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.No. LI.]

“Takes note of what is done-
By note, to give and to receive."-SHAKESPEARE.

[MARCH, 1855.

COVENT GARDEN IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. garden wall of Bedford House. A plot of ground 180

feet long by 33 feet wide, lying on the south side of a The appellation is said to be derived from the land parcel of ground then set forth for a new churchyard, having been formerly part of the possessions of the Convent constituting apparently the houses on the north side of Garadon, in Leicestershire. Upon the dissolution of the samastreet, was leased to Edward Palmer, Citizen religious houses in England, this land fell to the crown, and Girdler, who after having erected nine houses on and King Edward the Sixth granted it to his uncle, the site, died; and a new lease, dated March 10, Edward Seymour, Lord Protector, created Duke of 1631-2, was granted by the Earl to Edward Palmer, of Somerset in 1547, but who being attainted and beheaded the parish of St. Andrew's, Holborn, Gent., son of Edin 1552, all his honours and lands were forfeited. ward Palmer, citizen and girdler, lately deceased; and

In May 1552, John Russell, Earl of Bedford, then to two others named in the said lease, to hold the same Lord Privy Seal, obtained a grant to hold by socage the for thirty-four years from the above date, paying said pasture land lying in the Parish of St. Martin's quarterly, the yearly rent of 171. Os. 6d, “at, or in the in the fields, next Charing Cross, with seven acres dining hall of the Earl, commonly called Bedford House called the long acres, now known as the street called in the Strand, in the parish of St. Martin's in the Long Acre, parcel of the possessions of the late Duke of Fields." Somerset, of the yearly value of 6l. 6s. 8d. The Earl Between the plot now occupied by the church, and at this time resided in Bedford Honse, in the Strand, immediately behind the house now number 2, in King which had been the town mansion of the bishops of Street, Le Sæır, in 1633, cast the bronze statue of Carlisle,* and was situated upon the site of the present King Charles the First. It was intended to decorate Beaufort Buildings; but on acquiring this grant, erected the centre of the piazza or square, in front of the church,* a large wooden building upon this land, named Bedford but that edifice not being finished or consecrated till House, with an extensive fore court for carriages, to- late in 1638, the statue was, possibly from some politiwards the Strand, and a large garden behind, the whole cal cause, not set up, and it remained there till 1676, enclosed by a wall. The former house was then aban- when it was placed at Charing Cross, upon a pedestal, doned to the Cecil family. The Earl died in 1554. carved by Grinling Gibbon, then a parishioner. Fran

Beyond the boundary of the garden of Belford cis, Earl of Bedford, of whom there is a portrait by House, the land continued to be but a common field, † | Vandyck, died in 1641. with some irregularly situated tenements and stables, William, the fifth Earl, obtained in January, 1645-6, when Francis Russell, the fourth Earl, in 1631, if not a parliamentary ordinance for the constituting the parish before, determined on laying out the site for building of St. Paul, Covent Garden, divided from that of Sk streets with houses of some importance, Inigo Jones Martin's in the Fields. The church was thereby was instructed to devise the lines, and that now named parochial, and Hollar in that year engraved his view Henrietta Street was the first so laid out, the front of of the piazza of Covent Garden, the square being defined the houses on the south side being parallel with the by wooden railing, and the church of St. Paul shewn in

the distance. As the streets became tenanted, a market

for the daily sale of fruit, flowers, roots and herbs, was Howel describing the south side of the Strand, observes:

permitted on the south siile against the garden wall of “Then is there Bedford House, which was sometimes the bishop of Carlisle's Inne. It stretched from the Savoy to

Bedford House. To the Earl was granted in 1660, upon the Ivie-bridge, where Sir Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, restoration of royalty, a confirmatory act of parliament raised a large and stately house of brick and timber." in reference to the parish, and defining its extent; and Londinopolis, 1657, p. 349. Ivie-bridge remains as the many of the best houses bccaine tenanted by wealthy way from the Strand to the Fox under the Hill, on the persons, who were driven wostward by the devastations river side, at which place many bont loads of fruit are caused by the great fire in September, 1666. The landed, and conveyed thence by sturdy porters to Covent market increasing, the Earl obtained a charter for Garden market.

holding it, by patent dated May 12, 1671; and to + In 1627, when Edward, the third Earl of Bedford died,

maintain it in due control, by lease dated December 20, the poor rate books of St. Martin's parish, under the head

