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actual working of existing laws, by visiting one Mr. Mann has recently afforded the teachers or more schools in every town, and conferring at four diferent points in Massachusetts an with teachers and school committees, as the ba opportunity to profit by similar exercises; and sis of all his operations. To prepare the public if those who attended bave gone away with the mind for a more efficient system, he resorted to same kind feelings towards each other, and the every agency within his reach to disseminate in. same glowing interest in the whole cause of formation as to existing defects and desiralle school improvement, which pervaded the Rhode remedies, by conversation, and by familiar and Island institutes, then has a great work been practical lectures, in every town in the state; by done for our state. preparing and circulating“ Educational Tracts The friends of education should become better in every family; by aiding districts and commit. acquainted with this new agency for advancing tees in the construction of school houses and the the qualifications for teachers. As a contribuemployment of well qualified teachers, that he tion to the object, I sond you herewith an arti. might be able to point to at least one model cle from the Journal of the Rhode Island Insti. school house and one model school in each county, tute, which presents, in a condensed form, the and as early as possible in each town; by aiding i origin and history of this system of instruction. lyceums in procuring lectures on the subject of Let the good work which Rhode Island has

education; by enlisting clergymen of different begun, and which she is now carrying forward denominations to preach on the subject; by se. so successfully, be continued as vigorously and curing the sympathy and co-operation ef teach- happily for a few years more, and she may ers in the advancement of a work which must boast of a system of common schools not sur. carry along with it their individual and profes. passed by any other state in the Union. The sional advancement; and finally, as the result of smallness of the state, the gathering of the popthe whole, by preparing a bill for a public act ulation into villages, the fact that so much of the respecting common schoule.

wealth of the state is employed actively, and After being one year before the people, this above all, the judicious beginning and prosecu. bill was passed in both branches of the legisla. tion of the work by practical agencies, seem to ture with scarcely a dissenting voice, although guarantee great and immediate results. it involves the raising of money by tax in towns

W. H. W which had never before voted a dollar for edu. Andorer, Dec. 12, 1845. cational purposes, and provide for a thorough supervision of the schools by district, town,

SENATOR PRESTON ON EDUCATION. county, and state officers.

Hon. Wm. C. PRESTON, the illustrious ex-Sena. Here then is a state which has completely re.

tor of the United States from South Carolina, was organized its system of public schools in less than two years, and incorporated with it the inaugurated as President of the College of South best features of the systems of other states.- Carolina on the 5th inst, and delivered an address During this period, more than five hundred ad. to the students, so admirable that we are impelled dresses have been delivered in the different to copy those portions of it which have no pertowns, and nearly one-sixth of the school. houses have been either rebuilt or remodeled. "Town, sonal or special bearing. They are as follows: coun!y, and state associations of teachers and 66 The immediate and ostensible object of our friends of education, have been formed, which association is the pursuit of learnirg, aru this have held more meetings in two years than the might seem to be our sole purpose; but, in truth, same number of similar institutions in Maosa. learning is only a means to the great end we have chusells have held in five. The novel feature of in view. It is an instrument which is prepared an itineraring nurtual school agency, operating and fashioned here, with some instruction as to direpety upon the several schools, has here the mode of using it. It is bnt the arnior, but a wrought ont its most happy results.

part of the armor to be worn in the battle field of An“ Educational Tract" has gone into every life for the achievement of honorable and glorifamily in the state that takes an almanac, and a ous victories, for the triumph of truth over error, ** Library of Education” hhs been established in of virtue over vice, of right over wrong. And every town, for the use of teachers and school although I cherish the conviction that there is a committees, to say nothing of the great variety natural and intimate connection between knowof books and pamphleis, relating to the subject ledge and virtue, yet I know that they are not inof popular instruction, which have been widely separable. There have been melancholy instances disseminated among all classes of ci'izens. of great intellectual powers, united to acquisitions.

