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propriety. As soon as they take book in hand, of night. Why it so often proves a season of their tone, inflection, every thing, is changed care rather than rest, to many. And in this conIt arises, as I have already said, from compell. nection, we might moralize on the importance of ing children at first to read what they do not un. | wholesome diet, vigorous exercise, and an ap. derstand, or in words with which they are not proving conscience, as preparatives to quiet and familiar. Their whole attention is occupied in refreshing repose. “ Spectre of despair:"deciding what to call the word ; they have no. What form of speech is this? Do spectres and thing to bestow upon the meaning, the under-apparitions ever really appear? Is there any standing of which is necessary to bring out the ground of anxiety or alarm about them? What proper tone and inflection. This method is ac is the difference between house and tent? Des. quired, I say, by attempting to read, at first, cribe a tent. Point out its construction and use. what is not understood. It is continued alter: Who was Brutus; and who Cæsar? Where and ward, from habit, and transferred to what is un. when did they live? What was their business ? derstood.
When and where and how did they die? Why When you have got your pupils along so far should Brutus be startled? Where is Rome?-as to read easy, simple sentences well, i. e., ac. and many others. cording to the sense, with distinciness and At one time, let all read the same chapter, secpromptitude, and without stammering, drawling tion and paragraph; at another, let one read a or nasal twang, you have accomplished a great whole chapter, or section, or lesson, and let the and good work. Children acquire the habit of others be listeners without looking on the book. stammering, and drawling, and all disregard to It is a good thing to be a good listener, almost proper intonation, in the early stages of this art as good as to be a good reader. This is a part by being put to read either what they do not un. of education, and a part very proper for the derstand, or what has no sense in it, or lastly, school room. How many evils arise from the what they are not familiar with. But if they want of power simply to fix the attention! have been taught to take their first steps right, What contradictions! what discrepancies of tes. all that is to follow will be comparatively easy. timony in courts of justice! what embarrass." The pupil has now acquired so much in the art, ments and perplexities in business! And all that if supplied with suitable books, he may be simply from the want of power to fix the atten. gin to entertain and improve himself. From this tion! time forth, you may look for rapid progress.
Another advantage will arise from the prac. In teaching reading, whether to older or young. tice of listening without the book. The reader er classes, unless the scholars are quite far ad. must be sufliciently loud and distinct to enable vanced, let your exercises be short. A few lines the listeners to discriminale by the ear, without well read, will be better than whole paragraphs the aid of the eye, between combinations of lethurried, mumbled, or slurred over, as they often ters very similar in sound, though it may be, ve. are in our schools. Tax your ingenuity to make ry different in sense. them interesting to your pupils. Multiply and The injunction so often repeated by teachers, vary questions and remarks, grammatical, histo. "Look on your book, and see whether he reads and moral, iniet'nıēgoraphicale philosophical right,” it is not always wise to enforce. There the sentiments of your pupils be constantly in
-"and is another which I would sometimes substitute
TUE 1, "Trngide your book, and hear whether action, and draw from every lesson whatever it he reads right.” This will enadie llic lictener can contribute to their improvement. Reading to determine whether the reader has a clear ut. exercises in school, are often tedious affairs to terance and distinct articulation. It will prepare children. How can it otherwise be, taught and him in after life to listen to the reader or speak. exercised as they are? At first they are taught er, as he must do, without the aid of book to a, b, c; and then b, 1, a, bla; b, 1, e, ble. After help him understand or keep the connection. In wards a class is called out, and they read round listening to a reader, the class should be guided, in dull, monotonous rolation, beginning at one chiefly, by the ear; but with book in hand, they end, and going straight on to the other, without are often guided chiefly by the eye. They think question or comment, what few understand, and they hear and understand, but it is rather see and fewer are interested in. Thus conducted, the understand. Perhaps a better way would be to reading exercise cannot fail to be dull. See to it allow, alternately, one half of the class to look from the beginning, that you make it entertain. upon the book, and the other half to listen with. ing and instructive by the various and valuable out book. For sometimes readers read distinct. information of which it is the medium.
