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six words of an unknown longue ; while his attempting to read words which he cannot readi. learning them combined in such words as man, y call. He cannot call the next word, and so girl, or in such sentences as, The boy runs, he continues instinctively to dwell upon that The sun shines, may be compared to our learn which he has just uttered. Drawling and disa. ing to repeat a well constructed sentence com greeable monotonous tones are at first acquired posed in our native language.-[J. H, Shaw, in this way, and continued in aster life from the New-Orleans.
power of habit. Nothing is more common than READING.
drawling and disagreeable monotonies in our Let the sentences be short as well as simple,
schools, especially in the classes of young readers.
The sum of what I have said is this. In and perfectly level to the comprehension of chil. dren. And when they ulter single words, as teaching a child to read, begin with words, – well as when they read sentences, see that their simple words ; such as the names of familiar pronunciation is distinct and correct. This is a &c. Then connect these words, and form very
objects, animals, articles of dress, furniture, matter of importance. Let the organs be rightly trained, and the pronunciation correct from the simple sentences, such as children can under! beginning. This is much better than first to and the words be perfectly familiar to the pupil
stand. Let the sentence be perfectly understood learn wrong, then unlearn, and then learn
right before he is pat to reading it aloud. Let the It will make all the future work of the teacher teacher first read it to the child or to the class, comparatively easy. But a mistake in the outset will be fruitful of difficulty in all subsequent two or three times, and then the pupil, taking training.
care to preserve his ordinary natural tone, and In reading sentences, be careful that the pu. give to each word a distinct and correct pronunpils do not acquire a drawling, hesitating, or
(To be continued.) stammering manner; or a nasal, iwanging tone. Let them he perfectly familiar with every word IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION. of which the sentence is composed, before you Endeavor to lead the pupil through such proallow them to read it aloud. And when they cesses, that he will arrange knowledge for him. read, let it be done in their natural, common self, and arrive at general principles. After tone. Let it be as though they were telling it, you know that he understands any general prin. or talking it over to you without the book. Read ciple, be careful to see that he refers to the it yourself to them several times; and let each principle all new acquisitions which come under one in the class read the same sentence in suc it. The principle may be compared to, a sus. cession. But be sure they are not repeating pended chain,-every new fact under that prin. from memory or by role, what they seem to be ciple may be hung on some link yet unoccupied reading.
in the chain. It is not enough for the teacher to I have said, let them be perfectly familiar state the principle in merely a didactic form, but with the words of which a sentence is composed, strive even though the work may be slow and. before you allow them to read it aloud. This long, to guide the pupil in such a manner, by a is an important point; the neglect of which is hint here, and a question there, that he will do a principal cause of the very faulty and bad the very thing for himself. Though you are habits so common in the young classes in our the teacher, alın to have your pupil become a schools. The pupils are put to reading words, self-educated man, a self-educated woman. You combined in sentences, with the form and mean. will find that every new achievement thus made ing of which they are not familiar. They know gives your pupil hope, courage, strength, disnot the meaning of the worls they utter, and cipline. He will learn to direct his etforts to an therefore, cannot so utter them, as to express important end. He will acquire a mental habit any meaning,--or express any clearly and forci. of immense value. bly to others. They do not read intelligently, This is a point of so much importance, and and therefore, they cannot read intelligibly. includes so large a part of my subject, that a Reading is not speaking, or talking, exactly. few familiar illustrations will perhaps be per. When we speak, the thought suggests the word; mitted chiefly from my own experience. when we read, the word suggests the thought. And, if we would express the thought with clearness and force,-if we would read well, the
By a little aid, a class of pupils in arithmetic word must be so familiar to us, as instantly to may be taught to trace out a common principle, cally up the thought at sight. Consequently, where they usually find many, as they think, when children read sentences made up of words independent and unrelated principles. For in. which they do not understand, their reading stance, in one place they find simple addition, wants character, significancy, expression, life.
in another compound, in another addition of fe. The former method may be thus represented, deral money, in another addition of common in reading the simple sentence:
fractions, in another that of decimal fractions ; T-h-i--,-i-s, -a-n-i-c-e-each having some technical terms, and modes of fan. The last word is spoken short, without expression, which seem to separate it from drawling, because it is the last; there is none the others. After having examined these sep. to follow, none to find out.