The superintendent has just closed a series of from the whole circle of learning, without a cor“ teachers' institutes,” throunh which a large responding moral elevation. These, however, I amount of practicol knowledge has been impart. regard as anomalies; I rejoice to believe that in ed to more than half the teachers employed in the general order of Providence, whatever enthe winter schools ; and what is still better a larges and exalts the intellect promotes, purifies, zeal for improvement as individuals, and as a and invigorates the virtues of the heart. If I did profession, has been inspired, which must ac not believe in such a connexion, I would abandon complish still greater results. I have enjoyed myself to indolence and despair. But the noble the privilege of being present at two of these in and distinctive faculties of man, whose combina. stitutes, and have formed a very high estimate tion constitutes his dignity and glory, are harmoof their utility. I have attended, at different nizeit by his Creator into a concerted action for a times, a variety of teachers' conventions and as common purpose. Whatever enlightens the mind sociations, but justice requires me to say that I improves the heart; as the sun, which illumines never before received so much valuabl éinstruc- the atmosphere, warms the earth, and although it sion on the subject of teaching, in the same space may happen that his beams are reflected from of time.

fields of ice, yet his general mission is to call

male causes.

forth whatever is useful and beautiful, and impreg

Aurora, Dec. 22, 1846. nate with vitality the whole body of nature. 8. S, RANDALL, Esq.

“ True 'knowledge is the knowledge of truth; Dear Sir, I have just learned that our common as it is said in the fine arts, that nothing is beauti- friend, Francis Dwight, Esq. is no more. I had ful but the true, so, in the wide signification of an interview with him relative to our school systhe word, it may be said that nothing is good but tem on Thursday previous to his decease. He the true. To confer upon learning its just dignity was somewhat unwell; but I was by no means and importance, it must be considered as subsidi prepared to hear the announcement of his death. ary and auxiliary to the paramount ends of our A brief, but just tribute to his worth, to which being. It must always have in view our respon- I subscribe, was given in the Argus. Mr. Dwight sibilities in this life, and the awful responsibilities has been taken from an important post in a groat of a far more exceeding weight hereafter. You field of labor. He was ardently devoted to the are to be made intellectual men, that you may be interests of eclucation in general, and those of prifit moral agents; so that as you advance in learn- mary instruction in particular. ing, you may advance in the knowledge and ap Ai my last interview with him, his mind was preciation of virtue, remembering always that the engaged in devising the best safeguards to be lamp which you light up is not a gaudy show, to thrown around that feature in our school system, please by its variegated radiance, but is intended which provides for County Supervision. He fear--for a more useful and noble purpose—to show ed an attempt might be made to repeal the very you amidst the double night of error and of pas. law, whose special provisions he considered, gave sion which obscures your journey through life, vitality and efficiency to the whole system. It the only ways of pleasantness and paths of peace was his wish, that I should communicate to bim Undoubtedly learning of itself is graceful and my views. Áll, however, that I can now do in ornamental, and knowledge is power, but learning redeeming my pledge to him, is to transmit the and knowledge attain their true beauty and full following to you, containing, in brief, my opinpower only when united to virtue, and this union ion, as to County Supervision, is ennobled, and, so to speak, sanctified by piely Having attended NINETEEN Teachers' Institutes, making the highest condition of our nature. I have had a favorable opportunity of making Learning - morality — religion - these are your comparisons, judging of facts, and tracing imgreat objects. These, in the right understanding provements in educational matters, to their proxiof them, include all that is desirable. They com

The system of supervision has but prehend those lesser morals, the aggregate or just commenced. In the main, it has hitherto which make a gentleman fitted to adorn and de- worked well; and it seems to me injudicious, at light society-they comprehend all those senti. least for the present, to interfere with the present ments which become a citizen born to a partici-existing provisions of the law. Let the experipation in the government of the commonwealth,ment go on, till the results, whatever they may and all those deep convictions and lofty aspirations be, are clearly developed. Then, and not till which belong to heirs of eternity. This is my then, can a sound and correct judgment be formconception of the object and purposes for which ed. we are associated. If we can persuade you to Whoever has had most personal knowledge of entertain a corresponding idea of your duties, our the state of our primary schools, the imperfect task will be an easy one. We shall be joint labo- qualifications of teachers, and the want of interrers in the same fielil, cheered by the sure pros. est on the part of employers; and whoever has obpect of a luxuriant harvest. This, our seed lime, served the slow, and almost imperceptible adwill be a season of hope and joy, while we look vancements in elementary instruction, for years forward with eager and confident anticipation to previous to Legislative action, is best qualitied to the glories of a rich harvest, and still farther to appreciate the privileges now trayed, and estithe garnering or it where there is no rust, and

mate the special advantages deriveul fiom om exthieves cannot break through nor steal.