ly and loud, and make good sense, and yet leave What a variety of questions the following sen out or put in words, or substitute other words. tence, for instance, may suggest :
for those in the book ; a fault, which those lis"Night is the time for care,
tening without book, would not be likely to de. Brooding on hours misspent;
tect, and yet a fault, which as leading to habits To see the spectre of despair
of carelessness and inattention, calls for correcCome to our lonely tent,
tion. Like Brutus midst his slumbering host,
I have already said, Do not hear the class in Startled by Cæsar's stalworth ghost."
regular rotation from one end to the other, but
promiscuously. Neither is it necessary (or even Besides all the inquiries about the meaning of advisable, if ihe class be large) to hear each puwords, their derivation, composition, and pro. pil read every time the class is called out, as nunciation; also articulation, accent, 'emphasis, some parents and teachers suppose. It is better tone, inflection, pauses and cadence, we might for one or two to read thoroughly and correctly, ask, What is the cause of night? and pass to while the others listen attentively, than to run a consideration of various astronomical pheno through the whole class in a hurried, confused, mena. We might ask the uses and advantages 'faully manner. In this, as in all things, regard
not the principle" horo much," but "how well.” | ble, read often. But do not forget that much
Again, they need not always read to a period, more depends on regular, systematic, thorough or full stop, or to the end of a sentence or para. drilling, than upon the quantity read. Two exgraph, or even 'o any pause. Rather, some ercises a week, thoroughly and judiciously exe. times, let one commence and read to the middle cuted, are better than a half a dozen, or even a of a sentence, and then let another take it up half a thousand, such as I have known. Again, there right in the middle of a sentence, and just I repeat, take care that the exercise does not be where, it may be, the sense is incomplete, and come a dull, monotonous, unmeaning affair. Let finish it. At one recitation you may spend most every thing within its limits, be turned to the of the time in reading; at another, in asking cultivation either of the head or of the heart; questions, and making remarks; and at a third, every word, fact, allusion and character, and va. in reading yourself to the class. This last will ry your method, until variety itself becomes mo. be an excellent mode of spending the time; es. notony. Do not, as thousands have done, allow pecially, if you allow your pupils to remark up your pupils to run over whole pages and chap. on your reading. This can be done with safety ters, in a careless, rambling, superficial way, and profit, when a right state of feeling pre- just that they may be able to say that they have Vails,
read through their book! This is exactly the After a scholar has read, point out to him his way to make them familiar with the book, while faults in pronunciation, pauses, inflections and they know nothing of its contents. Many a tones ; in omitting or substituting words ; or book in this way has lost its novelty, before a what is more important, in regard to the gene- single chapter in it had been fully understood ral style and execution of the reading as affect and well read. It has nothing to recommend it, ing the meaning, strength or beauty of the pas. but that it is admirably calculated to make scho sage. Let this be done after the scholar has lars careless and stupid. read-after he has got through. Do not keep Call the attention of your pupils often to their stopping and correcting him while he is in the own faults, or to faulls to which they have a very act of reading. This serves only to pro tendency; particularly to any erroneous provin. voke or discourage him, and makes a bad mat cialisms which may prevail in the community in ter worse. Read it over to him once or twice, which they have been brought up. Many words or let some one of the class do it, and then let of common use are often very incorrectly prothe first reader try again. Be sure you do this nounced, while the very commonness of the fault last.
is the reason that it is not noticed. Instance in Some teachers will point out a fault, show by the words, head, leg, bed, window, nature, example how the passage should be read, and catch, get, tobacco, together with all the partici. then, without requiring the pupil to read the pial terminations in ing, and many others. sentence a second time, and himself correct the These are often pronounced, haid, la ig, winder, fault, pass on to the next. This is very faulty. ketch, git, &c., instead of hěd, lég, window, I repeat, do not stop a scholar, or allow your catch, gět, &c. Furnish them with a catalogue pupils to interrupt him in the midst of his per- of such words, or rather let them make out formance, but wait until he gets to the end; un for themselves. less it be for some gross fault or blunder, which onen. would utterly porsart bo use, anu destroy all You perceive. I have been describing a propropriety of reading. It is perplexing and discess of teaching reading on the assumption ihat couraging so to do. It mars all the beauty of you take the pupil from the beginning, give him the performance, and utterly defeats the object his first lesson, and lead on through his whole of correction: Far better is it to allow him to course. You would commence with the most go on to the end of the sentence, and then call simple words, names of familiar objects, then his attention to his faults in the gross.
