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Smooth tablets of wood, formed like the mod. kind are indebted for the first manufacture of ern slate, and covered with a thin coating of watches, of gunpowder, of paper, and of printed wax, were employed to learn the art of writing books-articles, with exception of gunpowder, upon, as well as to retain permanent matter. An of such immense service in daily life. instrument called the stylus, was used to impress The instruments employed in writing, mast, the characters upon the surface of the wax. If of course, vary with the substance written upon, these were imperfect, the writer, by means of a The chisel was used to cut letters in stone. For roller of heavy wood, obliterated the marks. writing on wax the stylus, a pointed iron instru. Such an apparatus was used both by Greek and ment, resembling a pencil in form, was, as has Roman boys at school; more flexible and man. been remarked, employed. This was carried in ageable materials were desirable, and certain a sheath or cases. Ivory and bone were also en. dried leaves of trees, of a firm substance were ployed to write with. also used, as we use paper. The Egyptians The English word style, signifying the mode wrote on leaves of the palm tree, and some Asi. or form of expressing one's thoughts, is derived atic people still continue to do so. From this from the stylus. ' Reeds or canes, to write upon practice comes the phrase—"leaves of a book ;" Egyptian paper and parchment, came into use for the leaves employed to write upon might he with those articles. The reed of the Nile-ca. fastened together like the sheets of paper which lamus-was preferred to any other. This was form our books of the present day. Linen was brought to a point and splis, much in the man also used in very ancient times. This
substanca nor of our procent pens, hut it left the writing was first manufactured in Egyyt, and is found rough and uneven. Reeds and canes are still written upon among the envelopes of Egyptian employed among oriental people. Quills from mummies three thousand years old.
the wing of the goose superseded the cane in Ea. The inner bark of certain trees, as a material rope in the ninth century. At the present time to write upon, is yet used in several parts of (1845) the steel pen has in great measure takea Asia. This bark, called by the Romans liber, place of the quill. The latter, still preferred by thus gave name to a book. In the Latin, liber many, continues to be used, but the steel signifies book. Our English word-library-a pen is generally employed. Inks of various cocollection of books, is obviously derived from lors, are of the same antiquity as paper and pens. the former word. The Saxon conquerors of Bri. The value of writing, as an art, as a means tain used the bark of a beech tree to write on ; of instruction and improvement, was highly ap. the Saxon name of the beech is boc-whence our preciated by the Greeks. The subjoined beau. English word book.
tiful verses, personifying a reed pen, were trans. In Egypt grows a rush called papyrus ; its lated from the Greek : stem is tall, straight, and triangular; in a cer.
THE PEN. tain stage of its growth the inside of the stem is soft, like the pith of a corn-stalk, and may be
[Translated from the Greek.) separated into long flat strips; these strips, placed I was a senseless thing—a lonely reed! like the threads of a piece of cloth, were crossed No blossom hung its beauty on the weed ; by other strips, weited, and then pressed by a Alike in summer's sun and winter's gloom, heavy roiler. In their soft state, the whole sub. I breathed no fragrance, and I wore no bloom. stance thus pressed, formed a sheet, resembling No cluster wreathed me-day and night I pined modern paper, and when dried was put to the On the wild moor, and withered in the wind.
From papyrus comes the word pa. | At length a wanderer found me, from my side Our modern paper is made from linen and He smoothed the pale decaying leaves, and dyed otton rags. The papyrus, like cotton and flax, My lips in Helicon! From that high hour was not merely used to make paper, but was I spoke! My words were flame-were living manufactured into cloth, sails, ropes, wicks for power, lamps, and similar articles. The Romans, on And there was sweetness round me. Never fell becoming masters of Egypt, about half a centu- Eve's sweeter dews upon the lily's bell, ry before Christ, bestowed great attention on the I shone! night fled! as if a trumpet called manufacture of this paper from the reed of the Man's spirit rose-pure, fiery, disenthralled. Nile.