isting school organization. The slightest comparIndustry is the prolific mother of many virtues. ison, touching these matters, between the past and She produces as well as sustains them, they all present, cannot fail to impress every discerning cluster around and nestle about her, growing and mind with the importance of those legal provistrengthening by her care. Genius itself, that ions, by which our common schools are now redivine quality which seems to be instinct with gulated. innate power, and to rise by its own upward ten The original projectors of the system are dedency-genius itself is plumed for its highest serving of all praise. The foundation was, by flights, anul trained to them by industry. It is an them, so ju liciously laid, that succeedling Legielautter mistakc to imagine that any endowment can tures might carry forward to completion, such sudispense with labor. It is a fatal error into which perstructure, and add such appendages, as expeyoung men fall-no great achievement ever has rience should suggest, or the exigences of the or ever can be effected without it—the mode or case require. its application may be obscure, but its presence is So far as legislative action and public munifinot the less certain. We have heard of the forest-cence are concerned, it is thought, no state, born Demosthenes-_-of Nature's darling” and probably no country, can present an entire

system, less exceptionable in all its frame-work “Fancy's child, Warbling his native wood notes wild”;">

and provisions, or more happily adapted to secure

the object for which it was designed. Uniformiof the blind old man of Scio's rocky isle.ty of organization, is, in a great measure, now These were men of genius, unquestionably--but secured in the common schools of the State, 10Henry, and Shakspeare, and Homer, were also gether with a proper supervision of their intemen of labor-they had the blessings of inspira- rests. tion, but the blessing came to them after they bad Laws, we are aware, may be good in themwrestled all night.

selves, and salutary in their tendencies, but unlen.

thoir provisions in detail, are duly complied with, Let him remember the rewards of faithful few important benefiis can be expected. Our teaching. present school system judiciously provides the Permit me to mention some of them. needful facilities, by which all the children of Without stopping to speak of the fame or forthe state may be properly educated; but experi- tune which one may win by teaching, I will say, ence has shown us most clearly, that these facili- that a love for teaching, which is an essential-reties are insufficient, without the aid of some exe- quisite in a teacher, will be gratified, and a re. cutive, supervising power. This supervision is ward will be derived from the pleasure of teach now wisely provided by law, in the appointment ing. And while imparting knowledge, he will of Town and County Superintendents.

receive more than he imparts. Teaching certainly Any man who has been conversant with the affords an extraordinary opportunity for moral and common schools of this state, for any considerable intellectual self improvement. period previous to the commencement of stated In self-government particularly, the teacher will visitations by these officers, can hardly entertain find a reward; as all men love to exercise author a doubt, as to the importance of the office and ity; and to the good, but few things are more the necessity of its continuance. My own ob- pleasing than the exercise of self-authority. servation has convinced me, that grealer edu. This the teacher may practise every day; and cational improvements have actually been made will he not be richly rewarded, if he can realize since the appointment of County Superinten- a constant growth in patience, firmness, perseverdents, than had been, during the last twenty, ance and efficiency 3 if not thirty years previous to that time. Con We may consider the pleasure enjoyed in wit. cerning this matter, especially, I think I can speak nessing the progress of pupils, as another rewith some degree of understanding, having been | ward. conversant with the condition of primary schools The farmer derives great satisfaction from seeing as an Inspector, from the enactment of the law the growth of his young animals, a lady from requiring such a board, till its repeal, for the sub- witnessing the improvement of her choice flow. stitution of one, vesting the power of inspection ers; and the artist, in beholding the completion in a county officer, whose services were to be of his painting or statue, enjoys a HEARTFELT DEwbolly devoted to that business. All must admit, LIGHT--delight so absorbing as to render him, that much has been done, during the last four at times, too indifferent in regard to the future. years. School houses have been constructed bet. Indeed, one must be an artist, if he would know ter, both for comfort and convenience. The cha- H18 pleasures and rewards; and one must be a rácter and discipline of our schools, and the modes teacher in order to enjoy the happiness of seeing of instructing, have undergone valuable changes. a physioal growth more noble than that of animals; The qualifications of teachers have been greatly a mental developement more beautiful than that of improved; more talent has been enlisted, and the the powers; and the expansion of images and imamount of knowledge, ordinarily imparted in a pressions more pleasing and enduring than any given time, has been more than doubled. made upon canvass or marble.

