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the poor-house and the prison, and end it on a / arrangements for each day, an hour at which atgallows; that it is better to prepare men to fill | tention shall be exclusively given to it. For this their own pockets honestly, than to tempt them purpose, the teacher must provide himself with to empty their neighbors' pockets dishonestly. some good treatise on moral philosophy, like

If these are truths, the teacher has a most im. Wayland's or Parkhurst's, and selecting a por. portant public duty to perform. If it be true tion, prépare himself for each lesson by careful ihat, to form the child, by daily instruction and study and thought upon some one particular daily training, to a regard for the laws of jus point. These exercises need not, and should tice, integrity, truth and reverence, so that he not, occupy more than five or ten minutes. In this shall grow up mindful of the rights of others, a way the great cardinal duties may be more or good neighbor, a good citizen, and an honest less fully explained in the morning exercises of man, is better and more reasonable, than to leave ten or twelve weeks. him in these respects unformed or misled, and to The habit of self-examination should be en. to endeavor afterwards to correct his mistakes joined upon the child. He may easily be taugh and enlighten his moral sense by the weekly in- io ask himself, "Have I done what I ought?', structions of the pulpit, and the influence of the and the habit of comparing himself with him. laws of the land ;-ihe teacher must give regu- self, of asking, “Have I done better? Have I lar and systematic instruction in social duties. made progress? Have I faithfully used my fac. If these are truths, the teacher has a great work ulties? Have I availed myself, as I ought, of to perform. He has to lay deep the foundations the opportunities which have been presented to of public justice. He has to give that profound me?"-This habit may be substituted for the and quick sense of the sacredness of right, and always questionable and often pernicious habit the everlasting obligation of truth, without which, of comparing himself with others. law will have no sanctiiy, private contracts no binding force, the pulpit no reverence, justice no

EMULATION. authority. If these are truths, and if it is a This leads me to consider some of those prac. greater thing to form than to reform, it becomes lices which often prevail in school, which I re. all parents to look to it, what manner of men gard as foreign from the cultivation of the moral they have for their children's teachers.

sense, and sometimes even hostile to it; hostile, The question recurs, How shall this moral in because they tend to give activity to those lower struction in social duties be given?

propensities which it is the office of the conCases are continually occurring, in every science to subdue and keep in subjection. One school, of the violation of these duties in the of them I have just alluded to. It is the pracintercourse of the children with each other. lice of stimulating children to exertion, by ma. These should never be allowed to pass without ting them against each other, by exciting the the lesson which they suggest. A boy may be spirit of rivalry: It is, perhaps, possible for easily made to understand, that if he injures the this spirit to exist, in a generous soul, uncon. property of another, or defaces the school. house, nected with its natural allies, jealousy,envy and he as really violates the law of properly, as if hatred. It is, doubtless, easy for one who has he took money, since he subjects somebody to without difficulty surpassed all his rivals, to an expense, which is pecuniary, and also gives look down upon them with kindness and com. trouble; and if this were fully explained, such passion. But such are not the usual feelings of offences would cease to be so common. The those who have been outstripped. Generous same may be said of the petty thefts of books, rivalry is the exception. It is idle and unphilo. pencils and pens. They are committed because sophical to say, such is human nature, and we the offender is not made to understand that they nust take it as we find it. We must not take are of the same complexion as stealing the it, at least we must not leave it, as we find it. money, by which these articles were purchased. The very object of education is to improve the These are not small matters. A child allowed character of the individual; and this it must do in the commission of such sins, will be in by fostering the good and repressing the bad ten. danger of going on, by imperceptible de dencies. Whoever will carefully observe the grees, to those more considerable offences operation of the spirit of rivalry, will find that against property, against which is denounced the it is usually accompanied by a desire to pull rigor of the law. It is found that great num. down the rival, lo detract from his merits, to de. bers of those boys, who are sent, by a decree of preciate his virtues. There are few who hear the courts, to the House of Reformation in Bos with pleasure the praises of a rival, and still ton, for offences which subjected them to im- fewer who cordially rejoice in his success. I prisonment, took their first lesson on the would, therefore, discourage the spirit of rival. wharves, where they supposed they were not ry, because of its tendency to excite the contenseriously violating property, by taking a little tions and malignant passions, which, it seems to molasses from a cask, or a little coffee or sugar me, the whole force of my influence should be from a bag or box.

directed to repress. This teaching of moral truth by details is a duty of which any faithful Christian teacher is

FLOGGING. capable.

