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Wright, 30 minutes-ladies by Mr. Sweet,

CONSTITUTION. minutes. General exercise, 20 minutes.

ARTICLE 1. This Association shall be cal. 11 30-Miscellaneous, 30 minutes.

led the Teacher's Institute of the city of New12–Intermission, 90 minutes.


ARTICLE 2. Its design shall be to promote 1 30—Reading, gentlemen, by Mr. Sweet, 40 and extend the interests of popular education. minutes.

Article 3. Any principal teacher, or any as2 10—Reading, ladies, by Mr. Wright, 40 m. sistant teacher who is twenty-one years of age, 2 50—Recess, 10 minutes.

in any of the schools of the Public School Socie3—Geography, 30 minutes.

ty, in any of the ward schools, or in any of the 3 30—Orthography, 30 minutes.

corporate schools of the city and county, may on 4-Elocution and Declamation, 30 minutes, his signing the Constitution, be a member of this

The above order has been occasionally varied Institute. by other interesting topics connected with edu. Article 4. The County Superintendent shall cation. On various evenings we had lectures be ex officio a member of this Institute. upon school government-the best method of ARTICLE 5. Gentlemen not included as above, teaching the alphabet—the proper order in which who are specially interested or engaged in the studies should be pursued in school-and the business of education, may on their application, proper age that children should commence going (if nominated at a previous regular meeting,) to school.

be balloted for and admitted to membership An introductory address was delivered by Mr. in this Institute on their signing the Constitution. Sweet, the Principal, at the opening of the In. ARTICLE 6. Gentlemen who have done disstitute, and on the last evening of the session an tinguished service to the cause of Education, may address was given by myself, and a valedictory be elected honorary members of this Institute; by Mr. Sweet.

but not by a less vote, than three-fourths of all A very deep interest is felt here in the cause the voters at a regular meeting. of common school education. Indeed, the inter ARTICLE 7. The officers of this Institute shall est amounts to an excitement. As an instance to be a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corres show not only this, but the good taste and sound ponding Secretary, a Recording Secretary, and judgment of the inhabitants of Windham, a great a Librarian who shall also be the Treasurer. North American Circus, with four ladies (!) as ARTICLE 8. The Officers of this Institutc shall performers, made a grand debut on the last day be chosen by ballot, annually, on the 4th Saturand evening of the Institute ; but after perform day of March. ing a short time before an audience of nobody ARTICLE 9. Amendments may be made to this at all, it suddenly disappeared, while the church Constitution by giving notice at a previous reguwas crowded with a highly intelligent and atten. lar meeting ; but such amendments shall require tive audience, to hear the examination and ad. a vote of two-thirds of all the voters present. dresses.

After subscribing to this Constitution the Insti. Greene being my native county, though not tute adjourned to the 31st. ult. On the 31st, the now my residence, I felt great anxiety to have Institute was again called to order by Mr. Wil the first Institute succeed. I am very happy to liam Belden, chairman, who announced that the be able to say that it has exceeded my anticipa. Institute would now proceed to ballot for the tions. Sixty-eight young ladies and gentlemen officers prescribed by the Constitution, which have been in attendance through the term, and election resulted in the choice of the following: they go out to teach, with an enthusiastic deter. D. MEREDITH Reese, President. mination to carry out the improvements they J. N. M. ELLIGOTT, have acquired here, and to endeavor, as far as Thomas Faulke, Vice Presidents. in their power, to elevate the common schools David PATTERSON, to the standard they ought to occupy.

