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ROCKLAND.

ed that public opinion is a wake on the subject,

Nyack, Sept. 19th, 1945; and they are now warm friends of this method Sir: Not having heard any thing from "- Old Orange of advancing popular education. A county asbrations, I have thought proper to give you a description sociation has been formed, and committees ap. of one held in our village on the 12th inst. A more pointed in each town to visit schools and report beautiful day could not have been wished for. I know their condition. pot when I have witnessed a festival in which I took a deeper or more lively interest. At half past nine the

Mrs. Emma Willard of Troy, addressed the first procession arrived from the country, some of Institute several times, and advanced some new, which consisted of almost every employer, as well as peculiar and very excellent ideas, in relation to a quarter past ten a procession was formed in front of the duty of females with regard to their own the district school house in the following order, viz:

education, and the welfare of common schools. Ist, Marshal, N. C. Blauvelt; 2d, Nyack Brass Band; She has the best welfare of our country in view, 3d, Marshal, A. Debauo; 4th, 8 District Schools with and her high character and talents enable her to their respective teachers, numbering 300 scholars :-96 do much good to the cause of education. She of whom belonged to the district school in the village of Nyack-whose assistant is a young lady from Mid. seems just entering upon a great work, of which dletown.

she is to mark the outline, and direct her sex The procession thus formed-each school bearing to carry it on, aided and encouraged by the ap. appropriate banners, differing in devices and notices: probation, money and influence, which it is the sion--proceeded in excellent order through the village duty of our sex to give. There seems to be a to the Presbyterian Church. As we approached the crisis in the progress of education, in our stale at becoming pride the arrival of the youthful band. In the plete concert of action, which may correct pub. the parents and relatives of the children, waiting with present, which calls for united efforts—a com. church, which was excessively crowded, the exercises lic opinion and carry it on in a right direction, were of a happy and gratifying character. 'After the usual to produce still beiter results in our common forms of organization and an appropriate and fervent school system. prayer by the Rev. Mr. Day of the M. E, Church, each teacher was called upon in succession to examine their

It is not expedient to try many visionary exrespective

schools. These examinations were intersper- periments, when we have already many good sed with declamations and vocal music

from almost eve: plans which have stood the test of experience. ry school until two o'clock when the procession again Yet, we think, we have devised a plan, here, formed and proceeded a short distance to the Knicker which if carried out and properly developed in bocker Grove," where refreshments had been provided, of which all partook.

practice, will awaken attention to district schools where a few more exercises were presented, after which ber of our population, and are yet so indifferent

After an hours recess they returned to the Church, in that very class which constitutes a large num. the assemblage was addressed plain and sensible by Mr. Caleb Roscoe, of Westchester co, followed by Mr N.

to the welfare of the rising generation, that they C. Blauvelt, County Superintendent, in a short but inter neither read educational papers, visit schools, esting addriss to the children, after which the assembly nor listen to lectures. The plan is, to publish dispersed in the most orderly manner-Everything passed off pleasantly, harmoniously, and satisfactorily to

a series of Common School Tracts. By means all--no accident nor disturbance Sccurring to mar the of Tracts the Gospel has been spread to every pleasures and happiness of the day.

corner of the world. They have proved to be As to the comparative merits of the schools I shall silent and efficient agents, and may be as suc. hardly venture my opinion. All did well-some admi. rably; but among the various exercises one was par: cessfully employed in the cause of education as ticularly interesting and instructive, viz: a class in in religion. For, those who seldom or never Physiology, from the Nyack district school; thus evin. read a volume through, will never refuse to read cing that their school had not been merely kept, but a tract which will occupy only a half hour ; and taught.

of the utility of such celebrations there can be but yet in that time, some new truth or idea 'may one intelligent opinion Every lover of his country strike the mind with such power, as to produce and his race must hail them with enthusiastic piety new thoughts which would soon develop them. and patriotism.

C.

selves in active principles.