Another practice, formerly not uncommon, But moral instruction is too important to be seems to be founded on a mistaken view of the left to the occasions that may occur in the busi. human character. I mean the attempt to subdue ness of the school, or to those that may be pre- a child of an irritable and violent temperament sented by the studies that are pursued. The by violence, by the rod, by brute force. If vio. moral sentiments are the highest of our facul. lence is to be used in school in any case, it is not ties, and their education should form an integral in this. The remedy exasperates the disease. part of t:ie teacher's plan. Systematic moral in. One who had an infinite insight into the human struction can be given only by assigning, in the heart, has told us to overcome evil with good,

And is savage severity, is cruelty, are blows the now-a-days to ears polite, to talk of authority, good where with you would overcome the evil of and command an injunction. We must per: à passionale temper, in a spoilt or perverse suade, and invite, and win. Respect for law is child? Do gentleness, mildness, forbearance, hardly sufficient to insure the infiction of its grow up under such influences as these? If your severer penalties. Thus the restraining info. object is to strike terror, to wreak vengeance, or ence of fear is ineffectual where most needed. to produce a seeming submission, these are Penalties, being too much dreaded by the inno doubtless very suitable means. But the fruit of cent are, for that very reason, too little dread. severity is obduracy—of cruelty, hatred-ofed by the guilty; who soon learn to avail them. blows, resistance, or duplicity and cringing ser- selves of the protecting shield that overstrained vility, the characteristics of a slave,

mercy casts before them. Let me not be misunderstood. I woald not The present is an age remarkable for the as. take the rod out of the teacher's hands. It may cendency of sympathy over the sterner virtues. be absolutely necessary to enforce authority, Kindness, powerful, overwhelming in its proper ‘and authority must be enforced. But I would sphere, has assumed a false position ; has step. remind the teacher that the only sure foundation ped beyond the limits of its legitimate control, for authority is justice; the only thing absolute and, having wrought such mighty magic with ly irresistible is kindness;

human misery and guilt through the benevo" An earthly power does then show likest God's,

lent labors of Howard, Fry, Dix, and a host of When mercy seasons justice."

others less widely known and equally deserving Another way in which morality is to be taught seems almost ready to be crowned the omnipois, by exaınple and influence. And this is the tent regenerator of the race, to purge the heart most effectual and indeed the only effectual from sin and sanctity it unto holiness. But, in teaching. It is in vain that you will con our admiration of the efficacy of one agent,' we the moral lesson, in vain will you preach must not despise or overlook ihe value of others. homilies upon virtue and goodness ;-unless the Kindness cannot supply the place of authority, heart speaks, the words are uttered in vain. nor gratitude that of submission. I admit that The first care of the teacher, then, is with his the easiest, and where the doctrine of subordi. own character, his own heart, his own life. nation is not questioned, the best way to gain a What he is—teaches. Let him not think to flat compliance with our wishes is, to allure to it by ler himself, and cajole others, by saying he might kind treatment and agreeable manners ; but I teach morals if he would. He'must, he will, he deny that such compliance is any test of the does teach, whether he will or not. If he is spirit of obedience. True obedience is a hearty really interested in the subject, is his moral senti response to acknowledged authority. It does ments are in a state of healthy activity, his whole not voluntarily comply with a request, but im. deportment will declare it ; not only his words, plicitly yields to a command. but the tone in which he utters them, his eye,

It is common to sneer at this idea of subjuga. his features, his step, every thing will speak the tion, and to call it " breaking the will, and deep feelings which pervades his inmost breast. destroying the free spirit; and we often hear He will earnestly seek for modes to bring his and even approve the proud boast, “ You may principles to act upon his pupils, and he will find coax, but you cannot drive me." This bespeaks them.