These are valuable considerations connected As another reward, I may notice, the opportuniwith the prosperity of our primary schools, and ty to inculcate good sentiments-sentiments which the good of the rising generation. And these may influence whole nations, for ages to come; resalis have, in the main, been brought about and thus the leacher's life will be prolonged; for through the agency of County and Town Super- I think a man may be said to live, as long as his intendents, acting in their official capacity. sentiments continue to influence others.

Legislative enactments, accompanion with pub The grateful remembrance of pupils, constilic munificence, ecco, now to have embraced all tutes a reward. The proof of this proposition is the spoential parts of a well digested school sys- found in our own experience. We feel, that the

Little more, therefore in my judgment, re- faithful teacher merits our grateful remembrance; mains to secure the full benefits of a good com- and, that, nexi to our parents, he will have a place mon school education to the present and each suc- in the memory of childhood's brightest hours. ceedling generation, than a joint and efficient co The faithful teacher seeks to promote the preoperation on the part of County and Town Super. sent and future happiness of those around him. intendenis, sustained by the patrons of schools, and He lavors for his country and for the world. Let the friends ot education generally.

him be encouraged by the thought, that the truly Let all these unite their eff 3 under our exisl. great and the good of all ages ouve preferred the ing organization, and the literary character of our same employment; that, a Washington fought for state may be elevated to a commanding position. liberty; a Howard sought to relieve and restore Means are now adequate to the end, and the al- the destitute and the depraved; a Paul devoted tainment of the end, involves the best interests of his talents and his life to the preaching of the the people individually and collectively.

gospel; and, that, the teacher of a common school Yours respectfully,

may also teach and practice patriotism, benevo8. TOWN. lence and religious truth.

The faithful teacher will be honored and re. For the District School Journal.

warded by giving to his country educated mind. THE REWARDS OF FAITHFUL TEACHING. Though unable to enrich his people by pecuniary

gists, or the spoils of nations, he may elevate and ennoble them by cultivating mind, and well cul.

tivated mind is the foundation of public as well After obtaining all the aid which the experience as private prosperity, and the pillar of empire. and instruccions of others may afford you, teaching Faithful teaching is calculated to prevent much will yet be hard work; it will still be attended poverty, disease and crime. The amount of these with many difficulties and sacrifices, and even the evils is so great, that we cannot, dare not, estifaithful teachor may be wearioul or discouragout, mate it. If any one doubts this let him supply

BY C. HOLLY.

А

the wants of the bergar, and of those who prefer a part of his reward, an opportunity of imparting suffering to charity; let him see the diseased and and acquiring knowledge; of making self-im. their attendants; let him view the Hospitals, Alms rrovement ; of exercising self-government; of Houses, Prisons and courts of justice; and let him witnessing the progress of his pupils; of commuremember, that there is mental poverty as well nicating enduring influences; of enjoying the as pecuniary, moral as well as physical disease, grateful remembrance of pupils; he is permitted and much hidden as well as open crime. These lo enrich his nation by cultivating mind; and to evils, so momentous here, are not confined in their prevent much poverty, disease and crime, as well results, to this world; but in another they will be as confer the means of much real pleasure. These co-existent with the soul, and terrible as the just are some of the rewards of faithful teaching. But and eternal wrath of the Almighty.

it is a great thing to be a consistent and faithful Men often wish for money with which to re. teacher ; and he who would be consistent and lieve destitute old age or dependent childhood. faithful must seek the grace and wisdom that comWhen we wait and watch by a sick friend, wit eth from above. nessing his agony, how strong the desire to relieve State Normal School, March 1846. him. And who has entered the dark, cold and narrow prison cell, with its locks and chains, its

FIFTEEN MINUTES TO SPARE. iron door and walls of stone; and has there witnessed the wretched convict, lost to himsell, his

In passing from one engagement to another, friends and the world, denied the privileges’of a during the day, there are often small portions of freeman, dead, as it were, yet condemned to a time for which many make no special provision, hopeless life or an ignominious death—who has aud so lose them entirely. A good economist, seen all this without a feeling of the deepest an- however, of time, which money, and to many guish ?