But the questions arise ; how are the tracts to SULLIVA N.

be obtained, and at whose expense are they to The suggestion of educational tracts, mage in be scattered among the people? The first query the following letter, is worthy of careful con. is easily answered; for there are many pioneers slderation. We hope to hear further from in common school literature who, we think,

would gladly turn their attention to this subject; " Carolus” in relation to them.

the inquiry involving the means, the money con. Monticello Sept. 30th, 1845. sideration, is nearly as easily answered. Mr. Dwight: Sir,- The first Teachers' Insti. Let every friend of education who has money, tute in Sullivan County has just closed. About give a little, and the work will be accomplished. eighty teachers were in attendance during the Or let the county common school associations, session, besides a number of younger citizens where they have been organized, as in our coun: who joined in the exercises. This was a large ty, take an interest in the subject, and use a part number considering the fact that there are only of their funds to publish them. We think it can. one hundred and fifteen districts in the county. not fail to do good.

Mr. Albert D. Wright, who had charge of the Please give the subject a thought Mr. Editor. Institute as principal, has still more fully estab. Make what use of this you choose, and if it lished his high character as an educator. He meets the approbation of yourself, and other was assisted by a student of the Normal School, friends of education, you may hear from me Mr. Darwin G. Eaton, who was equally please again.

Respectfully yours, ing to the students and community. Several

CAROLUS, other assistants and pupils of the Normal School contributed to the general interest and instruction.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTE. Many citizens who doubted the practicability of We wish that every enemy of Common School forming a Teachers' Institute, are now convinc. I reform could be present and witness the manner

in which the Teachers’ Institute. (now being ged to keep the book in his hand, cannot watch the coun. held in Monticello,) is conducted. Upwards oftenance of the pupil, 10 ascertain whether he under90 teachers (about one half of whom are ladies), object of the teacher should be to find access to the are in attendance. This is a large number when mind of his pupil;-10 bring his own mind in contact, the fact is taken into consideration that there as it were, with his pupil's. How can he do this while are about 115 districts in the county, and that his whole attention is given to a book ?) many-too many teachers imagine that the art “Record carefully the remarks and additions of teaching, is not susceptible of improvement; which you find occasion to make while tcaching, but must remain stationary while almost every after having previously prepared the lesson in thing else is advancing in usefulness.

the best manner of which you are capable.I Many of the pupils of the Institute imagined (1 Whilst teaching a subject for the first time after when they came here, that they would receive such full preparation as is supposed above, and while little or no benefit.' We believe that now novelty and recent acquisition, observations will often

still under the influence of the excitement produced by there is not one who regrets the trouble and ex

occur to us of more value to our pupils than the pery pense incident to the school. All seem to be text which suggested them. These it would be always animated by an enthusiastic determination to well to record at the time they occur, or as soon after press onward in the march of reform, and render selves a second time; or, if they do, they will come with

as possible. They will not be sure to present themour primary schools, what they should be the out that vivacity of original conception, which is so people's colleges." We doubt not the public, as important to awaken strongly the interest of the well as the teachers, rill

greatly benefíted learner. by this Institute, for the teachers will become ered essential to every instructor. Books or essays on

Preparation in the art of teaching ought to be consid. much more skilful in imparting knowledge, and this subject, containing the mature experience of a cannot fail to receive a proportionate reward, teacher, are almost indispensable to a beginner in the Great credit is due to our active and efficient art, and will usually be found of value even to the vete

ran teacher. If one would teach history, for example, county superintendent, as well as a majority of successfully, he must naturally desire to know, and he the town superintendents, (and while we are at ought to know, what methods have been found best it we should include our correspondent CAR adapted to this end, by those who bave been the most OLUS,) for the success which has attended this wasting much of his own time and that of his pupils. matter.

Books upon the art of reasoning, upon the philosopby The corps of instructors employed by the of mind, upon taste, and upoa rhetoric, however un. county superintendent, is unexceptionable. suitable they may be for children, at the age at which Messrs. Wright, Eaton and Wood have won they are often put into their bands, are important aids

to the teacher.j golden opinions from all who have visited the Institute.

"When you have made yourself master of The scholars themselves, composed as they criticisms which handle the same subject.

the regular text-book, study other writings and are, of the most intelligent and best educated of the young gentlemen and ladies of the county, that the fruitful activity of the teacher in school

" These counsels spring out of the thought form a collection of which every citizen of Sullivan should be proud. — Rep. Watch.

chiefly depends upon his accurate acquaintance with his subjects, upon their gradual and un

ceasing unfolding to his mind, and especially THE TEACHER: THE SCHOOL.

upon his clear consciousness of and insight into

their relations. We have prepared, with much labor, the fol.