pass to sirople sentences made p of these words Almost every scholar will have something-thence to plain narrative; after which all will good and deserving imitation in his manner, as come in due succession, conversational prose, well as something faulty: 1 Call the attention of dialogue, simple poetry, and finally the more the whole class to the points of excellence as well impassioned sirains of poetry and prose. This as of defect. Urge them to imitate the one, and is the course I would recommend. To do all avoid the other.
this and to do it well, is no easy task; and yet it One scholar, for instance, will read too fast; may be far easier than what will actually fall to another, too slow; one, too high, and another your lot. For you will have not only scholars too low; one will be very indistinct and clutter. who have not been taught at all, but those who ipg, yet perfectly correct in all his intonations have been taught bally, with every Variety of and inflections; and a third, who avoids the pronunciation, tone, cadence, and infection. faults of both, will hesitate, stumble and miscall You will find much to be corrected; much work words.
of preparation to be performed; many thorns to Satisfy yourself in any proper way, and in va be extirpated, before the good seed can grow, or rious ways, that your pupils understand what even be sown. The inquiry then arises, “ How they read. Question them on every exercise. can we make good readers of those who now And frequen'ly require them to give you oral or read badly, as well as of those who cannot read written abstracts or analyses of what they read. at all? I reply in another question. How can This is an excellent exercise for mental disci. we become good readers ourselves? For on the pline, and for acquiring the use of language, and same principles, and by the same method, that the art of constructing sentences-a very impor. we learn ourselves, we may teach others. tant part, though not the most difficult part, of composition.
The ability to read well depends much on It is a matter of the first importance, that the practice. Let your pupils. therefore, if possi- / teacher should have a distinct idea of the objects
to be gained by the practice of mental arithme- the parallels of fifty and fifty-six degrees N. lat tic; as, otherwise, the main advantages that itude, it is more than half way between the might result from it will assuredly be lost. Let Equator and North pole ; and, of course, under it constantly be borne in mind, then, by the the first meridian, which passes through the east teacher, that the knowledge of arithmetic is not of it. The position of Ireland, and Scotland, the the chief benefit to be derived from it, but one one to the west, the other to the north of Engof secondary importance. It is the mental dis- land, and forming a portion of it, may then be cipline, the power of abstraction, the habit of at: pointed to, or dotted in chalk; and so of other tention and of reasoning which it developes, that countries." constitutes its chief value. But all these advan. Having taught the pupils as much of Mathetages are lost, if the child is allowed to study matical Geography as will enable them to comthe books, more especially by working out the prehend the figure, magnitude, and motions of questions on the slate. They can only be com. the earth, their attention is directed to the great pletely attained, by calling on the class to solve divisions into which its surface is naturally divi. each question mentally, merely from hearing it ded; or, in other words, they are introduced to once read, and then to give a clear account of his Physical Geography. mental operations. And, so beautifully are the We begin by giving them general views and questions arranged, so completely does the know leading ideas. Having made them observe that ledge gained in each question, come into requi. there is far more water than land upon the sursition in those that follow, that, if the plan of face of the globe, we inform them that the prostudy be commenced right, and strictly followed, portion is probably as seven to three; or, in oththe most intricate and difficult questions will er words, that more than two-thirds of the earth's give no trouble to the class.
surface are covered with water. To fix this fact It requires some tact, 10 gain the utmost ad. in their minds, it may be added, that the proporvantage from mental arithmetic; but it is easily tion between the land and water on the earth's acquired. The main point is, that the attention surface, is much the same as between the diamof the teacher be kept wide awake. The dull eter and cireumference of a globe, or circle, that and slow must be allowed time ; the bright must is, something less than one-third. not be suffered to monopolize the answers. At We then inform them that the entire surface the same time, it will not do for the answers to of the earth, land and water included, is suppobe received, in the order in which the pupils sed to contain about one hundred and fifty mil. stand in the class ; for, in this case, only one lions of geographical square miles ; and they will child would be occupied at once. Each pupil draw the conclusion that the extent of the land would attend only to his own question; whereas must be less than fifty millions, or less than oneall should be occupied, and should actually solve third. Having supposed that the land on the every question put to the class. The best plan, earth's surface contains about forty-five millions then, is, for each to hold up a finger, when ready of geographical square miles, we distribute it to answer, leaving the teacher to select whose into five great divisions, or continents, namely, turn it shall be. Thus, every one might have an Asia, America, Africa, Europe, and Oceanica ; Dalmor's Manual.