arately, give the class for an exercise the conThe sceond method thus:--This
struction of a rule which will comprehend them is
-fan.* all. The first time I tried this experiment with The fault of drawling is often increased by the a class of a dozen it failed. I resorted to the teacher's injudiciously hurrying a pupil, who is black-board, put down an example of units, tens • The notation in the text may indicate what I
and hundreds to be added, also of pounds, shil. but the faults can be fully shown only by the living lings and pence, of dollars, cents and mills, of voice.
tens, units, tenths and hundredths, of tens, units
and twenty-fifths, being careful all the time to unmade by previous bad practices, is to ask for use similiar phraseology, saying denomination the causes. One of the first primary truths sus. or column of units, tens-denomination of hun gested to the mind and acted upon by everybody dredths, tenths-denomination of twenty.fifths, long before it is embodied in a verbal proposi&c. We added one or two different examples. tion, is, that every effect in the natural and Almost simultaneously the whole class caught the moral world has an adequate cause. The mind the principle, and gave the following rule, with natarally reverts to the cause. no further aid from me except one res'rictive Proceed in accordance with this strong natu. clause, “In all cases of addition, collect into ral.tendency. The American revolution had its one sum all the parts of each denomination, be.
What were they? To answer this ginning with the lowest, and change the value, question the pupil must explore the whole field if large enough, into the next higher denomina: of colonial history, with the question before his tion by dividing by as many as make one of that mind. He must look at the origin of the prin. denomination, retain the remainder, and add the cipal settlements, make familiar acquaintance quotient to that higher denomination." By a with the great minds among the colonists, which slight modification, the principle may be exten. did most to shape the destinies of the country, ded to the other elementary processes of arith. He will note the influence of the French and metic, and what is spread over fifty or a hundred Indian wars in rearing soldiers. He will study pages of the text-book, at last compressed into the frequent and sharp struggles between the a few words. This is never forgolien, and re. local Legislatures, and the Crown. He will look wards all their previous labor. In arriving at attentively at the habits, the morals, and the this result, their minds have been conducted religious character and opinions of the colonists. through a process not unlike that which led Having done this faithfully, he has no very im. Newton to announce the great law of attrac- perfect views of the causes of the revolution. tion.
He can tell you something more about it, than In various applications of elemen'ary arithme. that“ the colonists did not want to pay taxes." tic, it often happens that the pupil may be lead Our pupil may now go forward, and trace the to discover a common principle, where on first consequences of that event,-some of them-not observation, no resemblance, but seeming dis. to the end,- for the end is not yet, either on this similarity appears. Take, for instance, the continent, or the other. 24th Section of Colburn's Sequel. How many Let it ever be remembered that history fur. questions apparently unlike, in all of which the nishes daily opportunities for inculcating great pupil should be led to perceive simply this, a moral lessons, and of exercising the moral facul. certain part, or number of parts given to find the ty of the pupil. Let not the teacher, who omits whole. Do not leave the section, till your pupil or overlooks these opportunities, flaiter himself can readily perceive, whatever may be his me. that he is faithful to his high trust. thod of operating, that the simple thing to be Require your advanced pupils to write on sub. accomplished in each case is, from some given jects upon which you would have them collect part or parts of a number or quantity, to deduce knowledge. the whole. Do not be afraid of the time it will
Suppose, for instance, the question to come take. It requires time. It is worth all the time up, whether there are facts to sustain the geolo. it requires. Delay upon it day after day, if ne- gical theory of a great central heat in the earth. cessary, till the thing is done;-till the funda. When first suggested, the pupil will, probably, mental idea is grasped by your pupils.
know very little about it. Let him examine the One fundamental idea, distinctly perceived various proofs on which its advocates rest. In and clearly apprehended, is worth an infinity of doing so, he will collect and remember a vast hazy, hallformed notions. Such are worthless number of facts having relation to the ques. either as foundation stone to build on, or as tion. materials to be wrought into the superstructure. Teach by example. We must ourselves have
done what we wish our pupils to do. Conduct
your exercises without dependence on the book. The great object of studying history is to pro: Having your own knowledge of the subject so fit by the lessons of the past. To do this it is familiar and well arranged, that it will come indispensable, not only that particular facts when you bid it, throw your whole self into the should be made quite familiar, but that their exercise. See your pupils eye to eye. Your relations, causes, and consequences should be
own spirit and manner will be contagious to traced out ; that they should stand, if I may so all, with very few exceptions, like those to speak, in the mind of the pụpil, in the same whom neither inoculation nor contact will comrelations and juxta positions in which the facts municate the most contagious of all diseases. themselves stand.