GENERAL SUGGESTIONS. lowing suggestions in relation to the different

For all young children, as I have already said, methods of disciplining and teaching school, and every thing should be short and simple. Short shall be gratified should it make this number of sessions,-short lessons,—short recitations, the Journal a useful manual to the teachers who be long. Children soon get tired of restraint,

every thing short,--save recesses. These may are now about cntering upon their winter term. and they must not long be confined. Let every Our object has been to select the best practical thing be simple too,-easy to be understood. hints that have not heretofore appeared in these Children, especially young children, must not

be subjecied to long and hard thinking. Their columns, and to combine them into an educa. brains cannot endure it. Frequently vary the tional tract. Should it prove acceptable to the exercise itself, as well as the mode of hearing profession, it is our intention to prepare the it. Children are fond of change and novelty;

and this element in their nature should be grati. December number on the same general plan, fied. The kind and ingenious leacher will study noticing those subjects which are here omitted. out new and interesting ways to present old sub

jects; and thus lure them on in the paths of THE TEACHERS PREPARATION.

knowledge. It is surprising how long, in this [From a German Book, The Guide to Teachers.')

way, interest in the same exercise may be sus. Accustom yourselves to the most minute and tained. I would instance in spelling, marking critical preparation upon the subject in hand, on the black-board, adding, numbering, or countnot merely in a general way, but by the exami- ing, and learning the origin, names, qualities nation and study of every paragraph in your and uses of objects. Much should be taught text-book. *

children before they begin to read, or rather in (* This is a most important direction. It is only by connexion with reading. observing this than the teacher can be so fully possess. ed of his subject as to be sure that he comprehends it

Talk to them much about outward objects, in all its bearings, and so familiar with it as to be able common things, such as are right about them; to bring it home to the mind of the learner.]

matters and occurrences of every day and every " Never teach with a book in hand.

hour. Allow them, yea require them, to ques{t This is no less essential. A teacher who is obli- tion you. Exercise their senses,-particularly

"HOW"

new.

their organs of seeing and hearing. Question let no man copy even himself too closely and them on the size, form, weight, color, taste, ap- constantly; that is, let him vary his plan and pearance and uses of objects. Say to them, mode of teaching a little, from time to time, if Does this object grow, or was it made by man? he wishes to have it work well and continue to If it grows, where does it grow? In the water interest himself and his scholars. or on the land ? On trees or bushes, or in the

TO SECURE PUNCTUAL ATTENDANCE. ground? What is its use? Is it sweet or sour? Beautiful or ugly? Do you want it? What do

Let no time be allowed for tardiness; that is,

when the hour for opening school arrives, let the yon want it for

I once knew a teacher on her way to school, exercises forth with commence, and let any schol. to pick up a small strip of leather, the rib of ar coming in afterward, though but a single mo. a dog, a fragment of a broken tumbler, a ches. ment behind the time, be marked as tardy, and nut burr, and a pine cone. These furnished her let some penalty be attached, which shall make with matter for half a dozen interesting and in such a delinquency a losing affair. If you can structive conversations, or familiar lectures, make any fault bring its punishment along with with her pupils. She compared and contrasted it, you will prevent its frequent recurrence. these articles ; spoke of their origin, formation, Perhaps I shall be best understood by concisestructure and use,-the points of difference and !y stating "how" we work in the Newburyport of resemblance in their composition, size, color, Latin and English High School, in one depart. &c. The children looked at them, handled them, ment of which, I have been engaged most of the inquired and talked about them; and though time for the last twelve years. Formerly ten, they had all seen the articles before, and some and sometimes fifteen minutes, were allowed of them many times, yet the teacher, by her in- for tardiness, but always with bad effect of genious inquiries and instructive remarks, suc. late years however, no time has been allowed. ceeding in keeping up attention, and imparting Our bell now begins to ring fifteen minutes and to them the interest and charm of things entirely ceases five minutes before 9, and 2 o'clock, At

9 and 2, the scholars are required to be in their But your instructions need not be confined to places, and the exercises of the school immedi.. visible and outward objects. Direct the atten. ately commence. Any scholar coming in after tion of the young listeners, even at this early this time, loses what we call the “clean-bill period, to what is nearer to them than the ex. hour” (which I will presently explain,) and, in iernal world, I mean the world within them, - addition, if he brings no good excuse for tardi. themselves, their spiritual nature,-their own ness, is liable to be detained after school at the thoughts, feelings and inward operations. This discretion of the teacher. The "clean-bill hour" part of education has been too long delayed ; is an hour allowed on Saturday to all scholars evils, moral and intellectual, have been the con who have not been punished, tardy or absent, sequence.

