinions. The inventory of the the Dynasty and Emperor, under which the specific goods of the Duc d'Anjou, 1360, in which is noticed. -Une piece of porcelain was made. escuelle d'une pierre appelée pourcellaine; is sufficiently The CRACKLE China is admired for the cracks obserconclusive as to the use of the word in France in the four- vable in the varnish, which it is believed, are occasioned teenth century; but this “stone called porcelain," appears by the vase being suddenly exposed to a cool draught of to have been some precious material, for the object to air, while the varnish is vet warm. * which it is attached when mentioned in other instances, is

The more thick ENAMEL China is less to be admired always richly attached or set in gold with pearls or precious

for its earth and painting, than for the richness of the stones. It was possibly chalcedony which resembling por. celain in its milky bue and its semi-translucent character,

colours laid on in varnish, and for the curions symbols the name porcelain may have been transferred to the

with which it is embellished. substance of the pottery subsequently introduced into The BURNT- In China is considered of inferior quality, Europe by the Portuguese, early in the sixteenth century, but this mode of colouring gives admirable richness and Porcellana in the Portuguese language, originally signified effect, when introduced upon the genuine specimens of “ a little pig," and the cowries or small shells used for the Old Japan, which is of massive manufacture, and money in the East, from the similarity of their shape to admired for its weight. the back of a little pig, were called by the Portuguese, The properly so called, OLD JAPAN, combines almost

porcella.' Whether the Portuguese who first doubled the every onality that is sernrately admired in the porce. Cape of Good Hope, at the close of the fifteenth century,

h century, lain of China. The broad flowers depicted upon it are really believed these vessels were made of such shells or of

displayed in blue and red, burnt in, with the addition of some composition which resembled them, is doubtful, but certain it is, porcellana is found in later Portuguese dic

a little enamel. But what chiefly gives richness to tionaries to signify'a cup,' and the derivation of the word

these specimens, is the bold relief in which some of the is thence generally deduced.

flowers are executed, and afterwards gilt and burnished. Porcelain, or China ware, appears to have been known in | The Chinese have discovered a fertile source for the England in the time of King Henry the Eighth. Sir Ed. embellishment of these different kinds, in the Fables of ward Montague, an ancestor of the Duke of Manchester, their religion; and it is remarkable, that like the by his will dated July 17, 1556, directed his sons whom he Greeks, they have chosen their earthenware to comappointed his executors, to “sell as much of his plate, china, memorate their most secret doctrines. rings and jewels, as they think convenient.”a Later, we find among the New year's gifts presented to Queen Eliza • In Marryat's Collections towards a History of Pottery beth on new year's day 1588, Lord Burghley proffered and Porcelain, 1850, 8vo. p. 108, Father Solis, a Portuguese one porrynger of whyte porselyn,' garnished with gold; Missionary, is quoted as describing some of these operations and Mr. Robert Cecill, afterwards Earl of Salisbury, 'a as arising from the use of oils of several kinds, some of cup of green pursselyne.'

| which are metallic, and by laying the china some months 4 Collins' Peerage of England, edit. 1756, vol. ij. p. 638. l in the inud so soon as it comes from the furnace.

A Chinese Emperor is said to have observed, that the enlarging upon it. The contest seems to correspond dragons upon his vest were designed for more than with the Titan war of the Western Pagans. merely ornament, that they had a moral signification; These very imperfects hints may be thought improwe may affirm that many subjects depicted upon porce- perly obtruded upon notice; they need not however lain have also a recondite meaning. The operation of arrest the attention of the lover of elegant form and the elements upon each other to produce the first created ornament: the inquisitive may possibly turn them to universe, according to the material notions of the gen- | useful account. tiles, seems to be expressed by the combinations of the

SCHOLA SALERNITANA. fiery dragon, with the Fung Hoang, or bird of Paradise, The author of this work was John of Milan, one of expressive of air; the Ky-lin or horned-dog, perhaps the doctors of the Medical School at Salerno; and the denoting earth; and the tortoise, fish or the lotus, which Rex Anglorum 'to whom it was inscribed was EDWARD indifferently imply water.