observing at the same time, that the water is GEOGRAPHY AS TAUGHT IN THE NATIONAL MO. also divided into five great divisions, or oceans,
namely, the wife, the Atlantic, the Indian, DEL SCHOOLS, IRELAND.
the Northern, and the Southern oceans. After A small wooden globe, divided into two equal learning from a map of the world the relative parts, is used by us to give children correct ideas, position, and comparative extent, of the great both of the form of the earth, and of the two divisions of land and water into continents and hemispheres, or map of the world. When the oceans, they may be told that Asia is supposed teacher is explaining the form of the earth, he to contain rather more than one-third of the land holds the small globe in his hand ; and when the on the earth's surface; America, nearly onetwo hemispheres into which it is supposed to be third ; Africa, about one-fifth; and Europe and divided, he takes it asunder, and places the two Oceanica, about one-fifeenth each. Then comes half globes against the wall
, with their edges in the question, how many millions of geographical contact, and in juxta-position with a map of the square miles in Asia ? About fifteen; because world.
Asia contains about the one-third of the land on Latitude, Longitude, the Great and Small cir: the surface of the globe, which is supposed to cles of the sphere, Meridians, Parallels, and amount to forty-five millions. Similar questions Zones, which to children, appear as so many may be put regarding the other great divisions. mysteries, may be simply and clearly taught by These proportions are not only pleasing to the the use of such a globe. The circle formed by pupils, but are calculated to give them clear the junction of the two halves when united, may ideas of the comparative extent of the land and be regarded as the First Meridian, and, if a cir. water on the earth's surface; and of the real cle equidistant from the poles be traced, it will and relative size of cach of the great continents intersect it at right angles, and represent the into which it is divided. Similar proportions Equator. The Tropic, Arctic, and other cir. may be discovered, and similar questions put cles, may be easily added and explained ; and if respecting the several countries constituting the the globe be painted black, it will be easy to give continents. For instance, if a pupil is informed an outline in chalk, of the relative position and that about one-third of Asia belongs, or is tribu. extent of the great division of the earth's surface tary to China, and nearly another third to Rusinto continenis and oceans. For example, ask sia, he will at once conclude that each of these the pupil to point to the spot where England powers possesses a territory equal to about five should be, and if he recollects its latitude and 1 millions of geographical square miles; and that longitude, he will, at once, determine its proper all the other countries taken together, constitute position. He will say, that, as it lies between the remaining third of Asia. This is a great
FRAMING WORDS INTO SENTENCES.
and leading idea of Asia, and will be easily re. collected. Again, of the remaining third of Asia, I was in the habit of dictating, or giving out Arabia constitutes about the one fifth, and Hin. to my pupils,-each having a slatea set of dostan something more than another fifth. Ara. words, which they were required to write down. bia and Hindostan, therefore, contain each about I always dictated very slowly, that all might one million of geographical square miles. They have ample time. When the dictation was comhave also each of them, the same proportion to pleted, they were required to exercise their in. the continent of Asia that Europe has to the en. genuity in so putting them into sentences of their tire land upon the earth's surface, namely, as own construction that they would make sense, one to fifteen. With regard to the other coun. as parts of those sentences. tries, a similar process is pursued.
Suppose the words dictated or given out were General views with regard to the population apples, corn, moon, hat, gold, red ; and suppose of the world, are, in like manner, given to the the pupils were required to incorporate them inpupils, For instance, the population of the to sentences. The following might be the reworld is supposed to amount to about 800 mil. sult of the efforts of some very young pupils : lions, which, if divided by 45,000,000, the num. Apples are good to eat. A new hat. ber of geographical square miles contained in the Corn grows.