Show your class, by your own living example Take for example, the history of own coun. try. Let the pupil' first understand that the that no knowledge of the subject in hand will
answer for yourself, but that same familiar well thirteen original States were English colonies. arranged knowledge, which you enjoin it on Explain the colonial relation. Then let him them to acquire. You will, of course, romemstudy briefly, the history of the revolution. ber the difficulties you yourself had to encoun. which severed the colonial relations, and of the ter, and be very charitable to their mistakes and beginning, progress and issue of the war which failures, and give them full credit for their sucaccompanied it. This is the middle of our sub
cesses.-[Adams. ject-the point at which we take our stand.
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. The pupils have learned that a great event oc. curred, they have fixed its date and ascertained Having paid some attention in detail to the its leading incidents. The natural enquiry of nature and agencies of heat, might not the teachalmost every pupil, unless his nature has been er propose to his class to bring in the next day,
a written report of whatever cases they can eol. of explanation from the teacher, A. is ready to lect, in which man employs heat as a helper in admit the statement of B. works of art?
C. has carefully examined the formation of The result would be an interesting enumer. clouds, rain, hail and snow. He reports as fol. ation of many artificial processes, in which the lows :-Heat is constantly saporizing water agency of heat is employed. The following re from the surface of land and sea. The vapor is cord may be taken as a specimen.
conveyed away on the wings of the wind. The 1. Man uses the expansive power of heat to warmer the air, the more water it will hold force the particles of water apart, and applies in solution. When any portion of the air is the steam thus generated to propel the steam cooled, the water suspended in an aeriform state engine. In this manner, with almost creative is condensed into globules of liquid, forming fog power, he produces and directs a force, which on the earth and clouds in the air. When suf. performs the most exquisite works of art, or ficiently accumulated they discharge their conputs forth more than giant strength to overcome tents in the form of rain, hail or snow,-rain, the most formidable obstacles on land and sea. when the drops do not pass through a portion of It performs half the work of clvilized man. It air cold enough to freeze them, or sufficiently overcomes wind, and tide, and oceans, and dry to evaporate from the surface of the drops mountains.
fast enough to freeze them ; hail,-when the 2. Heat is employed for purposes of distilla. drops are frozen in falling, and crystals of tion, separating liquids which are mixed, by snow when freezing takes place at the instant reducing to vapour that which is evaporated at of condensation. the lowest temperature.
D. has examined the formation of dew and 3. It is employed to warm houses and venti- reports: In the night, objects on the earth cool late them. The methods of warming them are down below the temperature of the atmosphere, various ; sometimes by radiation, as from the by radiating heat into space. The air in con open fire.place, or the heated surface of a stove ; tact with colder objects deposits moisture, and sometimes by heating air in an air chamber in thus dew is formed. the cellar, which by its increased levity will
E. adds, moisture is collected in the same rise through apertures in the floor, and diffuse manner on the outside of vessels containing itself through the room. Sometimes heat is con. cold water in summer, and on windows in win. veyed latent in steam through pipes to all parts ter. of large buildings, and given out again by con. F. says, the frost work on stone and brick densation. It is employed to carry smoke away buildings, in warms days in winter, is moisture from fire. A portion of air is heated by the fire condensed from the air, and frozen by the cold and in its ascent carries off smoke. Air flues walls, while snow and ice elsewhere are meltcarried up by the side of smoke flues form an ing. effectual mode of ventilation. An open fire. G. reports, that he watched a little fleecy place is a good ventilator.
cloud as it floated along in the air, and saw it 4. It is used in baking and boiling food. melt away and disappear. The atmosphere,
5. It is employed to hasten many chemical he said, not being saturated with moisture at processes.
the temperature it then had, there was heat Others continue to communicate. Several and dryness enough in it to vaporize the cloud. have the same.