THE CONFESSOR, as shown by Muratori. Antiquitates, Foni, the ancient founder of the Chinese empire, Tom. III., Dissert. xl. See also Gibbon, chap. 56, vol. coëval with Noah, is reported to have seen a tortoise ( x. p. 279, where he remarks upon the opinion or rather issue from the water, bearing on its back a mystical error of Pasquier. Recherches de la France, vii. 2, and diagram. This subject is expressed upon some vases, Ducange sub verbo Leonini. and on this account we find a tortoise-shell pattern Louis Vaslet, who at the end of his edition of Alvarez's adopted upon china, as a border, having open compart- Latin Prosody, 1730, thus gives the title from an old ments in which flowers are painted and enamelled in na-copy-Schola Salernitana præcepta de Conservanda tural colours. Hence the date of this appearance to Foni Valetudine, a Johanne de Mediolano medico Salernitano being considered, we may conclude, the combined em- composita, adds- Inscripsit Roberto Gulielmi primi, blem denotes the vegetable creation arising from Water. Angliæ Regis Conquestoris, filionatu minori, circa 1100.

We collect from Bayer, that Four appointed eight Here is a double mistake, for Robert was not the Tchin or Spirits; these were preserving spirits to watch youngest but the eldest surviving son of the Conqueror. round mortals; they are probably no more than the In Stephens' Geographical Dictionary, by Lloyd, eight persons preserved at the general destruction of under Salernum, we read-Cujus doctores librum conmankind, with which Fou must have been coeval, but scripserunt, et Anglorum regi dedicarunt, non Henrico which he and a few others survived. These persons octavo, ut quidam putant, sed Ricardo Secundo, sive may be seen on bowls, plates, and other ware, standing Edvardo primo. Heylyn in his Cosmographie, p. 71, on water, generally supported upon a fish or aquatic makes the same observation, but for Richard the Second animal, and are thus distinguished :

writes Richard the First. 1. How Cing Koe-a female with a landing net. That Arnold de Villanova was the author, has been 2. Hon Chong lie-a boy with a flute.

asserted by some who were scemingly led into error by 3. Lit Hit Quay-a man with a crutch and double- the title of the editio princeps - Regimen Sanitatis gourd.

Salernitanum a Magistro Arnaldo de Villanova Cata4. Tong-fong-sok-a man with a fan, and the fruit lano* veraciter expositum ac noviter correctum et emenof immortality.

datum per doctores Montispessulani regentes anno 1480, 5. Tchow lok how-a man with rattles or castanets. predicto loco actuf moram trahentes; or of that of 6. Lut hong pan-a man with a sword and cowtail. another edition, without place or date, which reads

7. Tchang colao-a man with a bamboo tube and Regimen Sanitatis ad regem Aragonum a Magistro pencils.

| Arnaldo de Villanova directum et ordinatum. In other 8. La mi tsui woo--a youth, or female with a basket editions the titles read thus-Schola Salernitana, aucof flowers.

tore Joanne de Mediolano, cum Arnoldi Villanovani The implements depicted upon enamel China, are the exegesi in singula capita. An English metrical transsymbols of these divinities, and the fruit borne by the lation of the Schola Salernitana, by an M D., was fourth person above named has suggested the form of published not long since in London. many vessels in porcelain: were a Chinese to present | Hawkshead, August 9.

D. B. H. liquor in a vessel so shaped, it might be deemed a flat- tering mode of salutation.

• De Villa nova Catballani, is the reading in a subsequent We find a ninth person superior to these, who may edition, with the imprint, Venetiis, per Bernardum de perhaps represent the material heaven; he is almost Vitalibus. + i.e. in the discharge of their office. invariably seated, he rides upon the stork, a bird of Possibly the supposition that Henry the Eighth was supposed longevity, he is bald and aged, and he carries the Rex Anglorum alluded to, arose from the fact that he a sceptre. He seems to be THE ANCIENT ONE, a title married Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand the Second, last well known in the Ægyptian. Scythian and Greek king of Aragon, five years after that monarch's decease. Mythologies, as Pi-apas and Jupiter Pappæus.

