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quested him to write the geography of his na. bly determined-to plant and grow these institive town. Some would ask if they must write tutions in the whole vineyard of our commonthe boundaries, others if they must describe we:lth.
1 the mountains, &c. Mr. W. said there is Mr. Mack introduced the following, which usually too much sun-light in school houses ; was adopted : its dazzling effect is bad upon the labors of the Resolved, that the members of this conven. pupil. Always endeavors to secure the devel. tion regard the Massachusetts Common School opment of thought in children. Would annul Journal, edited by HORACE MANN, Esq., as an the certificate of an open scoffer at the cardi. invaluable medium of information on the subnal doctrines of Christianity.
ject of popular education, and richly merits the Mr. Wm. Wright (of Washington) gave an patronage of every county and town Superin. instance, showing the intense interest felt in tendent, and friend of education in this State. town celebrations in his county ; the people had On motion of R. H. SPENCER, literally to dig their road through the snow. Ai Resolved, That the thanks of this convention Cambridge, last summer, 3,000 assembled. One are due to our President, Mr. Henry, of Herki. effect of elevating the standard of teachers' qua. mer, for the able and impartial manner in which lifications, and the increased desire on the part he has discharged the arduous and responsible of the children for moral and mental improve. duties imposed upon him during our present de. ment, has been the almost total cessation of liberations. corporal punishment-in some towns wholly. Mr. HENRY responded to this resolution in an
The call having been completed, Mr. A. exceedingly happy and felicitous manner, briefly Wright, from the Committee on Libraries, reviewing our proceedings, and recapitulating made a report.
the many duties incumbent upon the superinten. Mr. SPRAGUE, from the Committee on Vocal dents: he also thanked them for their courtesy, Music, also reported.
and the kindness and forbearance extended to The Committee on Comparison of Maps, him. Drawings, &c., made a report, which was Mr. THOMPSON also moved a vote of thanks to adopted.
to the Vice Presidents and Secretarias for the Dr. Powell, from the Committee on memo fidelity and alacrity with which they had perrializing the Legislature, made a report. formed their various duties.
Mr. F. B. SPRAGUE offered the following re. A resolution was also passed, setting forth, in solution, which was adopted :
strong terms, the claims of our own “ District Resolved, That as system. order and uniform. School Journal," and urging upon superinten. ity in the internal arrangements of a school, as denis, teachers, and other friends of education, well as greater accuracy of accounts of attend. a more liberal support of the same. ances, &c. can be secured by the use of a school On motion of I. F. Mack, Esq., unanimously register prepared for that purpose, we view the Resolved, That our thanks are due to the Board provisions of the school law, making it the of Trustees, and citizens of Syracuse, for their duty of trustees of school districts to furnish the generous hospitality extended to the members of teachers with a book for a permanent register, this convention during its session ; and also to as judicious ; and ought to be complied with the Trustees of the Congregational Society of by all trustees who have thus far neglected this this village, for the use of their Church edifice. important enactment, promotive of our common Resolved, That the secretaries communicate school system.
the above resolution to the President of the vil. Mr. SPENCER offered the following resolution, lage, and Trustees of said Congregational Sowhich was unanimcusly adopted :
ciety. Resolved, That the educational reform con. The convention then adjourned, to meet at templated by the present school organization of Poughkeepsie, on the third Tuesday in April, our Empire State, ought to go forward, and 1846. must go forward ; and therefore, by virtue of
JAMES HENRY, Jr. President. the efforts which we hereby pledge ourselves to nake when we shall have returned to our re.
ELY, spective counties, we say it SHALL go forward. Mr. ROCHESTER offered the following, which
? was adopted : Whereas, the Hon. Henry Barnard, Superin.
The Secretaries acknowledge themselves un. tendent of Common Schools for Rhode Island, der obligations to A. Mann, Esq., of Rochester, contemplates writing a History of Education and W. L. Crandall, Esq., editor of the Ononboth in Europe and America ; therefore,
daga Standard, for assistance in making out reResolved, That the members of this conven. ports of speeches, &c. tion pledge themselves to aid him in the col. lection of the facts involved, and also to assist
(From the Camden Gazette.) in circulating the History when written.