Not far off, he adds, another litile cloud grew Now call upon one and another to recapitu. and gradually became quite large. Here the late, in the order in which the facts were stated. air had not heat enough to keep its moisture in This will be a motive, if any is needed, to at.
an a eriform state and made a cloud. tention. If you think best, let all record the
This report was so rich and various that time reports in a blank book ; not when given-you was wanting to complete it, and the subject was want attention only then-but afterwards. laid over till the next day. This day the reports This exercise was exciting and pleasant.
were equally interesting and various. We can. Habits of observation were strengthened, some not now give them. The subject had been of the various ways in which a great natural thought of, talked of, and all the powers of agent is employed by man, made familiar. If observation quickened into exercise, and a great this part of the subject is left here by the teach. variety of facts connected in their minds with er, after a few remarks, it will not be left by the agency of heat. the class, but will be a subject of conversation For the next day a few questions were pro. and reflection. Within the next twenty-four posed for solution, such as-1. How does water hours, as many more instances will be collected extinguish fire? 2. Why does the tempera. and garnered up, and remembered.
ture rise at the beginning of a snow storm? 3. For the next day, direct their attention to a Why a sudden fall of temperature during, a new field of observation. Let them collect phe shower of rain? What effect have large bodies nomena, in which heat exerts an essential agen- of water upon atmospheric temperature? cy without the interposition of any human power to direct or to control it. They report as follows:
“Few branches, and well,” should be the A. The sun heats the air by shining on it. teacher's motto. I know one who requires his
B. I have the same fact but explain it differ scholars to read a sentence three or four times ently. The sun does not heat the air by shining over, if a single error is committed in the repeti. upon it. Air and other transparent media are tion. This practice will not make railroad thought to transmit heat without absorbing it. readers--those who are praised according to I have come to the conclusion that the earth their speed; but, I am confident it will make first absorbs heat from the sun, and then warms correct readers, though they should advance the air in contact with it. After a few words only at the humble rate of a man's unaided
walking. Scholars, to be accurate, must review he must love them, and desire to do them good, their lessons often and thoroughly. Each exer Without these feelings, he will find all helps and cise should be bound by bands of steel to all appliances fruitless. I once knew a teacher, that precede it. Be not ambitious to carry a who complained of dull scholars, recommended pupil over many authors or many pages, but be to procure illustrations, pictures, cabinets, and perfectly certain that there is no line or word apparatus. But, valuable as these are, in the he has passed over, which he does not now true hands, there was one aid omitted in the understand.
catalogue, which would have supplied the place Teaching by conversation with a child, keeps of them all; and that was a hearty love of his mind active, and it impresses whatever he is his work. That man toiled in the school.room hearing, for the moment. But it is unfriendly only to make money. He absolutely hated his to systematic culture, and rigid mental discipline. occupation, and for children, he loved them only It is excellent in awakening the attention of the at a distance. How could it be, that he was sluggish; it is useful, nay, indispensable, in the not beating always up a river, and against a, explanation of difficulties which spring up by the tremendous current? way, during study or recitation. Ă question Again, secure the greatest possible concentra. often proves the open sesame” to a child's tion of mind, while you, at any time, exact mind, effecting an entrance, and throwing light, study, or hear the recitations of the children. into regions of profound darkness. Oral instruc. We lose immeasurably by requiring a length of tion is the more requisite from the poverty of attention to their books inconsistent with severe our school books. Many of these afford only application. A child learns nothing, while in glimpses of the subjects they treat. Instead of that dreamy, half living state, in which many. exciting the interest, by warming the heart of a spend much of the three hours' exercise. Memochild, they not seldom act as complete refrigerary depends on attention ; and that can be given tors. Some are so vapid, and show so little unremittingly but for a few moments at once. knowledge of the capacities of childhood, as to Children are volatile and unfixed in their remind one of the green-house built in East- thoughts. We should never forget this, but India by the wife of a British Governor, the allow them perhaps more time than we com: effect of which was to exclude every particle of monly do for their recess, or change their objects heat from the plants. Who can teach geography, of attention more frequently. Let the teacher for example, by relying on any manual now in select his own means, but I would earnestly existence ?