1677, he demised the said market, with all rights, tolls, of Covent Garden, noticed but two persons who were so assessed. Francis, the fourth Earl, was in 1630 the principal undertaker in that great work, the drainage of the fens .The church was designed by Inigo Jones, but Nicholas known as the Great Level, and since named the Bedford | Stone, Master Mason of the King's Works, superintended Level.

| the building. VOL. V.

and advantages whatsoever, to Adam Pigott and James Garden, upon the return of King William the Third Allen, Citizens and Cutlers of London, with liberty to from Ireland, September 10, 1690, the garden wall of dig cellars and build shops along the front of the garden Bedford House is shewn, as also the domed summer wall of Bedford House, for twenty-one years, from houses in the garden, designated in the lease as Christmas in that year, they paying the said Earl eightybanquetting houses," but no indication of the shops in pounds per annum, “at, or in the hall of the mansion front; possibly these shops were found an annoyance to house of the said Earle, situate in the parish of St. the Bedford family, and consequently were at this time Paul, Covent Garden, aforesaid."

removed and the stands conducted under some other Whatever rights were conceded by this lease to regulation.* The lease for twenty-six years terminated James Allen, devolved lawfully to Thomas Day, of the at Midsummer, 1704, when Bedford House being unparish of St. Clements' Danes, Tallow Chandler, who tenanted, by reason that Wriothesley, the Duke of on Pigott's surrendering at Midsummer, 1678, the Bedford, resided at Streatham, in Surrey-he having previous lease, became with him conjointly the lessees married in 1694, Elizabeth, the daughter of John of the market, for twenty-six years, from that time Howland of that place, the then richest heiress in Engforward, they having to the Eari's satisfaction erected land- it was demolished, and the site with the garden the shops with slated and leaded roofs, and balustrades ground laid out for building. The new street from the upon the top, of a uniform design, the whole being one Štrand was named Southampton Street, in compliment to foot below the ranging line of the garden wall, and cove- the Duke's mother, Lady Rachel Russell, daughter and nanting to maintain the same unimpaired during the heiress of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton ; term of that lease.

and widow of Lord William Russell, executed in LinThe regulations for holding the market daily, the coln's Inn Fields in 1683; and Tavistock Street was so restraining it, if possible, to the south side, and without named in honour of his grandfather, the first Duke of the rails, so as not to obtrude upon the enclosed square, Bedford, who had also the title of Marquis of Tavistock, are all minutely detailed. The lease had two special clauses of forfeiture; one was the use of any chimneys or tunnels by any of the shops placed along the front of

HORN-BOOK OF JACOBITE TOASTS. the garden wall, or before the banquetting houses in

A B C A blessed Change! the said garden ; the other was, allowing twenty-one

D E F Drive every Foreigner ! days to pass before payment of the quarterly portion of

GII Get home Jamie ! the yearly rent of eighty pounds, the same being due

K L M Keep loyal Ministers! on the first day of each third month.

NOP No oppressive Parliaments ! This lease dated July 6, 1678, fully established Covent

Q R S Quickly return Stuart ! Garden Market, and was signed by the Earl," whose

T U w Tuck up Whelps ! signature is here given in facsimile.

X Y Z 'Xert your Zeal!

THE LATE J. M. W. TURNER, R.A. In Current Notes for Jan. 1852, there are some interesting particulars respecting the late J. M. W. Turner. I take the liberty of writing to you in the hope that at some leisure moment the writer might be

disposed to set down on paper any further particulars The poor rate books of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, for

which he remembers about him ; and to beg that I

might be favoured by the perusal of any such notes. 1679, shew the first assessment of the salesmen ; there were then but twenty in all, severally rated at two

Might I also ask for the privilege of a glance at the

original sketch, if still existing, from which the woodshillings, and one shilling.

cut in the Current Notes was executed. I know In Bernard Lens' print of the Rejoicings in Covent

" that in transference to wood many points of character As an historical autograph, it possesses much interest,

are likely to be lost. but is not known to be extant in any modern collection.

Denmark Hill, Cainberwell.

J. RUSKIN. The Earl was well known to hold the same political prin. ciples for which his son Lord William Russell, liad perished * In Richard Blome's collections for the booksellers' on the scaffold; they were those principles which led to enlarged edition of Stow's Survey, progressing at this the placing William of Orange on the throne of these realms, period, of Covent Garden it is said, “ the south side lieth yet James in his last extremity appealed to him for assist. open to Bedford Garden, where there is a small grotto of ance to avert that event, and the Earl's memorable reply trees, most pleasant in the summer time, and on this side in reference to his son, is matter of history.

is kept a market for fruits, herbs, roots and flowers, every The original indenture is in the Editor's possession, and Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, which being well served at the Bedford Office they state they have no records of with choice goods, makes it much resorted to, and is grown this period.

to considerable account."