READ, THINK, ACT. On motion of Mr. LINDSLEY,
Resolved, that the extraordinary uniformity =That quality of the mind which makes it susand efficiency imparted to the organization, in. ceptible of receiving impressions from the struction and government of our schools by the things with which it associates, is of immense establishment of Teachers' Institutes, entitle importance in education and the formation of them to our admiration and support ; and the character. If properly guided and improved, members of this convention, armed with this it will lead the mind to the most important acconviction of their generous utility, do go forth quisitions, and give it a character fit for Heainto their fields of labor, determined—irrevoca- ven. Wbile on the other hand, if it is disre
DAVID G. WLOPIN, }v. Prests.
C. A. TANER, Secretaries.
garded, and the mind suffered to remain under against being erased ; for they not only form a bad induence, it will inevitably insure its ruin. part oi the mini itself, and thereby become as
The mind lives on the things it contemplates, permanent as the mind, but in the formation of as the body lives on food. Its health depends them, the mind acquires a taste for those things as much on the character of the influence of which they were formed, as the drunkard around it as that of the body does on the state acquires a laste for that which enervates and of the atmosphere it breathes. We know that debases all his physical, mental and moral a man's health and strength of body depends, powers, viz : strong drink and its natural asso in a great degree, on the nature of the food he ciates. And this acquired taste, unless its ineats. And why not the same effect on mind, dulgence be denied, which would be nearly or by the elements incorporated into its system, by quite as painful and self-denying as to cut off e digesting those things on which it lives and hand or pluck out an eye, would continually grows ? Admit poison into the bodily system keep us in those practices, and under those inand how soon should we see its ruinous effects; fluences, which have been the means of forming we see sad examples of this in the case of the the evils. drunkard. And are not the evil tendencies of We see in this reason for the direction to 'cut like indiscretion with respect to mind, equally off' the offending member that it be not the apparent? The state of the drunkard's mind means of leading us to destruction. On the proves that they are.
other hand, this principle may be made to subCompare his character of mind with the in- serve the best of purposes; for right impres. fluences he is continually under, and the sub- sions are made on the same principles, and are jects he contemplates, and see if there is not a equally permanent and powerful: Yea, more so, striking analogy between them-sufficiently for they invigorate the mind, while the others plain to prove that his mind was formed of enervate it. They are formed of wholesome them, and partakes of their nature.
materials, suited to raise the mind to perfect There is a striking analogy between the maturity, while the others are made of poi. growth of the mind and the growth of a plant, sonous influences, which debase and even de. which if carefully observed, would, I think, stroy the powers of the mind--so that it seems throw light on the subject. The mind of the to me thai the mind in the latter case cannot be child is not without character any more than susceptible of so powerful impressions as the the young plant is; bul both are subject to mo- mind that has grown under good influences. difying influences from the things on which they This subject then, if true, affords the most grow. The plant is flouri hing in proportion powerful motives for keeping ourselves under as it is preserved from noxious influences, and good influences, for accustoming ourselves to kept in contact with elements united to its na. right actions and trains of thought-even though ture. Just so the youthful mind must be kept it may require much care and self-denial so to from noxious influences, and have free inter. do, for the result will abundantly pay us for all course with the elements which its divine Au. the trouble, though it should cost us the life of thor has so abundantly furnished for its health our body; for, from the very nature of the ful growth, if it would attain to the exalted mind as being formed by means, nothing but state of refinement and felicity of which it is good influences and right actions can fit us for capable.
substantial enjoyment on earth, or for the society Impressions thus made are doubly guarded of Heaven.
E. M. H.
PART FIRST. Comprising Eleven adult Figures of natural size. G. W. ENDICOTT has published the first American edition of the above important Anatomical work, with full letter press description, under the superintendence of Doctors Torty and Lee.
The figures are mounted on canvass and rollers, and varnished, and the three figures treating on the veins and arteries, are handsomely and accurately colored.
A large edition has been prepared especially for the use of schools and academies, and at a price to bring it within the range of all.
A copy may be seen at the NORMAL SCHOOL, AJ.BANY, or at the office of the publishers, 22, JOHN STREET, New York. Price of the full set, eleven figures,
820 00 Single figures, less than the whole,
2 25 Colored copies, singly,
3 50 New York, May 21st, 1845.
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL,
OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.
ALBANY, JULY, 1845.
of educational reform. They regard the intro. For one copy, in all cases, (per annum,).... 60 cts. duction of correct systems of teaching as the U one hundred copies, each,
most effectual means of convincing the people
of the errors that have existed, and of arousing COUNTY SUPERINTENDENT. them to the efforts necessary to reform them.