Joseph McKEEN, Corresponding Secretary. The committee on resolutions reported some RICHARD S. Jacobson, Recording Secretary. very able ones, and among others a resolution to Lewis B. HARDCASTLE, Librarian & Treasurer. open another Institute next autumn, to commence Committees were then appointed on modes and on the eighth day of October, at Cairo, to con systems of education ; on Lectures and discus. tinue two weeks.

sions, and on School Books. After which the InVery respectfully yours,

stitute adjourned to meet on the 19th inst., to ALBERT D. WRIGHT. hear an Inaugural address from the President




Corresponding Secretary. On the 24th ultimo, an association was form. TOWN SCHOOL CELEBRATION AT ed in this city called the Teachers' Institute of

CAIRO. the city and county of New York. It is cum. posed principally of Teachers of the Public

On Thursday, the 6th of March, was held a School Society, of the various ward schools Town School Celebration at the village of Cai. which have been instituted under the new law, ro. Early in the day four schools assembled in applicable to this city only, and of the corpo. the Pesbyterian Church. The exercises comrate Schools of the city which share in the menced with prayer by the Rev. Mr. Snyder. School Fund of the State. The following form The schols were then reviewed by their respectof Constitution was presented, and after a fulldis ive teachers in regard to reading, arithmetic, cussion was adopted and signed by about fifty geography, and grammar; the exercises being teachers.

much enlivened by juvenile singing during seve

ral intervals of the review. In the afternoon, liberty, the love of country, and the love of vir. John Olney, Esq., County Superintendent, de. tue. Let the speaker contrast the character of livered an interesting lecture, in which many

a Washington and an Arnold, and not one among
important topics relative to education were ably
discussed. The scholars in attendance number the mighty mass of mind, would hesitate to love
ed about one hundred. A large audience wit. the character of the one and detest that of the
nessed the exercises of the day, and it is pre other. Such celebrations will have a salutary
sumed with pleasure and profit.

School celebrations may be viewed as harbin effect upon teachers as well as pupils, and in.
gers of a more enlightened educational action fuse new life among parents and patrons gene-
throughout the communities in which they are rally.
held. The first requisite to the establishment

The idea here presented strikes us as exceed.
and maintenance of order in any deparıment of
social movement, is attention. School celebra: ingly happy and appropriate. Our free institu-
tions are eminently calculated to awaken public tutions, secured to us by the wisdom and valor
attention to the subject of education. Attention of our ancestors, can be preserved only by the
to a subject naturally leads to its investigation; difiusion of knowledge and virtue throughout
and when this is conducted in a cautious and
persevering manner, under the influence of mo. our ra pidly expanding population. It is to the
tives of goodness, the labor will be crowned by rising generation that we are to look for the
the institution of order in that department to continuance and extension of the inestimable
which the subject relates. Order in human af.
fairs iesults from a conformity to justice, the blessings which the men of the revolution have
great intern law of the Universe. Justice con. bequeathed to us. Would not the noble specta.
sists in rendering that which is due. High and cle of seven hundred thousand children congre-
worthy aims are assuredly due the action of ra.
tional beings, and adequate

means are due to gated in their respective towns, under the augworthy aims. Education is a powerful instru. pices of their teachers and superintendents, and ment placed in the hands of man. By it are rejoicing in their progressive advancement in modelled the character and fortune of individu: knowledge and in the elements of true greatness als and communities. How important, is it then, that the process of education be 'a just and happiness, afford the best of all tributes to one ; a process commensurate to the true aims the genius of Liberty and the spirit of patriof being and action. Let this be, and science otism? Could we devise a surer pledge for the will then become an unerring chart to guide perpetuation and defence of these enlightened man through the voyage of life; a lever to raise the fallen; an index and palisade to the institutions under which we live, than that highway of holiness and happiness.

which would thus be offered upon the altar of B. H, HAYES, our common country? Will not every parent, Town Supt. Cairo

every teacher, every friend of education, every CAIRO, March 9, 1845.

patriot and philanthropist, second this great DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL. movement, and thus indissolubly cornectthe hal.

lowed debt of gratitude which we owe to our ALBANY, MAY, 1845.

revolutionary fathers, with the holiest and pur

est affections of our nature, --with our most sl. FOURTH OF JULY CELEBRATION OF

cred obligations to our children, and to the THE DISTRICT SCHOOLS.