press the necessity of requiring a fixed, intense Suill there may be some benefit in the use even application of the mind, when study and exer. of a poor text-book. Fur it may force the mind ises are in hand; and o! giving proportionate into vigorous efforts for correcting the faults of recreations. the author. Folly teaches something, as well Teach habits of observation. Children natu. as wisdom, in this world. In any event, rally discriminate. They do it in their sports ; manuals do good by assisting children in self- the boy always knows who should stand at the education. They present a kind of facility, on goal, and who toss the ball. Make him just as which, in after life, we must often depend. certain in his studies. For this purpose he must They tend to form habits of systematic, perse. watch. He must distinguish between things vering mental exertion. They furnish a reply very nearly alike. Educate him to perceive to that question so often put forth by scholar shades of difference in truth and error. Do not and parent, "What good will it do to study this allow him to call a thing yellow which is orange. or that branch ?" They show the good to con. colored, or that white which is of pearly aspect. sist, not in the thing learned, but in the act of Thus only can we train up men, to be accurate learning-in the mental discipline and power in business, to testify intelligibly and correctly that come from indispensable effort.
in a court of justice, to be true specimens of the Oral instruction is particularly adapted to early symmetrical man. childhood. From six to eight years of age, a Children should be educated in good habits of scholar learns little from books. The mind' is expression. They must not only know how a then so volatile and discursive, as lo resist at problem is solved, but must be able to state the tempts to induce protracted study. It must be method clearly and fully. Quite as much is taught, not in the abstract, but in the concrete. gained by endeavors to communicate knowledge The method pursued by Carlyle, in his French as by solitary study. This habit gives a comRevolution-ihat of giving sketches and pictures, mand of language, which the scholar will hardly instead of connected essays—is best suited to otherwise acquire. It shows him the extent of younger pupils. This is the actual course pur- his resources, and where he needs fresh appli. sued, indeed, by a large proportion of the adults cation. It gives him fluency of utterance, and of our race through life. Self-taught men gain at the same time grammatical propriety. In their knowledge and power by fragments, not some schools the teacher is content with guessby the study of long and formal treatises. We ing out the ideas and meaning of the scholars. all acquire much by conversation, that is, orally, They speak, by hints, in half-formed sentences, disconnectedly. Probably we gain more infor: and with a lone and manner so loose, disjointed mation and mental ability by this, than from all and slovenly, as to savor of any place rather our teachers, books, and systematic education. than a school-room. It is quite as important for Nature, therefore, sanctions the oral teaching of the education of a child, that we should underthe young.-Muzzey.
stand him, as he us. Thus only can we determine, whether he is really acquainted with the
subject before him, whether he has just ideas, The teacher must excite the interest of his or is only giving us mouthfuls of words. pupils in their studies. Before doing this, he Aim in all things to secure the utmost accu. must himself feel a deep interest in the children; racy. Do you teach writing, be not satisfied
with a scholar's marking over the destined page, too particular. We hope this is not the case. or half page, but see that every letter is cor: From some experience, it has been found best rectly formed, if but ten be written for an exer. always to insist upon the performance of duties, cise. Are they spelling? Do not judge of their however small, in some particular and uniform proficiency by the number of columns they can way that has been found most expedient; for, falter through. If each pupil can spell but a if any wandering from the fixed standard is single word, let that word be first pronounced, allowed, there is no limit to the latitude that and that distinctly, and then let each syllable bé may be taken, and order and neatness will given separately, and each letter with its exact usually be dispensed with. We hope, then, that sound.-[Muzzey.
if, in any thing, we seem even notional, our
exactness may be borne with, as the best means PHYSICAL HABITS.