The practical demonstrations of the school-room FRANCIS DWIGHT, having, on account of severe
are palpable and convincing ; more efficient to illness, and consequent debility, resigned the dispel inaction, ignorance, misconception and
prejudice, than all the theories, than all the aroffice of County Superintendent, Gen. Rufus guments that can be adduced. KING, of Albany, has received the appointment. To place the school in a condition thus to in.
fluence its patrons is peculiarly the work of the THE JOURNAL.
teacher; and much prudence, sagacity and per
severance are necessary on his part in executing WILL the County and Town Superintendents the important trust. To give hints and suggestake an immediate and friendly interest in ex.
tions in this department is the duty of your
committee-a duty at once delicate and respontending the circulation of the Journal? Would sible. each officer send, or be responsible for but two The field is so large that the limits of this subscriptions, it would enable its Editors to in- report will preclude the occupation of only a crease greatly the interest and usefulness of its therefore which is deemed the most important,
small part of it ; that portion will be selected pages, and relieve them from anxiety as to the namely, primary education. means for paying its expenses.
Your commitiee consider the following posi. The state appropriation is insufficient for that tion as generally acceded to by enlightened purpose, since in addition to the 11,000 copies our race is endowed with an inherent desire for
educators, namely: That every individual of required for the school districts, nearly 1,000 knowledge ; and that this hungering of the mind more are sent to the several county and town for mental aliment is as imperious as that of the superintendents
body for necessary food. It follows, therefore,
if the right course be pursued, that the acquisiTHE REPORTS.
tion of actual knowledge by the young, whether
in the family, the field or the school-room, must We have only space to call attention to the yield delight ; and such, it is believed, would be reports and resolutions adopted by the Syracuse system of early culture were pursued. It is be
uniformly the case ; if a judicious and correct Convention, which occupy so large a portion of lieved, too, that were this so, the word TASK this Journal. They will be read by all, with would be stricken from its application to lesson. pleasure and advantage, and must satisfy every longer be represented as rugged and repulsive
getting, and that the hill of science would no candid mind of the beneficent influences exerted in its ascent; and as paying the weary pilgrim by our present admirable school organization. for his toil only when he had reached the splen. Their useful suggestions, just opinions, and did temple which crowns its top. It is also beconvincing statements, challenge the closest need not be stimulated by proffers of gain, by
lieved that to induce pupils to advance, they scrutiny, and the most deliberate consideration fear, or by the wish to excel others; and that the of all interested in the advancement of social common use of these incentives has been prohappiness.
ductive of infinite harm in the school education
of children. Your committee believe, that much METHODS OF TEACHING.
injury has resulted from the very common prac
tice, of attempting to crowd instruction upon the The committee selected to report upon Me- mind when not in a fit state for its reception. thods of Teaching respectfully submit the fol. All know the effect upon the body of urging it lowing:
to take unrelished food, it but increases the loalhThat they deem this one of the most importing. The same is true of the mind when the ant subjects presented for the action of this mental appetite is dull-when it does not appe. convention, and one that lies at the very basis' tize the mental dish urged upon it. Pressing
the mind under such circumstance to receive in. I a class by an exercise so conducted, is truly struction, is the sure way to make it reject and gratifying. No difficulty whatever is found in detest it. It is a principle of our common na. teaching ordinary pupils of proper age, three ture to repel what is officiously obtruded upon letters a day, and your committee have known as against our will, and to cling to that which frequent instances in which the alphabet has is bestowed as a favor and held by sufferance. been taught in a week and in some cases in four Instruction, instead of being forced upon the days by the method named. pupil as a task, should be granted as a boon. The practice of imitative drawing by the If this be judiciously done, the pupil will cling younger, and perspective and landscape draw. to his lesson as to the toy which he is fearful ing by the more advanced pupils, is strongly will be taken by his associate. The constant recommended. The outline maps now found in injunctions heard in our school.rooms of "tend most of our school-rooms, furnish admirable to your books," “ sit still there,” &c., &c., are models for imitation. The daily practice of de enough to make the most inquisitive pupil hate voting some twenty minutes by the whole school his lesson and the most quiet to be resiless upon to drawing certain portions of them is earnestly his seat.