cause of popular and universal education ? If In the Annual report of the County Superin in an age of darkness the Carthagenian patriot tendent of the Western Section of Onondaga Co., could consecrate his son to eternal and unmiti(Orgon Barnes Esq.,) the following suggestion gated warfare against Roman tyranny and opis thrown out, which we trust will receive the pression, is there not an imperative obligation deliberate attention and co-operation of the sev. resting upon us in the light of the nineteenth eral Town Superintendents, and officers and in century, to call upon our children to wage an habitants of school districts throughout tie equally ancompromising hostility to ignorance state.

and error-to vice ani crime in all their forms! The celebration of our national anniversary in Let then, the glad voices of more than half a a proper manner, so that all the children of our million of the children of the common schools, district schools could participate, would prove unitedly hail the recurrence of the anniversary a powerful auxiliary in promoting our elluca of our independence. Let the blessings which tional improvements. Could the seven hundred the Declaration secured to us and and our pos. thousand children or our common schools be as. terity be signally exemplified in the progress sembled in their respective towns upon our next and diffusiou of useful knowledge-- by the in. national anniversary of independence, what an culcation of virtuous dispositions and habits appropriate opportunity would be présented for, and by the irresistible moral might of a generastereotyping upon their minds the love of | lion trained from infancy to maturity, to a syee

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tematic observance of the paramout laws of their from his appropriate duties. The natural effect being and an enlightened appreciation of their of his occupation, is to make him rusty.

He must set himself strongly against this tenphysical, intellectual and moral nature. Here dency. He can effectually resist it. He must is a lever more potent that of Archimedes, and cultivate literature, science, natural history, a place whereon to stand, to move the civilized any thing for which he has a taste. that he may

grow. When wearied by the labors of the day, world.

he must not repose in inaction. Spontaneous

and strenuous labor is the law and condition of STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.

his growth, as of his pupils. He need no more Number of Pupils in the State Normal School- stop at twenty-five or thirty: than they at twelve

or fifteen. Let him study day by day as they at Albany, April 16, 1845.

do, and his progress shall be more healthlul Albany* county, 11 Onondaga county, 7than theirs. Allegany 2 Orange

1 Broome 1 Ontario

5 Caltaraugus 2 Orleans


2 Chaulauque 3 Otsego

The annual examination of all our teachers, Chemung 1 Putnam

whether holding state, county, or town licences, Chenango 2 Queens

1 in the manner recommended in the December Clinton 1 Rensselær*

11 Columbia 6 Richmond

Journal. Since the publication of that article,

1 Cortland 3 Rockland

1 we have received numerous communications. Delaware 2 Saratoga


from this and other states, complimenting the Dutchess 4 Schenectady


excellence of the Philadelphia method, and urgErie

2 Schoharie Essex 2 Seneca

1 ing its universal adoption. We had tested it in Franklin 1 St. Lrwrence

2 this county for nearly two years before venturing Fulton


4 Hamilton 2 Suffolk


to recommend its general adoption, and we hope Genesee 2 Sullivan

2 the different superintendents will give it a fair Greene 5 Tioga

2 trial. It secures an impartial, thorough and in. Herkimer 5 Tompkins

4 Jefferson 4 Ulster

teresting examination.

4 Kings 1 Warren

3 We received a strong certificate of its utility Lewis

1 Washington 6 from Mr. Sprague, the efficient superintendent Livingston • " 3 Wayne


of Fullon. Madison

5 Westchester " 2 Monroe 5 Wyoming

2 Montgomery 1 Yales,

1 New York 6

THE TEACHER-No. II. Niagara 2

174 Oneida 5

THE occasional or frequent exhibition of pas. * The extra voluuteers from Albany and Rensselær sion, whether it assume the form of irritability, counties are liable to be displaced by the appearance of petulance, peevishness, harshness of exof the regularly appointed pupils from other counties. pression, inequality of temper, or corporal in.