strong impulse, and so far promises well for the If he be immoral, his immorality will teach. individual; but when said with reference to In spite of himself, it will teach. The profane rightful command, it indicates a will impatient word, the proud look, the impatient movement, of rational restraint; it means, “I am weak the harsh expression, the violent tone, the inde enough to be wheedled by your arts, but have cent gesture-cach will teach its own bad les. not the strength of purpose to subject my will

The foul breath of the drunkard teaches to your authority ;' in other words, "I ack. no less really than his foul language.

nowledge that my principle is the victim of my If he be of a character which the Great feeling ; that it is safer to appeal to my caprice, Teacher declares to be farther from the kingdom than to my good sense." An eloquent writer of heaven than either, if he be indifferent–if he (Rev. J. Abbott,) of the highest authority recare for none of theselihings, his very lukewarm. marks: ness teaches. To say by one's actions that the

" The first step which a teacher must take, great law of justice is of no consequence, that I do not mean in his course of moral education, the love of our neighbor is of no consequence, but before he is prepared to enter that course, that the reverence and worship of the Infinite is to obtain the entire, unqualified submission of Father are of no consequence this is to teach his school to his authority. We often err when selfishness, injustice, impiety.-Emerson. designing to exert a moral influence, by substi.

tuting throughout our whole system persuasion SCHOOL DISCIPLINE.

for power ; but we soon find that the gentle Upon what shall school discipline be based ? winning influence of moral suasion, however I answer unhesitatingly, upon authority as a beautiful in theory, will often fall powerless upstarting point. As the fear of the Lord is the on the heart, and we then must have authority beginning of divine wisdom, so is the fear of to fall back upon, or all is lost. I have known the law, the beginning of political wisdom. He parents whose principle it was, not to require who would commandeven, must first learn to anything of the child, excepting what the child obey. That implicit obedience to rightful au could understand and feel to be right. The thority must be inculcated and enforced upon mother, in such a case, forgets that a heart in children, as the very germ of good order in fu. temptation is proof against all argument; and ture society, no one who thinks soundly and I have literally known a case where the simple follows out principles to their necessary results, question of going to bed, required a parental will presume to deny. Yet, it is quite offensive I pleading of an hour, in which the mother's sto.

son.

ries of rhetoric and logic were exhausted in to enforce the claims of unjust law. It thwarts vain. Teachers sometimes too, resolve that directly the proper tendencies of human nature, they will resort to no arbitrary measures. They and stays its advancement. It awakens in its will explain the nature of duty, and the happi- original elements, the instinctive murmurings of pess of its performance, and expect their pupils to displeasure, or the shout of defiance. The prolove what is right without bringing in the autho. per relations of men in civil society are disturbed rity of arbitrary command. Bat the plan fails. by it, their rights infringed upon, and the ends However men may differ in their theories of hu- of government defeated. It is the object of conman nature, it is pretty generally agreed by stitutional law to guard these relations and those who have tried the experiment, that nei- rights. In the education of the young, the rights ther school nor family can be preserved in or- of man should be thoroughly understood. This der by eloquence and argument alone. There is a fundamental doctrine in a free government. must be authority. The pupils may not often No one can be truly free, who is not well versed feel it. But they must know that it is always in it. No American youth should be allowed to at hand, and the pupils must be taught to sub. come to the oath and office of a freeman, with. mit to it as to simple authority. The subjec. out being first instructed in the natural rights of tion of the governed to the will of one man, in man, upon which the government is based. It is such a way that the expression of his will must only by the knowledge of human rights, that he be the final decision of every question, is the can be taught what are anarchy and tyranny. only government that will answer in school or Without a knowledge of these, he cannot even in family. A government not of persuasion, understand what is liberty. There can be no not of the will of the majority, but of the will good government without a regard to these of the one who presides."