recommended. Your committee are fully impressed with the Mental Arithmetic ought, in the opinion of opinion that the “pleasure of acquiring should your committee, to be a daily exercise of every be made the incentive to acquire ;" and that it pupil, whether primary or advanced. Its im. is the perception of truth, ihe attainment of portance, when rightly taught, is universally actual knowledge only, which can yield this admitted. It is believed, however, that to place pleasure to the young or any uncontaminated a book on this subject in the hands of the pupil, mind. Letters and words, as such, are uninter. is not the most successful method of teaching it. esting to all children ; and it is only when these The teacher's mind, well stored with the princi. letters and words are the medium of knowledge ples of the “ l'irst Lessons," or some similar that the young mind will interest itself about work, is considered as decidedly the best book them. Observe the child when engaged in for the whole school. IIe should draw bis ex. reading mere letters. The eye is spiritless. amples from his own mental magazine, adapt The features devoid of any expression, and the them to the capacity and taste of the pupil, and same is apparent when umeaning words are require him to work them impromptu. This is read. There is no pleasure for the young being, the manner in which mental operations are in such employment. Bat a significant, a fami- usually performed. But if a book is placed in liar word gives an idea-touches the spring of the hands of the pupil he adopts a slow mental thought and the whole body is at once enlivened habit-solves his examples by counting his fin. with intellectual light.
gers, making marks, &c., to aid the mind. In In a course of school education the alphabet this slow way the answer is obtained, and this first claims attention, and upon the manner in is held in the memory and carried to the recitawhich this and the earlier reading lessons are lion seat rather than ihe solution itself. In this taught, depends in a great degree, the future way mental arithmetic, as a mental discipline, love of the child for books and his subsequent is of no more value than written arithmetic. mental action as connected with them. The The utility of Vocal Music is now so generalfirst lessons should be so given as to excite ly admitted, that time will not be spent upon it thought and delight the mind ; but a directly further than to remark that when it is practised counter effect has been more commonly produced in the schools, it should be attended to at regu. -that of suifting thought and disgusting the lar and settled periods, that the pupils may mind, and this mental inactivity and indifference know as well when the exercise of singing is have often been kept up so long, upon the al. to commence as that of reading or spelling. phabet and spelling columns, as to become a It is believed that the spelling book is oster fixed habit, following the pupil through his sub. introduced too early in the course and relied sequent school course.
upon 100 exclusively. It is recommended that It is suggested, therefore, that the alphabet at least two elementary reading books be masbe taught in all cases in familiar words, of not tered by the pupil before the spelling book is more than three letters ; that the words thus placed in his hands, and that the lessons, instead selected be present, if possible, in some form of being studied from the book by the eye alope, to the eyes of the whole class at once. The be written upon slates, care being taken to preteacher then converses with his class about the serve a perpendicular margin and horizontal object which the word represents, and if he can, lines. Spelling exercises may be profitably condraws a plain outline of it on the black board; ducted as follows: Suppose the school to be the letters are then named by the teacher and unused to the exercise, and many in the class pupils and the word pronounced. Sometim's unable to write with facility; from two to four the powers of the letters are given at the same weeks may be devoted to writing the lessons in time, and this is deemed the most rational and the place of studying them in the usual manner, practical way of teaching tinis department of and during this time, spelling may be conducted Orthography. As soon as a few words are without slates. This preliminary training will learned in this way, a short sentence is intro. generally prepare the class to write readily, and duced, which is read and copied as besore; not! slates should now be used in spelling. The only in Roman, but as the pupils advance, in teacher pronounces the words and all write them script also. The practice of writing the words; simultaneously until the lesson is gone through and drawing the objecis which they represent, withi. The slates are then changed--the teachis not only an amusement, but it furnishes alsó er taking a slaie from the right passes it to the an admirable safety-valve for the egress of left of the class, while the pupils pass their slates that buoyant energy which so commonly vents to the right. Thii is done as quickly as the itself in mischief, The interest excited in teacher can pass from one side of the class to
the other-each pupil has now the slate and country from the map, until it can be produced observes the work of his neighbor. The teach- from memory. The next step is to draw the er reads each word, and as errors are seen, prominent rivers, canals, mountains, &c., withhands are raised and corrections made by those in such outline until these too can be drawn who committed the error. This is one method, from memory. The location of towns next folvarious others not differing materially from this lows, and with these the same course is purhave been success lly practised. This practice sued. A specific number of objects is always of the schools corresponds with that of society, given for a lesson, and generally all but a few and the pupil that is thus habituated to write of the younger pupils engage in the exercise. his words at school will find no difficulty in As soon as a class can draw a map of a coun. writing them elsewhere.