their only capital, will always have something to Such is the fate, of not one only, but of thou fill up these spaces. Put together, they make sands. These calamities are public, alas! with days, and months, and years, and are worth saving. these we are too familiar. Of secret want, and some persons are so constituted, that it is next to crime and wretchedness, we have less knowledge. impossible for them to be systematic, methodical, Now, how great woulù be the happiness of him and steadily and continuously diligent. They can that could supply the destitute and heal the dis- work only by fits and starts; and they work best eased; who could restore the criminal to his when the spirit moves them, compensating, by friends and to society, giving him a quiet con.

the earnestness and energy with which they labor, science, and an unsullied reputation; who could for the seasons during which they loaf or lounge. mitigate the private as well as the public ills of

Suc gentlemen of genius are, however rare. life. And may not one be as happy in preventing good many lazy fellows who imagine themseves as in curing the ills? Is it not far better to pre members of this class, have in fact, no right to be vent than to cure? Well, this is what the faith-ranked with them, and deserve to be talked to, ful teacher will aim to do.

first, for their idleness, and secondly, for their Again, the faithful teacher is rewarded in wit-, impudence in trying to excuse their drone-like nessing the happiness which others enjoy through propensities, by pretending to be like the few his instromentality. In estimating this reward eccentric great men, who are, in respect to the we must take into account both parents and pupils; way in which they do things, a law unto themwe must remember the strength of parental ailec? selves. Most people, to accomplish any thing, tion, and consider that many parents have no need to be constanily industrious; and for them, lands, or treasures, and their children being their it is wisor never to have “ fifteen minutes to only treasures, are prized accordingly. Many a

spare," and always to bave some little matter to poor woman struggles on for the sake of her little to which they can turn their hana.

A certain ones; she hopes their lot may be higher and mathematician, we forget who, is said centara brighter than her own. And when she beholds composed an elaborate work, when visiting with their progress in knowledge is she not happy? his wife, during the interval of time between the Is she not grateful too? Who can estimate ma moment when she first started to take leave of ternal love?

their friends, and the moment she had fairly

finished her last words. We heard once of a "Hast thou measured the depths of yonder sea ? And counted the sands that under it be?

young man, eager for knowledge, who read the Hast thou scanned the height of Ileaven above ? whole of Hume's History of England, whilst Then mayest thou mele out a MOTHER's love."

waiting, at his boarding-house, for his meals to I recollect visiting a lady whose son, a bright be served. No excuse is more common for ignoactive boy, walked a long way to attend my school. rance, than a want of time to learn; and no exShe was poor, and endured many privations, that cuse is more frequently false. It is not always she might benefit her children; and when I spoke false. Unconsciously one may get engrossed in of the lad's diligence and improvement in school, business and entangled with engagements, so that emotions of happiness aud gratitude were visible he cannot well release himself and escape. But upon her countenance. The sight was ample re. it is bad to do this; and against it one should be ward for my efforts in the boy's behalf, it awa on his guard. In many cases, however, such enkened in my minil new emotions; it gave me a tire occupation of time is not the fact; it is only new impulse. The amount of happiness confer- imagined to be the fact. Every body, every day, red upon the children, is, is possible, still greater. wasles moments, if not hours, which might be If a good education prepares them for pure intel. devoted to useful ends. “Where there is a vill, lectual enjoyment; if it enables them to see and there is always a way," says the proverb. A appreciate the wisdom and benevolence of the systematic arrangement of business, habits of Creator, and leails them to love and serve him, rigid punctuality, and a determination to gather will they not be happy ?

up the fragments, will enable a man to make wonWe have seen that the faithful teacher has, as derful additions to his stock of knowledge. The

starve.

small stones which fill up the crevices have fortable state of life ; while a proper study of almost as much to do with making the fair and their own profession, would greatly improv firm wall as the great rocks; so the right and wise their faculties and make them more and mor use of spare moments contributes not a little to capable of all other knowledge. the building up, in good proportions and with But a proper education regards more than strength, a man's mind. Because we are mer. securing wealth and health and life and limb, chants and mechanics, we need not be ignorant of than the mere supply of the animal necessities, all that lies without the boundaries of the count. even the making lise as agreeable as possible. ing-room or the shop. Because the good woman That is not deserving the name of education looketh well to her household, she needs not to which provides only for a livelihood, a boon abelain entirely from looking into books. If, to secured by mere instinct to ihe meanest animal. make money, or get a dinner, the mind must be Education of man must provide for the well entirely neglected, it were better to be poor and being of man-for the refined enjoyments of the