The Rex Aragonum contemporary with Arnold de VillaThe combats of these eight Tchin with various evil

nova, was Pedro the Fourth, who reigned from 1336 to

1387, and Arnold might have dedicated the work with his spirits, are an interesting branch of the Chinese My

Chinese. My own commentary to him, as John of Milan inscribed the thology, but of this too little is yet known to permit our original text to Edward the Confessor,

KIRBY FAMILY IN SUFFOLK.

Brentford, justly distinguished for her numerous works

for the religious education and instruction of young The following extracts from a letter dated Barham,

persons and the poor, now survives,* surrounded by a Oct. 17, 1807, addressed to the Rev. W: Layton, by the numerous family of children and grandchildren. late Rev. William Kirby, contain some interesting par

Mr. Kirby died in 1774, and was interred in Kew ticulars of the Kirby family as located in the county of Churchyard. Near him lies the celebrated painter Suffolk, which will doubtless interest some portion of Gainsborough, who particularly requested he might be the numerous readers of Current Notes.

| buried by his old friend, of whom he had the highest Lee Road, August 9.

J.J. H.

opinion. Mr. Kirby always gave him good advice, of The tradition in the family is, that they are descended which Gainsborough was sensible, although he did not from one of considerable antiquity in the North of always follow it. England, one of whom is noticed by Dugdale as an itinerant justice in 1165, 11 Hen. II. The ancestor of

SCOTTISII IRON YETS OR GATES. the Suffolk branch is said to have been disinherited by his father, and to have settled at Halesworth in that county during the troubles in the time of the great rebellion.

John Kirby, originally a schoolmaster at Orford, but subsequently the occupier of a Mill at Wickham Market, was the compiler of the Suffolk Traveller, printed at Ipswich in 1735,* and of a small map of Suffolk.

His son, Joshua Kirby, F.R. and A. S., born at Parham, near Wickham Market, settled at Ipswich as a house painter. He had a genius for painting, but it must be admitted was a very young artist, when he made the drawings of Schole Inn, and what are called

the Twelve Prints. He was however principally eminent for his knowledge of perspective, and his book published in 1755, entitled, · Dr. Brook Taylor's Method of Perspective made Easy,' contained much original matter, and was received with general approbation. It obtained for him the notice of the Earl of Bute, by whom he was ever afterwards deservedly and highly esteemed; and he introduced him to his present Majesty [King George the Third] when Prince of Wales. Under his patronage, and by his munificent aid, he published in 1761, his magnificent volume, entitled The Per-spective of Architecture,* deduced from the principles of Dr. Brook Taylor.' The architectonic sector explained. These iron grated yets or gates were formerly used as in that work was the Earl's invention. In conjunction inner doors to the principal entrances of old castles in with my father, he in 1766 published an improved Scotland; several of them remain and present perfect edition of my grandfather's map of Suffolk, upon a representations of their construction and strength. larger scale, with engravings of the arms of the princi- | Their general application appears to have followed upon pal families in the County, and Views of the Castles of the disuse of the portcullis, and were well adapted as Burgh, Mettingham, Framlingham, Orford, and Bun effective safeguards against the invasion of the Cateran, gay; Leiston Abbey, and the gateway to Bury Abbey, or highland robber, as well as a sure defence against the Priories of Butley and Blighburgh ; Covehithe the premeditated assault of one baron upon the home Church and St. James's Church, Dunwich.

and dependents of another. All baronial buildings Joshua Kirby married - Bull, by whom he had two situated near any pass in the highlands, or usual roadchildren. William, a very promising artist, who was way or thoroughfare in the lowlands, were provided employed by his Majesty to make drawings in Italy for with them, and remain an incontestable proof of the the Royal Collection. He married Elizabeth Anderson, general insecurity consequent on the lawless state of of Chelsea, and died v. p. leaving no issue. His second North Britain, till a very recent date. Still, these yets child, Sarah, who married Mr. James Trimmer, of Old or gates, however needfully required for the protection

of life and property, were not permitted to be attached

to private dwellings without especial leave and license . An edition of this work, with considerable additions by from the king, and as these documents are now of exthe Rev. Richard Canning, perpetual curate of St. Laurence, Ipswich, was printed anonymously in 1764, 8vo. * Mrs. Trimmer died Dec. 15, 1810, in her 69th year.

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