Peter's Church, Shaftesbury. H. T. ELLACOMBE. Billings, in reference to Glamis Castle, observes,
What Musick is there that compar'd may be,

it claims traditionally a high antiquity. Fordun and To well-tuned Bells enchanting melody?

other chroniclers tell us, that in its neighbourhood Breaking with their sweet sounds the willing air, Malcolm the Second was in 1034 attacked and mortally They in the listning ear the soul ensnare.

wounded, and that his assassins perished in attempting When Bells ring round, and in their order be,

to cross the neighbouring loch of Forfar, then imperThey do denote how neighbours should agree; But if they clam, the harsh sounds spoil the sport,

fectly frozen over. * Pinkerton, who was never content And 'tis like Woman keeping Dover Court.

with doubting the truth of any historical statement, but Of all the music that is play'd or suny,

who had always some directly opposite narrative to There's none like Bells, if they are well rung.

prove, tells us, that Malcolm the Second died a natural Then ring your Bell-well if you can,

death at Glamis, and that the fables of Fordun and his Silence is best for ev'ry man;

followers concerning Malcolm's dying in a conspiracy In your ringing make no demur,

have not a shadow of foundation.t' On the other hand, Pull off your hat, your belt and spur;

tradition has so far realised and domesticated the And if your Bell you overset,

assassination, as to shew the chamber of the castle in The Ringer's Fee you must expect !

which it occurred; while, to put all scepticism to shame,

it points out the indubitable four-posted bed in which The following are in Tong Church, in Shropshire : the deed was perpetrated, and, until lately, not only If that to ring you do come bere,

were the bed and bed-hangings so exhibited, but also the You must ring well with hand and ear;

stains of his blood on the floor of the same room. Keep stroke of Time and goe not out,

That such delusions should in the olden time have Or else you forfeit, out of doubt.

obtained credence will not excite much surprise, but Our law is so constructed here,

that they should be reiterated by modern writers could For ev'ry fault, a jugg of beer.

scarcely be supposed. Still such is the fact, for lately If that you ring with spur or hat,

in looking over Howitt's Visits to Remarkable Places, A jugg of beer, must pay for that,

I not only found the fable therein repeated, but an
If that you take a rope in hand,
These forfeits you may not withstand.

attempt made to confirm it, in so far as he says, “The Or, if that you a bell o'erthrow,

ceiling of the room in which Malcolm was murdered, It will cost sixpence ere you goe.

or at least died, bears in its several compartments If in this place you swear or curse,

the crown and the lion, and the initials of King MalSixpence you pay-pull out your purse.

colm." Come ! pay the Clerk, it is his fee,

That Howitt's account of other remarkable places is For one that swears shall not go free.

as incorrect as that of Glamis, I have not the same These laws are old, and are not new,

means of knowing, but certain it is, that no part of the Therefore the Clerk must have his due.

present castle of Glamis was erected for centuries GEORGE HARRISON, 1694.

after the supposed murder of Malcolm; indeed, with the

exception of some trifling portions of its foundations, the Rules painted on the wall of the ringing loft in the centre or oldest part was not built till the time of parish church of Condover, Shropshire,

Patrick, ninth Lord Glamis, who succeeded his father If to Ring you do come here,

in 1578. That fact is not only attested by family docuYou must ring well with hand and eare;

ments, but is patent to all visitors, by the legend enAnd if a bell you overthrow,

sculptured over the entrance door, BVILT BE PATRICK Sixpence you pay before you go.

And if you ring in spur or hat,

Lord Glamis having been several years a minor, on
Fourpence you are to pay for that.

obtaining his majority succeeded to a considerable But if that you do sweare, or curse, Twelvepence is due, pooll out your purse.

property, and expended a large sum in building and Our Laws are old, they are not new,

enlarging the castle. He was created Earl of Kinghorn

| July 10, 1606,2 and dying in 1615, his son, Earl John, Both clerk and ringers claim their due.


continued the improvements. || The ceiling of the great


• Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiq. of Scotland, vol. ii. parish church of Swillington, situated five miles from! | Enquiry into the History of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 192. Leeds, are three bells, two are dated 1656, the third |

Anna Murray, Countess of Glamis, was daughter of 1732. On one of the former is the following distich :

"" the first Earl of Tulliebardine.