Gold is yellow. earth's surface, gives about 18 persons to the The bright mooni: A piece of red cloth, square mile. The population of Asia amounts to about 390 millions of Europe, to about 240 ; haps their
lists would read thus :
Others would probably say much more. Per. of Africa, to about 70 ; of America, to about 42, and of Oceanica, to about 20,300,000. _ Asia, I am very fond of apples. I love to look at the therefore, contains about one hall, and Europe moon. My father raises corn. Some hats are nearly, one-third of the population of the world. made of wool Money is marle of gold and silThe absolute population of Asia is greater than ver and copper. There is a bird called a red that of Europe, but its relative is far less : for,
bird. divide the amount of the population of each by
Sometimes I gave them a much longer list than the number of square miles contained in the sur this, and required them to select a certain num. face, and the quotient will give 80 persons to ber of the words, such as they chose, and" frame the square mile in Europe, and only 26 for Asia. in.". I have sometimes given out twenty or In the same way we proceed with regard 10 the thirty words, and required them to select seven other continents and countries.
of those which appeared to them the most interThegreat physical features and natural boun.
esting. daries of the several continents are next pointed who preferred to do so, to select some favorite
In other instances I have requested all those out. For instance, South America is, generally speaking, divided by mountains and rivers into word, and relate, on their slates, a story about five great divisions, namely, the western declio it, spending their whole time on that single word vity between the Andes and Pacific Ocean ; the drawn out quite a large story from a boy who at
and the story. I have in this way occasionally basin of the Oronoco; the basin of the Amazon ;l ile first thought he could do nothing. the basin of the Paraguay, and the southern ex tremity. In like manner, North America is di.
I recollect in particular, having siven out: an
a certain osoica, itau voru vee antong the rest. vided into five great natural divisions, namely one of my boys, scarcely more than ten years of the basin of the Mississippi, the western dccli. vity between the Rocky mountains and the Pa- age, immediately wrote a long account of an ad. cific Ocean; the northern declivity between the venture, in a meadow, with a nest of bumble
bees. Great Lakes and the Arctic cean ; the eastern
Another mode of this exercise, still more' in. declivity, between the Alleghany mountains and teresting to some of my older pupils, consisted the Atlantic; and the basin of the St. Lawrence: in framing as many of the words of the list as
When the pupils are made acquainted with they could into a single sentence or verse. I have the great outlines and natural divisions of the sometimes found half a dozen or even more earth's surface, we proceed to Political Geogra words crowded into two or three lines across the phy. In this branch of geography, also, we be.
slate. gin by giving general views and leading ideas;
This exercise, in its varied forms and diversi. and having traced the great outlines, we fill them lies, was one of the best I ever introduced into up gradually and in every thing that concerns my school. It both interested my pupils, and Great Britain and Ireland, as minutely as practicable. At every step we apply the principles of a Schoolmaster.
was a source of much instruction.-Confessions of CLASSIFICATION and COMPARISON. Mountains, rivers, lakes, slates, cities, &c. are classed and COMPOSITION AS TAUGHT IN ENGLAND. compared ; which not only assists the memory
As soon as a child can spell and understand a of the pupils, but enables them to form correct, few simple words, you should begin to exercise conceptions of the real and relative magnitude them in little sentences, and should continue the
of each, They are told, for instance, the height practice their whole school life. * of a mountain, or the length of a river, with Suppose you write the names of the colors,
which they are familiar-or the population of black, blue, &c.; and then let each child in turn the town in which they reside, and from these mention all the things they can think of, which points the classifieations and comparisons com are black, blue, green, &c.. They will say, mence. The pupils are thus enabled to form - The grass is green ; the trees are green , my correct and clear ideas of things which they do frock is green; my lips are red; ink is black; not know, by comparing them with things with the sky is blue; my shoes are black," &c., &c. ; which they are familiar.
and in a quarter of an hour you will have writ. ten a long spelling lesson. Another day you may
write down all that is sweet, sour, bitter ; all do it; then request some one of the class to rub they can think of that is hard, soft, rough, it out and perform the operation himself again, smooth, round, square, heavy, light; and so you and explain it precisely as you have done it. He may go on day after day. Sometimes let them may at first fail in stating and explaining it ac. dictate a text from Scripture which they wish to curately; but let him repeat the process, and tell you of, or a verse of a psalm or hymn, or acoplinue to repeat it, until he can do it as accu. proverb; but every day let some liitle matter be rately and explain it as clearly as you can do it written on the board.