(except for sickness) during the week ; so that Let teachers look to this matter. Painful by being tardy but for a single minute, the must be the reflection to one of acute moral per- scholar loses, at any rate, the “clean-bill ceptions, that in all her labors with children, hour,” and, if he comes without an excuse, may little or nothing has been done for the training be kept an additional half hour after school, of their spiritual and immortal nature. Study which he soon learns to regard as a bad specu. this nature. Cultivate this nature. Endeavor lation. The result is that we have very little to train up good men and good women, even

tardiness. though they be not learned men and women,

TO BEGIN SCHOOL ? You may not be able to read the works of profound metaphysicians, but you can turn your

Dr. Johnson says it is always difficult to make thoughts in upon yourselves, and then read and a good beginning; and all teachers know that learn what and how you should teach children. this remark is particularly true in the case of Excellent auxiliaries in this branch of juvenile school-keeping. instruction, you will find in Gallandet's Work “ It is desirable,” Mr. Abbott says, " that on the soul; also in his Natural Theology.

the young teacher should meet his scholars first

in an unofficial capacity. For this purpose, he "How" SHALL I BECOME A TEACHER,

should repair to the school-room, on the first day, The first "how,” therefore, of which I shall at an early hour so as to see and become acquain. speak, is how to make the most of yourself as a ted with the scholars as they come in, one by one. teacher : for after all, more depends upon the He may take an interest with them in all their teacher than upon the system. An efficient, ener: little arrangements connected with the opening getic man, whose heart is in his work, will make of the school. The building of the fire, the almost any system work well. If then you would paths through the snow, the arrangement of make the most of yourself and would succeed seats, calling on them for information or aid, as a teacher, keep your eyes and ears constantly asking their names, and in a word, entering open and task your invention continually. In fully and freely into conversation with thea, our profession more than any other, inen are apt just as a parent, under similar circumstances, to become rusty-to follow on like a horse in a would do with his children. All the children, mill, in one beaten track, never seeking for im- thus addressed, will be pleased with the gentle provements and better methods of discharging ness and affability of the teacher. Even a Their duties. Be ever therefore on the alert, rough and ill-natured boy, who has perhaps and learn all you can from others in relation to come to the school with the express determinayour profession ; but at the same time, imitate tion of attempting to make mischief, will be no man servilely, and never think it glory completely disarmed by being asked pleasantly enough to follow implicitly in the footsteps of to help the teacher fix the fire, or alter the posisome illustrious predecessor. And I will add | tion of a desk. Thus by means of the half hour

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during which the scholars are coming together, is half finished, as though there had been an the teacher will find, when he calls upon the alarm of fire. So in school keeping, simply children to take their seats, that he has made a waiting will do a great deal towards securing very large number of them his personal friends. and maintaining good order. In the outset i Many of these will have communicated their am aware that it will cost time and patience, but first impressions to others, so that he will find in the end it will save both. One of the best himsell possessed, at the outset, of that which disciplinarians I ever knew, assured me that is of vital consequence in opening any adminis, the whole secret of his remarkably successful tration-a strong party in his favor." And I government, consisted in this waiting process. may add, by continuing this practice of going Whenever there was any noise or confusion, all to the school-room early for several days, and the other exercises of the school were suspenby keeping up a free and friendly intercourse ded until it ceased. He would neither hear rewith your pupils both before and after school, citations, nor grant recess, por dismiss school you will soon secure an ascendancy over their even until all were still and attentive. If he minds, which will greatly assist you in discharg: called a class to recite and they came out in a ing your arduous duty and will render your task disorderly manner, he would send them back comparatively easy and pleasant.

and let them try again, and so repeat the proDr. Franklin once gained the friendship of a cess, and keep them training until the thing was man bitterly opposed to him, by borrowing of done properly. In recitation too, if there was him a valuable book, and soon after returning whispering or inattention, he would immediateit with his thanks for the favor ; and many a ly stop until it ceased. The result was, that for teacher has won the confidence of a wrong. the few first days he had very few recitations headed, cross-grained pupil, by simply request. and very little was done ; most of the time was ing him to perform some little service and ex. spent in waiting; But at length finding the pressing gratitude for his kindness.