§ Douglas' Peerage of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 565. When I DO RING: GOD'S PRAYSES SING.

| Billings notices - it is traditionally stated that the WHEN I DO TOVLE: PRAY HEART AND SOVLE. later portion of this edifice is the work of Inigo Jones, but

W. B. no evidence is found of the truth of that statement.

hall, as also that of the chamber, traditionally asserted to

VICTORY OR WESTMINSTER ABBEY! have been Malcolm's room, and bearing the date upon Such has been the onslaught exclamation of more it of 1620, were finished in the time of Earl John. I than one of Britain's naval heroes, and among the The crown, or rather coronet, and the lion therein number the Victor at Trafalgar, who at that moment represented, are part of the armorial bearings of the dreamed not of the mock honours of hero-worship which family of Glamis, and the so-called “initials of King

als on. Ying were subsequently rendered in that sacred edifice to his Malcolm," are simply the initials of

shrine. John, Earl of Kinghorn, and his

The fact is, the body of Lord Nelson was entombed Countess Margaret Erskine, third WAY

in St. Paul's, but a waxen effigy was set up in Westdaughter of the Earl of Mar. Such

minster Abbey, and for a time exhibited there, with is the real character of these emblems

other figures which excited popular indignation, deriwhich have been so strangely inter

sively called “the ragged regiment,” but which have preted by Howitt.

been many years since withdrawn by the Dean and It would be idle to offer any conjecture as to the exact

Chapter, though that of Lord Nelson is still in safe site at Glamis where Malcolm was killed or died; as leaning' The hills of the charses incu

ed or died; as I keeping. The bills of the charges incurred in the setalready proved, it was not within the present castle.

ting up this exhibition are before the writer, and preThe tenth plate of Ancient Sculptured Monuments of

suming they may interest the readers of Current Notes, Angus, etc. lithographed at the expense of the late

he submits the following memoranda. The modeller enPatrick Chalmers, Esq. of Aldbar, represents an en-trusted to prepare the effigy was Miss C. Andras, and sculptured stone in the wood near Glamis, situated the bills dated March 7, 1806, are addressed by her to the east of the village, and stands in the midst of a to so the Gentlemen of the Committee cairn of stones. Traditionally it is said to mark the

For a model of the late Lord Nelson 70 00 place where King Malcolm fell mortally wounded. The

For gold lace, etc. as per Barrett's bill . 17 0 44 eleventh plate presents an ancient stone obelisk or cross,

For a full dress coat, as per Murray's bill 4 4 0 at the door of the manse of Glamis, * about a mile to

For painting background of the case, as per the south of the castle, commonly called, and so desig

Aglio's receipt

. . . 4 4 0 nated from time immemorial, King MaLCOLM'S GRAVE

Paid Lord Nelson's servant for cloaths .5 5 0 STONE, although the chronicles assert he was buried

1 yard and a ribbon, Order of the Bath 0 8 1A at Iona. Whether he fell there, or was buried under

Narrow ribbon for the medal . .0 2 0 that stone, instead of at Icolnkill as stated by Boyce;

A gilt medal .

.0 10

• is uncertain, but among the monuments of Angus,

0 Sword

1 10 0 already referred to, there are other vestiges at Cossins


.0 90 and at Thornton, which are also believed to have refer

Canvas for painting of back ground 011 9 ence to that dark tragedy.

Paid Mr. Gravell for putting it up 0 10 6 Brechin, March 13. A. J.

104 14 9 Sea Song.-Can any of your correspondents inform Armstrong and Wyatt's bill for work done me where I may find a Sea Song, of which the following

at the Collegiate Church of St. Peter's, lines are a part:

Westminster, for making and putting When 'tis night and the midwatch is come,

up case for figure of Lord Nelson, fixing And chilling mists hany o'er the darkened main,

plinth, carrying the same to Pall Then sailor think of thy far-distant home,

Mall, moving the case, etc. ; a long and
And of the friends thou ne'er mayst see again.

minute account

. 13 6 111 Arle-Bury, March 1. A. M. S. M.