But there is no such necessity as this, as man, for the higher senses of the body and for any one may discover, who will, with justifiable all the faculties of the mind. This is true not avarice, make good use of every “fifteen minutes only of the higher classes against which if we he has lo spare.”—Newburyport Herald. had them by hereditary descent, I have nothing EDUCATION FOR AN AGRICULTURAL The working man is not educated properly as a

to say; but it is true of the working classes. PEOPLE.

working man—unless he is trained to the enjoy.

ments of a man. In all countries, and especially our own,

I need not dwell at large upon what is the agricultural people is the people. Magnify as we may each other interest, --commercial, perfectly obvious, the pleasures which an im. manufacturing, they form but small fractions proved and improving mind will find in reading of the mass-themselves proceeding from and and in conversation and in those reflections intimately bound to the agricultural population, minds. They are but savages themselves who

which belong only to improved and improving and receiving their character from it. Increase claim that savage is as happy as civilized life, our manufactures and commerce as we must, they can never employ a tythe of the

community and that the well informed and studious are no Our increasing millions must be chiefly agricul: happier than the boor in his chosen ignorance. tural, forming the nation, and governing the The happiness of improved and improving nation. Yes-governing the nation.—In all minds is within the reach of the agricultural countries, and especially our own, weight is as

population, and that is not a proper education nambers. The agricultural population do and for them which does not furnish them this will, directly or indirectly, govern the country. happiness, Reading, reflection, conversation, The farmers will regulate or distract manufae. such as belong toimproved and improving minds,

are the peculiar boon of the country. The absence tures or commerce-will secure or disturb our civil policy. If they originate no governmental leaves the mind free to read the works of the

of variety, of objects to stimulate curiosity, acts, when they do but act or decline acting upon propositions of good or evil, their decision wise and good of all nations and of all times, forms the issue of every proposal.

If the given as they are to the farmer in his own breath, whether of patriotism or factions quiet give scope to his own reflections upon this whether of wisdom or folly, proceeds from some other region, it blows in vain until it moves the growing knowledge. level su-face' of society. On its agitation or quick rural life as agreeable as possible, while I re.

But when I speak of an education, to make must depend the result have welcomed; whatever have been missed, they likely to be left out of view; I mean that agriare now prevalent among us, the agriculturist, quire suitable reading, reflection, conversation, have rejected.

Whatever is to be feared or cultural education should prepare the people for hoped for a waits their decision. In proportion. therefore, as we discover the just principle of their own peculiar enjoyments, to take delight education for an agricultural people, do we

in rural life, and especially in their own rural

home. provide for the welfare of the whole.

Of course the first direction. , that education As to the general delight is cal life, it can should be such as to guide and aid labor to the hardly fail to follow, from that study of agricul. best account; such as at once to make agriculture for other purposes which we have already ture more easy and more productive. I am commended. I am not afraid to say, that there sure that the general impression of society on is no employment of Man so likely to grow in this subject, as well as almost universal practice one's affections, as he endeavors to learn to carry is very defective. Agriculture needs and admts it on to the best advantage, as agriculture. an appropriate education, which may be gained Other employments are regarded more for their without teachers and schools ; but is more profits ; but this from step to step, as one tries likely to be begun and afterwards well pursued to improve it, more and more interests and in proportion as it should be aided by teach. delights the mind, while its results are ever ers and schools. Let the rudiments of agricul. furnishing the finest pictures to the eye. ture be taught ; let the proper books for gaining But I am yet more desirous, to see cherished further knowledge be pointed out. Let the a special fondness to one's home. for the endurconnexions of mechanical and chemical philoso ing scene, its rocks and rivers and hills and phy with the labors of the field be understood. vales, its orchards and groves, as they were to Let the prejudice against “ book learning" be the eye of childhood and as they will remain to discarded, and our rural population would rise the eye of old age, and for that new and improv. rapidly to better method, and to a more com- ling scenery with which industry and taste will

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