teacher mild bui decided, his pupils concluded " How" TO MAINTAIN ORDER ?

that they must either comply with his terms or

consent to have nothing done. And they did One of the most important general practical comply, and he had a very pleasant school, re. directions in establishing and maintaining good markable for its excellent order. order in school is, Do not make much noise your. It should never be forgotten, that what is self; and were I asked for a second and a third, called discipline in schools, is a means, not an I would simply repeat it, DO NOT MAKE MUCH end. The real object to be accomplished, the NOISE YOURSELF. A bustling, noisy teacher will real end to be attained, is to assist ihe pupil in always make a bustling, noisy school ; and, in acquiring knowledge-io educate the mind and general, you will find the noise in a school is in the heart. To effect this, good order is very nedirect proportion to that which the teacher makes cessary. But when order is made to take the himself. I repeat it, the noise in a school is gene place of industry, and discipline the place of in. rally in direct proportion to that which the teacher struction, where the time of both teacher and makes himself

pupils is mostly spent in watching each other, I had occasion not long since to visit a

very litile good will be accomplished. And Í school, where the teacher had a stentorian am ready to hazard the strange remark, that the voice, and he used it as though he had no fears stillest schools are not always the best, though of consumption. Every thing was moved for they generally are. ward as if by steam ; orders were given at the top Bees when most busily at work, generally buzz of his voice. But what struck me as a little re. a little, and so do boys. On the other hand, I am markable was, that he never stopped long enough willing to acknowledge, that where there is the to see that his orders were obeyed. He called most hum there is not always the most honey. a class to recite. The questions were asked in Nevertheless the activity of life is better than a tone of voice loud enough to be heard a quar- the stillness of death. I have no doubt but there ter of a mile ; and whenever any confusion are those who, by dint of constant effort and arose in a different part of the room, (and it energy, can keep iheir pupils on their seats al. was of frequent occurrence,) he would strike most as motionless as so many statues ; and upon the desk with a stick and cry out,“ order their pupils meanwhile may seem, like the Irish. there," "order," and before the sound of his man's owl, to kcep up a tremendous thinking; own voice had died away, he would put another but I imagine they are thinking more of their question to the reciting class. And if his school teacher than their studies. was not a Babel, it certainly was no fault of the

Good order and thorough discipline should by teacher. And yet this man possessed a good all means, be maintained, but it should still be deal of intelligence and haul been a teacher for remembered that on this subject, as on almost years, and no man could doubt his energy; and all others, virtue is the medium between extremes. I fully believe, that could he but adopt a delib. erate and quiet manner, and utter his directions

TO CONDUCT RECITATIONS. and ask his questions in a low but distinct tone Don't talk too much yourself; in other words, of voice, he would keep a first rate school. make the class do most of the talking.

Many teachers during recitation are constantly

asking, what the lawyers call, leading quesThere is a clergyman not a thousand miles tions, leaving little for the scholar to say, exfrom Newburyport, who makes it an invariable cept yes or no. rule, never to proceed with any of the services I have heard teachers speak of CARRYING a on the Sabbath until the congregation are per. class through this or that study, and I think this fectly still, and the result is that he always has must be what they meant by it. And, let me a quiet and attentive audience. The people do add, boys will never go alone so long as they not rush out of the house before the benediction can be carried.

HOW

THE WAITING PROCESS.

A score of objections might be urged against ciples at the commencement, respecting the very this course: one is, that it takes a great deal of important art of reading—let us adopt that time; another, that it costs the teacher a great course, in giving our instructions. deal of labor ; and a third is, that it makes the