that has occurred to us for the accomplishment Among the regulations of a school of long of a desirable end. Our potions may not be the standing, in one of our larger cities, we find the best, but we know no better, and would gladly following requisitions :
receive the communication of more efficient “ Boys are required to scrape their feet on the ones from any quarter. scraper, and to wipe them on every mat they "In regard to the manners and morals of those pass over, on their way to the school-room ; to under our charge, we presume that no one will hang their caps, hats, overcoats, &c., on the find fault with our being particular; and, perhooks appropriated to them, respectively, by haps, the character and organization of our loops prepared for the purpose ; to bow grace school gives us more opportunity to attend to fully and respectfully, on entering and leaving these than most teachers enjoy.' In regard to the school-room, if the teacher be present; to good manners, there seems to be no more reason take their places immediately on entering; to for dispensing with them in the school, than in make no unnecessary noise within the walls of the drawingroom, or the church. School, to be the building, at any hour whatever ; to keep sure, bas its peculiar observances; but they can their persons, clothes, and shoes, clean ; to carı y all be brought within the pale of respect and and bring their books in a satchel ; to quit the good feeling. Under all circumstances, we en. neighborhood of the school, in a quiet and deavor to enforce those marks of respect which orderly manner, immediately on being dismissed; the young owe to their elders, and of kindness to present a pen by the feather end, a knife by and gentleness that they owe to each other ; to its haft, a book by the right side upward to be show them that these are not to be limited to read by the person receiving it; to bow, on pre. those of their own rank in society, but extended senting or receiving any thing i to siand, while to all, as God's children and their brothers ; speaking to a teacher ; to keep all books elcan, that they, too, owe something to the comfort of and the contents of desks neatly arranged ; to the community at large, and that all municipal deposit in their places all slates, pencils, &c., regulations must be strictly observed, as intended before leaving school ; to pick up all hats, caps, for the convenience of all; and that school-boys coats, books, &c., found on the floor, and put can, if they will, withdraw themselves from the them in their appropriate places ; to be account. ' genus bears, and maintain the character of able for the condition of the floor nearest their gentlemen.”—Thayer. own desks or seats; to be particularly quiet and diligent, whenever the teacher is called out of
MORAL INSTRUCTION IN SOCIAL DUTIES. the room ; and to promote, as far as possible, Next in importance are our social dutiesthe hap, iness, wellare, and improvement of those which arise from our relation to our felothers.
low creatures, and which are comprehended in “No boy to throw pens, paper, or any thing the second great commandment of the New Teswhatever, on the floor, or out at a door or window; to spit on the floor; to mark, cut, These should be daily and regularly explained scratch, chalk, or otherwise di figure, injure, or and enforced. The general neglect of this most defile, any portion of the school house, or any important part of education seems to proceed thing connected with it ; to meddle with the partly from a belief that it is sufficiently provi. contents of another's desk, or unnecessarily to ded for by the instruction of parents, and of the open and shut his own; to use a knife in school ministers of religion. If instruction in social without permission; to quit the school-room at duties were sufficiently given elsewhere, it would any time without leave ; to pass noisily, or upon indeed be superfluous to insist upon it in school. the run through the school.room or entry; to The discovery has been made, and in some play at paw paw, any where, or at any game places men have begun to act upon it, that it is in the school house ; to retain marbles won in better to prevent the commission of crime, than play ; to whittle about the school-house ; to use punish it when committed ; that a merciful code any profane or indelicate language ; to nick. of school laws may be made to take the place of pame any person; to indulge in eating or drink. a sanguinary code of criminal laws; that good ing in school; to waste school hours by unneces. schools are better than bad jails ; that a kind sary talking, laughing, playing, idling, standing schoolmaster is a more useful member of society up, gazing around, teasing, or otherwise calling than a savage executioner ; that capital instrucoff the attention of others; to throw stones, tion is better than capital punishment; thatit is snow-balls, and other missiles, about the streets; better and easier to teach a boy to love a heavento strike, push, kick, or otherwise annoy his ly Judge, and keep his commandments, than to associates or others—in fine, to do anything teach a man to fear an earthly judge, after he that the law of love forbids"; that law which has broken the commandments ; that it is pleas. requires us to do to others aś we should think anter to spend a long life in the service of God it right that they should do to us"
and mankind, and the enjoyment of health and "We occasionally hear complaints that we are prosperity, than to divide a short life between