rights. The natural rights of man are his social, It being conceded, however, that authority his civil, and his moral rights. They are the must not be denied, a beautiful plan is contriv: rights of man associated, man morally related, ed for escaping its exercise, by adroitly evading in civil society. Hence Burke asserts political all occasions for its use. Always tell children reason to be a computing principle, adding, sub. to do what they like to do, and you will not tracting, multiplying, dividing morally, not metneed authority. In this way, at least, it may aphysically nor mathematically, true moral de become obsolete. Make everything easy and nominations. If it be thus a computing princi. pleasant and amusing, and you will have noth ple, why should it not stand in our systems of ing to contend with. I answer, it is not possi. education, with other computing principles ? ble to make the path of duty always pleasant Why should not our youth be taught a scrupuin itself, either to men or children. To love lous regard to the rights of men, the first princi. duty simply as duty, is a high moral attainment.ple in the philosophy of civil and religious lib. However true it may be, that a thing ceases to erty? It is a truth, which some republican amuse when it ceases to instruct, the reverse Americans seem never fully to have understood, surely is not true, that there can be no instruc- that restraint, to a certain degree, is the soul of tion without amusement. Education should in- liberty. “Liberty," says Fisher Ames, “con. deed aim to give us the art of making an sists, not so much in removing all restraint from amusement of our business ; but it should warn the orderly, as in imposing it on the violent. It us against the fatal error of attempting to make is founded in morals and religion, whose autho. a business of our amusement. Since its influ. rity reigns in the heart. And it cannot exist ences are artificial aud reforming, it does not without habits of just subordination.” Liberty, merely follow impulses and inclinations, but then, is a correlative of right. A man can have chiefly resists, and corrects, and trains. Its no more liberty than he has right. If he has less, legitimate sphere is, to help nature follow out and neither knows nor feels it, he becomes, so the processes of art, to profit by past experience, far, a slave. If his heart has no longings for it, and to train the mind to investigate principles --if it be lost to the love of liberty, through igno. and resolve things into their constituent ele- rance, it ought to be pitied, but it must be proments. The school is to fit us for the world ; nounced fit only for a slave's bosom. and life is more a season of discipline than But in the authority of law, as well as in its amusement. Discipline is the rule ; pleasure source and end, should our youth be instructed. the exception.-[J. Hale.

There is a tendency in the young, where all feel

themselves governors, to spurn authority, to WHAT SHOULD BE TAUGHT.

dash down the barriers it may raise in their way. “THE first duty,” says De Tocqueville, They should be taught, that in authority, next " which is at this time imposed on those who di. to the Deity, law is supreme. The voice of the rect our affairs, is to educate the democracy, to people, when riotously lifted up against it, is as warm its faith, if that be possible, and to purify impotent to silence it, as to hush the voice of its morals." For this education of the democ. the Almighty. The supremacy of law is emi. racy the time is obviously youth, and the place nently a principle of republicanism. In this conthe school-house. A despot may govern without sists the protection of the weak against the en. faith in the governed. But a free people cannot croachments of the strong. By this, in the congovern themselves without it. “If the physical ficts of party and of opinion, the majority are as tie be relaxed, the moral one must be strength. implicitly bound as the minority Republican ened,"must be strengthened by faith in jus. liberty is not, therefore, to do and say only what tice.' Justice is power, and, in a free constitu. the voice of the people will allow, but it is to do tion, the only efficient policy. Injustice is weak and say what the law will allow. The law is ness. A policy, containing an essential princi. as obligatory on the whole body of the people, ple of injustice, is so far an imbecile policy. The as on the least fractional part of it. It binds author of nature has deposited nowhere in the them when excited, no less than when calm. universe a moral power, that can be employed Passion is no apology for lawlessness. Our se.

curity consists in deeply imbuing the minds of of Macedon. Let teachers feel entirely satisthe young with the true spirit of our free consti- fied with their employment; it is worthy the tution,-in a reverence for the authority of law, ambition of the greatest ren. and a submission to its restraints.--[Lawrence. School-masters of America, appreciate the

high motives and encouragements thrown around RESPONSIBILITY OF TEACHERS.