try in this way, they learn a description of it, Composition has been deplorably neglected; and not before. The description is thus con. only about one thirteenth of those studying gram- nected with a distinct image already fixed in the mar and one-fortieth of those of school age in the mind by the impressive act of drawing, and the state are reported as engaged, in any way, in picture, and the description of it are so tied tothis important exercise. Now, a deficiency so gether by the laws of mental association that palpable ought certainly not to exist; and the they afterwards remain connected. The picture means of correcting it, even partially, are not can be called to mind at pleasure and the deunworthy of enquiry.
scription of it will follow in most cases with the For the tyro to write a composition is always freshness of an original impression. a hated task; one in which none but a persua. Your committee have thus presented their sive and indefatigable teacher can induce him to views of the manner of teaching some of the engage. Yet he may be drawn into the practice elementary departments of instruction; they have of writing sentences upon familiar topics with chosen to submit practical suggestions rather out any difficulty, and he will find in it actual than theoretical discussions as more serviceable amusement. A large number of schools could to the teacher and through him to the school, be referred to, in which all the pupils, over six and with the same view they beg leave respectyears of age, are engaged daily in this exercise; fully to offer the following resolutions : and in many where it has been continued for Resolved, That permanent attention should be some two years, the pupils will write very well given to the means of qualifying teachers, to and without any reluctance upon any subject introduce correct methods of instruction, and about which they can converse. The trouble in that we deem the Normal School and the Counly teaching composition, in most instances, it is Institutes as eminently conducive to this end. thought, has been that the pupil has been urged Resolved, That as the subsequent progress to produce compound and connected sentences be. and mental activity of the pupil greatly depend fore he could write even simple ones, and he be upon the ''first impressions” made at school, care came discouraged of course. He has also at should therefore be taken to excite the curiosity tempted to write upon topics of which he knew and to address the understanding, and for this but little, and all he could do, therefore, was to purpose in teaching the alphabet familiar WORDS read about them, and to copy not only the sen should be chosen to the exclusion of single lettiment, but often the phraseology read. This, ters, the "abs" and unmeaning combinations. although it may be reported as composition, is Resolved, That in connexion with the alphanevertheless a perfect farce. If the practice of bet and elementary reading, should also be constructing sentences, conld be introduced into taught mental arithmetic, imitative drawing, all the common schools of the state, instead of writing upon slates, and if possible, the prac. there being as now only ten thousand in compo. tice of vocal music. sition, there would soon be twenty times that Resolved, That facility in the construction of number, and the immense time row wasted upon our language can be aitained only by regular English grammar would then be of some prac. and continued practice, and that therefore the tical benefit.
daily construction of sentences in all our schools A brief notice of Geography will close this by those who can write, be earnestly recomreport. It is believed that too many particulars mended. are required to be recited by the student in this Resolved, That in the opinion of this convenscience, and that much more abiding and avail. tion, Geography can best be taught by the aid able geographical knowledge would be obtained of outline maps; and by drawing the outlines of in less time it the attention were confined to states and countries, the location of towns, the fewer topics. The great multiplicity of ques-course of rivers, &c., and that this method be tions serve only to confuse the pupil and to pre-recommended to general adoption in the Com. vent his receiving distinct and permanent im-mon Schools of the State. pressions. The lesson of to-day is learned and
E. G. STORKE, recited, but is crowded from its place by that of
ELIJAII POWELL, to-morrow; and this alternative throwing in
R. H. SPENCER. and crowding out this pop-gun system, is kept
Committee. up for years, and yet but a few distinct impressions-ihe bolder features-remain. Would it not have been better to have confined attention
REPORT ON MORAL INSTRUCTION. to those bolder features at first, and thus have The committee to whom the subject of Mora saved the time of the pupil?
Instruction was referred, beg lave to subm In teaching geography, the following course the following brief report: is confidently recommended : That the pupil, in It is not because the subject is of minor im. all cases, commence with what is familiar - portance that the committee are not disposed to with his own town, for instance ; that the first swell the dimensions of their report, but of its thing to be done is to draw the outline of the great importance and of their little hope of be