fictions, is wholly repugnant to every sound WHAT MAKES SCHOOL-MASTERS RUSTY ? theory, or enlightened conception of intellectual

or moral education. If, as the advocates for Not all sehool-masters—there are some hon. the retention of physical punishments in our orable exceptions--but of those whom I have elementary institutions of learning, contead, the honor to know, of a few years' standing, the interests of education, in its most compre. eight-tenths at least, are abominably rusty hensive sense, including the development of the They wear decent coats perhaps, and are well intellectual as well as the moral nature, are in to do in their outer man ; but in the furniture truth promoted by these means, a phenomenon of the mind, if you look within, they are sadly would be presented, strikingly at variance with old fashioned.

the ordinary results of mental philosophy, as It seems to me that the business of school keep. deduced from the most comprehensive and thoing, except in circumstances of peculiar advan rough examination of humanity in all its recog. lage, has a natural tendency to dissipate and en nized elements. If, by the infliction of stripes, feeble the mind. The teacher is, in his proles. by corporal chastisement, or personal violence siun. confined to a narrow circle of ideas, that of any description, other than such as may bę is, they only are necessary for the di charge of designed to effect needful restraint from the per. his daily duties. These ideas are the food of petration of evil, or of mischief, or to secure only young minls, and he is required to make obedience to the reasonable requisitions of the minced meal oi them for the use of such. There teacher, the intellectual powers are developed is here no impulse to improvement, except in or strengthened, or the moral faculties cullivat. the way of simplification. The continual con ed and expanded, a new and distinct clement tack with minds of inferior po virs drags the of knowledge exists, not heretofore enumerated teacher heavily down. Literary labor beyond by philosophers or educationists, among those his daily spliere is not expected of him, and of. to which we have been indebied for the pro. tea is looked on with suspiciun, as a departure gress we have atlained in civilization and sci.

ence;—an element, too, which is always at sweetest harmony even in the midst of apparent hand, and one but too congenial to a certain discord, by innocent and happy voices, insensiclass of minds, which unfortunately for the in. bly but effectually soothes, solemnizes, and ele. terests of education, has long exercised an im. vates the mind, and prepares it to listen reverentportant influence over the details of elementary ly and with attention to the words of Him who public instruction. The ablest writers on edu.

spake as never man spake," and to unite with cational topics, both in Europe and America, their teacher in ascription of thanksgiving to not only of the present day, but from the ear. the Great Governor of the Universe for all his liest period of modern civilization-practical blessings, and the expression of filial trust in and experienced teachers, whose success in the Him for their continuance. This periodical communication of knowledge and the formation and solemn recognition of the relations which of character has been most abundant and satis. exist between the Creator of the Universe and factory-and by far the greater portion of those themselves, cannot fail to exert a most benefi. who in an official capacity have been called cial influence upon the minds and the conduct upon to superintend this extensive department of the children, and to impress them with a of our political and social economy, have con. general sense of moral responsibility, eminentcurred in the uniform and repeated expression ly favorable to the development of their mental of the inadequacy, inexpediency, and injurious faculties. The pupils are then distributed, artendency of this mode of discipline. So power ranged, and grouped together into classes, acful, universal, and strong has been the manifes. cording to their respective attainments and pro: tation of an enlightened public opinion in this ficiency, and page after page of the varied and respect, that while in nine out of ten, and per. ample volume of knowledge is unfolded to their haps a still larger proportion of the public view—its contents clearly and methodically schools of Germany, France, and Holland, and pointed out and explained their connection in all those institutions which we have, during with the world of matter and of mind demon. nearly a quarter of a century, regarded as the strated and applied and the desire for progresmost perfect models, this species of punishment sive advancement induced and strengthened by has entirely disappeared, in our own schools it each succeeding step. When the physical and has been driven to the very outmost verge of mental energies of the pupils begin to fag, the toleration, and is, with gratifying unanimity, equilibrium is restored by changing the order of recognized only as the “ forlorn hope”—the ul. exercises—by the inspiriting effects of music, timate remedy-when all other means of disci.