you, Up! to your high vocation. Your counA national peculiarity wbich imposes upon try now is the brightest place which the world American teacher a higher responsibility than hath-make it a brighter one still! Kindle up rests upon those of any other country, lies in a light in it which shall shine more and more the genius and character of our institutions. brilliantly on, until all nations come and walk These add responsibility to the business of in it; a light that shall wax more and more teaching by rendering popular education more heavenly, until it mingle well with the glories necessary and more effective. The mass of the of eternity -[White. people here are closely and actively identified with all the machinery and operations of soci. THE EMPLOYERS : THE TEACHER, ety. Each man is part and parcel of the nation It may be true of us, as of many other easy, independently and efficiently ; in his own per quiet people, that having erected our schoolson a pillar of the state, not the prop of a pillar houses, voled a round sum of money and chosen merely; a portion of the strength and essential our committees, we fold our arms and rest satis. life of the community as a self-controlling indi.fied that we have discharged our whole duty. vidual. Each citizen here holds a higher place This is but the commencement ; there is much still. He is a part of the governinent. He is that money cannot buy and deputies cannot a depository of power ; controls others and in effect. We must manifest a decp and constant fluences public affairs. He makes himself heard interest in the daily progress of our children ; and felt, in the school district, in town and city we must supply them with all necessary books, movements, in the affairs of the congregation and send them regularly and seasonably to and pulpit, in the court of justice, in the councils school; we must encourage the backward and of his state, in the supreme legislature of the stimulate all to greater exertion ; we must visit nation. Thus he is a constituent portion of the the school and give a kind word of commenda. supreme power ; an associate sovereign. The tion to the faithful instructor, and an equally little school, "side yon straggling fence,” is a kind word of admonition to the less faithful, to seminary of sovereigns. Por ular education, it the inexperienced and unskillul. Let our chil. will be seen, is more active and valuable here dren know that we esteem and respect the in. than under any other government in the world ; structor for his work's sake, and let no distrust produces its effects as no where else, in every or reproach of ours diminish the confidence place of influence from the top to the bottom of which all pupils should entertain for those who society, and efl'ects thus the entire interests of have the care of them. the people. Assuredly, teaching in this coun. It is important that children should make sure, try rises to a business of the greatest possible rather than rapid progress; that they should responsibility.

be well established and grounded in elemen: It is a maiter of deep regret that pecuniary re iary rules. The inquiry should be, not how ward has been so stinted and reluctant ; 1o the much space has been gone over, but how great injury of education, as well as discourage.well has the work been performed. There is ment of teachers. But let instructors be remin. no part of school edncation more important ded that, in the dignified character and excel. than reading; it lies at the foundation of all lent influences of their employment, there is good learning, and I have not wondered that a presented a nobler inducement to duty. The ieacher, distinguished for his practical common high-minded and concientious cannot fail to feel sense and long experience, whose bones now lie its power. Says Lord Brougham, “ However mouldering near our principal village, should averse by taste or habit to the turmoil of public have written for his epitaphaffairs, or the more ordinary strites of the world, instructors in all quiet and innocence may en.

"I TAUGHT LITTLE CHILDREN TO READ;" joy the noblest gratifications of which the most for, in teaching a boy to read correctly and aspiring nature is susceptible.” Vulgar ambi. understandingly, you place in his hand the key tion seeks to sway multitudes of men, and influ. of all human knowledge, and with ordinary ence widely the operations and interests of so. curiosity, and the ordinary means of gratifying ciety. The successful teacher of children estab. it, he will not fail to unlock the casket and aplishes a far nobler, wider, surer empire. He propriate to hiinself treasures more valuable influences mind ; mind that will wake and mould than sparkling gems and glittering gold. mind again. The intelligence which he commu.

if in the various walks of this nicates is itself communicable. Every intel. wide world there be a person who deserves lect which he instructs, becomes an instructor of sympathy, encouragement and approbation, it is a cluster of pupil intellects gathered round it. the patient, faithful, devoted, successful in. These last become points and sources of educa. structor. Children should be taught to love, tion to greater numbers, and these to greater num. esteem and obey him, for he is their best earthly bers still, until quickly the calculation of num- friend ; parents should sustain, aid, encourage bers basses our arithmetic and even our imagi. and respect him, for while they are laboring to nation. The humblest teacher, if he could pass provide for their children food and raiment and along with his own influence as it should pur other necessaries which perish with the using, sue its widening course onward, though he he is toiling to furnish them with durable riches would never need to weep for another world to which shali qualify them for usefuness here, conquer, would one day see greater numbers and for greater happiness hereafter.-Mass. reached by his power than ever bowed to him 'Common School Report.

DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL,

OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.

VOL. VI.

ALBANY, DECEMBER, 1845.

9

TERMS.

fact that in the greater part of the counties of For one copy, in all cases, (per annum,)....50 cts. the state new superintendents have been ap. one hundred copies, each,

...31

pointed, the present incumbents of that office

are respectfully requested to communicate their POSTAGE ON THE JOURNAL. views in reference to the proposed change to the

ủepartment, at as early a period as may be pracThe Journal is not subject to Pamphlet post. ticable, in order that notice may be given of the age, but comes under the head of Newspapers. time and place of bolding the convention in the Hear the new law : “A newspaper is defined to next number of the Journal, together with the be any printed publication issued in numbers, names of those in favor of and opposed to such and published at stated intervals of not more re-consideration and designation. than a month, conveying intelligence of passing events." This law provides even that a news. paper may be in two sheets, if both do not ex.

THE TEACHER: THE SCHOOL. ceed nineteen hundred square inches; but it does not specify into what form, or number of pages

HOW TO TEACH READING. I it shall be folded.

(By C. PIERCE, Teacher of the Normal School, at West

Newton, Mass.) TO COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. From the first lesson, be careful to question

your pupils, and talk to them much about what By a resolution of the state convention of ihey read. In this way form in them the habit county superintendents, held at Syracuse in April of attention. You can hardly do themed such a last, the next session of the convention was di: serxis a habit of fixing the attention deeply and rected to be held at Poughkeepsie, on the 11:08 Wednesday of Apoftuexi.

inten'ly upon what is read, has acquired a pow. There are many strong reasons rendering it de er of far more value to him than the strongest sirable that if possible a re-consideration of this verbal memory. By once reading a piece, he vote should be had, and the place of meeting will put himself in possession of all the principal changed to the city of Albany. The department is ideas it contains. Not only put questions, but compelled annually to expend a large sum of mo. let the scholars state what they remember with. ney in forwarding to the several county and town out being questioned. Exercise them in giving superintendents, and to trustees and other offi. abstracts and analyses of what they have read, cers of school districts, copies of the laws and Do this from the very beginning. As you com instructions relating to common schools, annual mence with words, every lesson will afford you reports of the superintendents and blank forms something to talk about, and thus make the exfor the use of the various officers connected with ercise in every stage of it, an intellectual affair, the system. This heavy item of expense would And I will add, though spelling is not my subbe wholly saved, if the several county superin. ject now, immediately after reading, let your pu. tendents would charge themselves with the Trans. pils spell the words in the lesson ; at least as soon portation and delivery of these documents, when as they have become familiar with the letters they come together in convention.

and their powers, or sounds. The words for The presence also of the legislature, ånd the spelling should be taken from the reading les. State Normal School, together with the facility son, and not from the spelling book; for they of access to and communication with the depart. should be words with which children are fami. ment, constitute, it is believed, very great in. liar, and can associate an idea, and not mere arducements for the proposed meeting at this city, bitrary sounds. As soon as possible make spellat the period specified: and the advantages af. ing a written exercise, for the object is to learn forded by the several daily papers here pub. to write the language. In prac'ical life we are lished, and which, through the aid of practical seldom called upon to spell orally. and skilful reporters, would be able to dissemi. In reading, let me reiterate the injunction nale in every section of the state, the proceed. give no place either to the nasal. drawling, ings of the convention, must obviously enhance iwanging, or the hurried, slurring, indistinct utthe interest which cannot fail to be felt in its de terance, which is so common in schools. It is liberations.

ungraceful and unnatural. Many adults, as well In view of all these circumstances, and of the as children, who speak well, can read with no

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