A better mode than either of the two, is, one scholars miserably superficial. And so these partaking partly of each ; that is to teach the objections go on stronger and stronger. Few alphabet, reading and spelling in connection scholars will ever take the pains to get a lesson with each other. For instance turn to a lesson thoroughly, while they are sure that the teacher which begins with the word ox, tell the class will so multiply and arrange his questions as to that the word is ox, and require them to look at suggest what ihe answers should be. And I it and repeat it. Also inform them that the will venture the assertion that, other things be letters are o and x. Require them to fix their ing equal, those schools are invariably the best, attention upon these two letters, till they can where teachers hear the recitations, and where recollect how they appear, so well as to point the scholars are made to do most of the talking them out and to mention their names, when seen and explaining. There you will find the best in somewhere else. Teach them how to spell the struction and the most thorough scholarship. word, while looking carefully at the letters, and And besides this advantage of greater thorough. then how to spell it with the book shut. “Ask ness, scholars thus acquire the habit of easily them some easy and familiar questions about and clearly expressing their thoughts, and the the ox, and give them such information about power of stating and explaining accurately the him, as is adapted to their minds. They should most difficult and involved propositions. Now have something to interest them, something on this habit and ability will be of immense advan. which the understanding, as well as the memory, tage to them in future life-a continual source

can take hold. If the class would, in this man. of pleasure and influence to them.

ner, learn this word of two letters, at three or Let me not be understood as opposing expla- rour lessons, that is by one day's work, they nations on the part of the teacher. I mean sim- would effect far more than is commonly effected ply that of these there may be too many as well in one day, by the usual modes of teaching the as too few, and that, when too often repeated, first step in reading, they lose their effect and defeat their own ob

The word for affords the next exercise for ject. I mean that, in general, scholars should the class, presenting the little learners with one explain more, and that teachers should explain additional letter. Let this word be learned in less.-[Howard.

like manner as the preceding, and so of several

succeeding lessons, each consisting of one or two, THE BEST MODE OF TEACHING THE ALPHABET.

or a very small number of short words, expresIt is not pretended that one invariable course sive of such ideas as are adapted to a child's ought to be pursued by all, in teaching the mind. Before a long time the class will arrive alphabet. The Instructor, who gives his heart at such lessons as the following: “The clock to his business, will endeavor to ascertain by ex- ticks," " Smell this rose." They should be reperiment, in whatever he teaches, the best way quired to read them-ot course after a dictation of reaching each pupil's mind.

of the teacher-with the same readiness and of the various modes of teaching the alpha. propriety of utterance, that he himself does. bet, there are two extremes, both of which ought The learner's attention must be carefully directo be avoided. One of them is, to teach ihe ted to every letter, that its form and name may pupil to designate by name each of the twenty. be impresed on his memory; and to every word, six letters, without giving him, in the mean by spelling it, both with the book open and then time, any idea of the use of them ; without his shut, that he may become acquainted with the ever seeing or hearing them combined in words; powers, the sounds of letters. Whatever is read till he can tell the name of any one of them at must be the subject of question and answer, resight, wherever he may find it. Months are ceiving all necessary explanation from the spent in teaching the names of the letters in this teacher, so that a habit may be formed of never manner, and then other months, in joining them repeating words without their correspondent together in unmeaning syllables—or in columns ideas. Unless the teacher is careful, the pupil of words equally as unmeaning to a child—for of ready memory may be able, with the help of the mere purpose of showing their sounds. All the piciures, to read and spell all the words in this time is spent, before the learner can begin his primer, if he takes them in the order they to use them as the representatives of ideas. stand, and after all may not know his alphabet,

An opposite error is, teaching the pupil to re- After reading his lesson with his teacher's aid, peat a hundred or two of words, by impressing he must be required to point out any particular on his memory the appearance of them, each word in it, and any letter, until there can be no as a single object, without informing him of the doubt that he can readily distinguish every letname of a single letter, or even telling him that ter in the alphabet by its name. the words, whose names he repeats after his That the alphabet ought to be taught in the teacher, are composed of smaller objects called manner mentioned, in connection with reading letters.

and spelling, rather than as a distinct exercise, Though there are well founded objections to is apparent from the following considerations. both of these modes, a faithful and discrimina. When letters are presented to a child's notice, ting teacher, who is satisfied with either of without any reference to the use which is to be them, will sooner or later accomplish his object made of them, he is much less interested than of teaching his pupils to read. But if the pro. when he sees them so combined, as to form such cess of taking the first steps in learning to read short words as are familiar both to his ear and can be made shorter, more intelligible, and his mind. His learning the letters by name, more agreeable, by a different course ; if without having the least idea of their use, is not the pupil is more likely to acquire correct pria. I unlike our learning to repeat by memory twenty

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