yourself. And so proceed with the other scho. It is a good exercise sometimes to ask chil. lars and the other examples, passing by none dren to recollect all the objects they observed in until the operation can be quickly performed the woods, fields, or lanes, as they walked to or and fluently explained. This ai first will take con. from school, and let them bring the leaves of siderable line. You may be obliged to spend different trees, the wild flowers, &c., and then the hours of recitation, for several days, ou a let them tell you how to spell the words. very few examples; but, nevertheless, it is time
Now, some people may tell you that it is of well spent. For when ihe scholars once learn no use to teach these children these common, that they have tongues, and have acquired the easy things, and that all you should do, is to give babit of using them in recitation, they will feel them what they call book learning; but I assure an interest in il, such as they never felt before. you, that if you do not allow them to write from Their minds will become active instead of retheir own heads, little sentences about easy mat. | maining merely passive, and the tim? spent in ters they can think and tell about, they will never acquiring this habit, will in the end be saved know how to express themselves properly or tourfold. clearly; and if they can tell you in writing what If you would teach thoroughly and success. they now know, and think, and understand fully, and leave your mark upon your pupil's about, when they have read and learned more, mind, you must not attempt to teach every. they will be able to write down their thoughts thing-or rather, you must attempt to teach but and recollections on other and more difficult few things. The tastes and tendencies of the subjects.
age, I am aware, lie in an opposite direction, Sometimes you may ask the children to write and there is often more ambition to explore down on their slates all the things which they widely than profoundly tbe fields of knowledge. know to be right to do, and all that they know The current and popular literature is much of to be wrong.
it mere trash, and ihe people are reading them. Write on your slates, or on the walls, the selves into ignorance. Many of the publica. names of all fruits which grow on trees. The tions are airy nothings-sickly and silly roman. names of fruits which grow on bushes; what ces or what is perhaps lille better, dreamy plants are cultivated for the roots ? what for the speculations, full of transcendental nonsense, leaves? what for the seeds? The seeds of what neither false nor true. It may be true that plants grow in pods like beans? what seeds grow some old and sensible books are much praised, at the top of plants like wheat? What trees are but it is equally true that they are read little and useful for timber? What trees are cullivated studied less. for the fruit they bear? What for both timber Now this course serves to increase the already Mention all the creatures you can climb of significantly and graphically describes, as look
too large class in the community, whom Lacon that feed on grass. Ask what is the color of ing trou ivory thing and seeing into nothing; grass ? What is hay? When is the grass cut And it canrot be denied that this prevailing and down? with what instrument is it cut down ? popular taste has injected in some measure our Do you think the cattle would like to lie down educational system ; that the showy is some. on the hard road as well as on the soft grass? | times substiluled for the solid, and sound learnWould you like to look at the fields if they were ing, like homely virtue, has more admirers than brown or red, as well as you do now that they followers. Bui the rays of the sun never burn are green?
unless collected into a focus, so the energies of Then say, "Now write on your slates all you the mind will never act vigorously and intensely can think about grass ; now, all you know about unless concentrated upon a few objects. And the different sorts of corn ; all you know about this is the true secret of success. For two ideas garden vegetables, and the manner of cultiva. so stamped upon the mind that they can never ting them. What difference can you mention be. be worn out, are worth more than ten thousand tween birds and beasts? What difference be. indistinct and faint impressions, which are fleeltween birds and fishes?
ing and unsubstantial as the shifting shadows The names of a great variety of substances, upon a summer's landscape. "Read much, but whether manufactured or unmanufactured, may not many books,” is a good maxim, and there is gradually be arranged ; and the colors, shapes, another equally wise, teach much, but not many and uses added.
things. Lord Bacon, or some other sensible HOW CAN RECITATION BE MADE Most always feared a man of one book ;" and Ches.
man who ought to have been a lord, said "he USEFUL?
terfield, in commendation of thoroughness, bas In the first place assign a very short lesson, justly remarked, that “whatever is worth and give the class to understand that they are to learning, is worth learning well." I repeat it, recite it. For instance, if the class are about then, if you would teach successfully, TEACH beginning equations in algebra, assign at first MUCH, BUT NOT MANY THINGS.
D. not more than two or three examples for a les. son. At the recitation, work out upon the
NATURAL MODE OF TEACHING GRAMMAR. black-board one of the examples yourself, and Success in teaching grammar depends particu. explain it precisely as you wish the scholars to 'larly on the genius and judgment of the teacher,