or by the refreshing influences of muscular ex pline have been faithfully and perseveringly at. ercise in the open air. tempted and failed. Wherever teachers have

Occasional symptoms of insubordinationbeen found possessing the requisite talents, and the involuntary recurrence, perhaps, of habits administrative ability, to secure the pleasing ex not yet entirely extirpated-lhe results, it may ercise of the intellectual and moral faculties up. be, of incipient physical derangement, or of on the innumerable objects of nature and artemental discomfort-of an inexpressible propen. to call into play the finer and nobler sentiments sity for the time being, to escape from the salu. of the affections—so to vary the routine of in, tary control of authority, however lightly it struction as to afford room for the equal and may press or of heedlessness and thoughtlessharmonious development of the characteristic ness-in short, any of those multifarious and germs of intellect and of thought which are often inexplicable sources of action which seem found to exist—and to substitute the aniversal to be the heritage of humanity in its best estate, sanctions of morality, which the most immature are met by a direct or indirect appeal to the saintellect can comprehend and appreciate, for the premaey of the nobler reason—to the controll. summary appeal to physical force and violence, ing and restraining force of the higher faculties the results have uniformly been such as triumph of thought and action-or successfully repelled antly to vindicate the principle here asserted. by a skilful diversion of the mental and corpoThe path of knowledge becomes strewed with ral energies to some more attractive field of Aowers; the virtues and graces of humanity exercise. Affectionate and well-timed appeals bud, blossom, and expand under the genial in to the moral sense and better feelings of the fluences of kindtress and love; and the founda. more serious offender-accompanied, if neces. tions of future usefulness, happiness and well. sary, by the indirect but powerful pressure of being are permanently and durably laid. The adequate restraint within certain specific bounteacher comes to his task with a mind thorough. daries, beyond which transgression is rendered ly imbued with the principles and details of ele. impracticable, ---these, together with a variety mentary knowledge-in full possession of phy. of efficient motives which may be brought to sical health-with a firm determination to re.

bear, by a skilful and experienced teacher, frain from every the least exhibition of passion, speedily' put an end to the offence, while they, or of temper—with an amiable disposition, and

at the same time, effectually reprove the offend. a heart" open as day” to all the mild and holy er.

Sentiments of reciprocal attachment and and beautiful influences of childhood. By an affectionate regard, insensibly spring up between indefinable attraction, which experience has the teacher ar.d each individual under his charge; shown to be almost as invariable and as certain and the atmosphere of the school-room soon be. as that of the magnet to the pole, the hearts of comes so congenial to the child that he looks the children intuitively respond to these unaf: forward to the heurs devoted to its pleasing exfected manifestations of interest and regard ercises and grateful recreations, both of body which beam from the countenance and pervade and of mind, with joyful anticipation and an inthe actions of a teacher thus mentally constitu.describable 'pleasure. Then come the exhila. ted. At a suitable hour, the buoyant energies rating excitements and festive enjoyments of of the tumultuous and busy crowd are tempora the periodical examinations, exhibitions, and rily checked; and a strain of music, allaaed to celebrations; the eager but chastened competi


tion; the desire of excellence and the struggle Now while I am ready to admit that there is for success; the tumultuous but interesting a difference in the capacity and dispositions of throng of happy faces and beating hearts; and children, and that some, as the expression is, the triumphant exhibitions of mental and moral" take learning,” and become interested in books acquisitions, thus agreeably fixing forever in much more readily than others, yet I am not at all their memories and hearts the joyous associa. prepared to say that the fault is exclusively to tions of the school, unaccompanied with the fes be laid at the door of the poor scholar. Ought tering recollection of scenes of violence, passion, we not to enquire at least whether the teachvindictiveness, cruelty or harshness.

er has not had some hand at least in mak. S. S. R. ing him what he is? Had special pains been

taken to interest his young mind, and had he

been made to comprehend the various sabjects RESPONSIBILITY.

as he progressed, by the patient instruction of his teacher, how different might have been the result. He had passed through his primary edu

cation with pleasure, and ascending the loftier But the responsibility of the instructor of heights of science, might have shed light on youth will be very much increased in our view, subjects which now he does not comprehend, it in connection with his relation to parents, we and on which he has no disposition to fix his take into consideration the relation he sustains mind. to the youth placed under his care.