Total 118 1 81

Best's Poems.- Perhaps some of your correspondents can inform me in your Current Notes, what were the Poems or Sonnets of Charles Best. They are old and quaint. “A Sonnet of the Sun" begins,

The sun doth make the marigold to flourish,

The sun's departure makes it droop again; So golden Mary's sight my joys do nourish,

But by her absence all my joys are slain. There is another Sonnet to the Moon. Crakemarsh, March 15.


The original words of the revolutionary song, Yankee
Doodle, set to that tune, are thus reproduced in the
Albany Argus, with the following remarks by the

In the summer of 1775, the British army under command of Abercrombie, lay encamped on the east bank of the Hudson river, a little south of the city of Albany, awaiting reinforcements of militia from the Eastern States, previous to marching upon Ticonderoga. During the month of June these raw levies poured into camp, company after company, each man differently armed, equipped and accoutred from his neighbour, and the whole presenting

* Gordon and Pennant describe the stone as situated in the church-yard.

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such a spectacle as was never equalled, unless by the cele-i ROMAN VASE FOUND AT DORCI E STER. brated regiment of merry Jack Falstaff. Their outré appearance furnished great amusement to the British offi. | About forty years since some very interesting specicers. One Dr. Shamburg, an English surgeon, composed mens of red glazed Roman pottery, more generally the tune of Yankee Doodle, and arranged it to words, designated Samian ware, were found near Dorchester. which were gravely dedicated to the new recruits. The As usual, they were chiefly amphoræ, pateræ, and joke took, and the tune has come down to this day. The

lachrymatories; but from the very superficial depth in original words we have not met with for many years.

which they had been deposited, they were, when discovered, Father and I went down to camp,

for the most part reduced to fragments. Among the Along with Captain Goodwin,

few which were found whole was a vase, very elegant in And there we saw the men and boys

form, and having numerous figures in bas-relief. Dr.
As thick as hasty pudding.
And there was Captain Washington

Upon a slapping stallion,
A giving orders to his men-

I guess there was a million.
And then the feathers on his hat,

They looked so tarnal finey,
I wanted peskily to get

To give to my Jemima.
And there they had a swampin' gun,

As big as a log of maple,
On a duced little cart-
A load for father's cattle.

And every time they fired it off,

It took a horn of powder;
It made a noise like father's gun,

Only a nation louder.
I went as near to it myself,

As Jacob's underpinnin',
And father went as near again-

I thought the deuce was in him.
[It scared me so I ran the streets,

Mantell of Lewes became the possessor, and he preNor stopped, as I remember,

sented it to the Rev. J. Douglas, of Preston, F.S.A., 'Till I got home and safely locked

who on receiving it, forwarded the following remarks: In granny's little chamber.]

Your Roman relic came safe to hand, and I take the first And there I see a little keg,

opportunity to return you my kindest thanks. These vessels Its heads were made of leather,

I have classed under the name of Samian, from Pliny, They knocked upon 't with little sticks,

“ Samia etiamnum in esculentis laudanter," lib. xxx. cap. To call the folks together.

13; and I find this name is now generally adopted, by And there they'd fife away like fun,

way of discrimination, from the other specimens of Roman And play or cornstalk fiddles,

pottery, discovered wherever these surprising people estaAnd some bad ribbons red as blood

blished their stations. They appear to have been made of All bound around their middles.

the clay of Saguntum, often mentioned by the Romans, and

were certainly introduced into this country from classic The troopers too, would gallop up,

ground. Thus Martial,
And fire right in our faces;
It scared me almost half to death,

Ficta Saguntino comba malo luto. Lib. viii. Epigr. 6;
To see them run such races.

and again,

Sume Saguntino pocula malo luto. Lib. xiv. Epigr. 108.
Uncle Sam came there to change
Some pancakes and some onions,

When in the shape of pateræ, they have the maker's name.
For 'lasses cakes to carry home,

I have several of them, and numerous fragments, but of To give his wife and young ones.

the shape of the one you kindly imparted, not one so per

fect; and I prize it because it has an inscription upon it, But I can't tell you half I see,

IMANNIO, with the potter's stamp, which he intended for They kept up such a smother;

IMANNIS;* meaning savage nature, in allusion to the bear So I took my hat off, made a bow,

hunting the stag, and the wolf the hind, with the wild goats And scamper'd home to mother. The song is also printed in Farmer and Moore's An erroneous reading. It is a potter's mark, but reads Historical Collections, 1820, the verse within brackets, reversely CINNAMI. The name is known and found on being there omitted.

other specimens.-- ED.

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