Permit me to suggest whether there is not an It is this view of his relations, which attach- error with regard to the object of common school es the most weighty obligations to his office. education. Do we not loose sight of the fact There is scarcely any proverb more trite than that it is as much a branch of early education that, ": 'T is education forms the common mind, to create a love for learning, as to teach the art just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined." of reading or writing? Indeed, the true and leThough often repeated, it contains most impor-gitimate object of all educacion is to improve tant truth, which bears with peculiar weight on the mind. Whatever will accomplish this, will the duties of the instructor of the young. When secure the end proposed. But it is in vain to children commence their common school educa. attempt the improvement of mind, unless there tion, their minds are in a forming state. Like is first excited a love and desire for knowledge. the unhardened wax, they are ready to receive One great object then of the teacher should be, any impression, or to be turned in any direction. to give the mind a right direction; to excite á

It is now that the young mind is to receive an love for study, and lead it to exercise which impulse under the influence of which it is to go shall give it soundness and vigor. forth into the field of knowledge, like the bee, This is a branch of primary education which extracting honey from every flower, giving ex: the teacher of common schools cannot neglect ercise to, and strengthening all its powers and without disregarding the obligations he owes to susceptibilities ; or it is now when it first begins those who are placed under his care. to act under the direction of the schoolmaster, The teacher of youth sustains a relation to that it is to contract a distaste for study, and a his country from which obligations arise. hatred for books which will never be eradicated. The importance of sound and general educa.

This is by far the most important period in the tion in a government like ours, cannot be estiBiterary history of every youth, because the feelmated. The opinion of the people, here conings which are now formed with regard to stu: Jtrols everything. How important then, that dies and books, will in all probability be carried that opinion be enlightened. The representative with him through life. It is in view of this body of the nation is drawn together from every fact that the relation of the teacher 10 his pupil part. Hence it is necessary that the means of is one of so much responsibility. The teacher knowledge should be equally scattered, as the is to be instrumental creating a love or hatred most certain mode of making learned rulers, is of learning, which will influence the whole of to extend as far as possible the influence of learn the future course of the student. Observation ing to the people from whom the rulers are and experience are full of instruction to us on aken. this subject. Why is it that some who have But education not only makes good rulers, it passed through our academies and colleges, have makes peaceable citizens. It causes men to such an imperfect knowledge of even the com have just views of the nature, value and relation mon branches of a common education, nay, of things, the purposes of life, and the tendenmore, have a positive disrelish for literary pur. cies of actions; to be guided by purer motives, suits? An inquiry into the early education of to form nobler resolutions, and press forward to such persons will show that in almost every in more desirable attainments. stance, a dislike to study was contracted when the mind was first turned to the subject, and tames the native ferocity of men. Laws will be

Education smoothes down the roughness and that this dislike for the most part arose from a failure to comprehend or become interested, in obeyed because they are rightly understood and the subjects of study at first. The youth fails to to good government and consult the peace of so

properly estimated. Men will submit cheerfully comprehend the fundamental principles of arith. ciely in pror ortion as they learn to respect them. metic, but he blunders on with little or no inter selves and value their own character. But all est in the study, and to keep pace with his class, these are the fruit of education. Ignorance is he goes on with them into algebra, with but little the soil in which grow discords, delusions, and understanding of it, and less pleasure or profit. ireacheries. Ignorance among the people takes And so with regard to all the branches of edu. cation. So far as he gives his attention to them away all security from government. While ig.

norant, they are perpetually subject to false at all, it is as a task which affords no delight

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