Tyrants of earth, ye saw your light decline Parchment and vellum were invented, it is When I stood forth a wondrous, wondering siga; said, by Eumenes, King of Pergamus, in Asia. To me the iron sceptre was a wandMinor, about two and a half centuries before The roar of nations pealed at my command ! the Christian era. Parchment is prepared from To me the dungeon, scourge and sword were the skins of sheep and goats ; vellum, which is
vain ; a finer material, from the skins of young calves. I smote the smiter, and I broke the chain ; Both these are costly, and were only used to pre. Or, towering o'er them all without a plume, serve the most important writings.
I pierced the purple air, the tempest's gloom, The origin of cloth paper is uncertain. It was Till burst the Olympian splendors on the eye, introduced into Europe from the East, and be. Stars, temples, thrones and gods-infinity. came common about the end of the twelfth cen. tury. The oldest English manuscript on linen
RESPONSIBILITY. paper, dates 1340. There are said to be some in Spain of greater antiquity. The oldest Ger. Responsibility arises from the relations which man paper-mill was established at Nuremberg, man sustains to his fellow man, and as these re1390-fifty years before the invention of print lations are almost infinitely diversified so are ing. The existence of paper is necessary to make the responsibilities arising from them. What printing available to any considerable extent; it one man cannot neglect without a breach of is somewhat remarkable that to Germany man. trust or a violation of both human and divine
law another man may be under no obligation to lation to the parents of his pupils. They have perform, and this difference of obligation arises committed to him a matter of vast moment both from the different relations they sustain to com. lo themselves and their children. They solicit munity. He who is raised to the office of Pre the assistance of the school teacher to perform sident of the United States, or of Governor of for them a work, the value of which cannot be one of our States, from the relation he sustains estimated by dollars and cents. It is true into the people, incurs responsibilities which rest deed, that all parents do not regard the early in. not on the mechanic or farmer, or the members struction of their children in so serious a light. of the different professions. The judge on the Judging from the indisposition of some to probench, as the dispenser of justice and the ex. vide comfortable and convenient school-houses, pounder of law, has duties to discharge which and the necessary books and their want of interarise from the relation he sustains to society, est in the whole subject, we are compelled to and which devolve not on any others. On the conclude, that it is not so much from a desire to lawyer, physician and minister of religion, secure for them a thorough education, that they community has claims which it prefers not send their children to schools, as from a dispo. against any other of its members. These illus-sition to find occupation for them during the trations are sufficient to show the truth of the years they would be useless, or perhaps in the doctrine with which we commenced, viz: That way at home; or if a more worthy motive is Responsibility arises from the relation which before their minds, it seems to have little or no man sustains to his fellow man. And we will reference to the mental improvement of their perceive how important it is that every man children, but rather a sordid regard to the should recognize and discharge the responsibili- means of securing a support for their merely ties devolving on him when we consider that animal patures, to the entire neglect of their the brief period of man's earthly, existence, moral and intellectual. The idea of embracing even when it extends to threescore years and in their education a preparation for moral and ten does not fix the limit of his influence. The intellectual enjoyment, enters not into their faithfulness or unfaithfulness with which he calculations. If their children are qualified to fulfils his obligations sets in motion influences give a practical solution to the question“ what which continue to move on, when the human shall I eat and what shall I drink, and where. machine which gave them their first impulse with shall I be clothed?" the purpose of educa. has ceased to act. Thus the influence which tion is in the estimation of such parents fully every man exerts, whether good or bad, de secured. But while there are some who are scends the stream of time with either poisoning thus blind to the higher and nobler offices of or purifying efficacy to succeeding generations education, and entertain these limited ideas with The corrupt judge, the dishonest merchant, the regard to its object, there are others, and we double faced politician, the faithless mechanic, believe the number is rapidly increasing, who do all by disregarding their individual and peculiar not restrict the instruction of their children responsibilities, inflict an injury not only on their only to those subjects which may be turned to own generation. They have struck chords immediate account in the business employments which send their vibrations far into the future of life ; but regarding their rational as well as they have set in operation influences which die the mere animal nature, acknowledge thé claims not when they themselves die, but which travel which mind has for both nourishment and enon and down perhaps to the end of time. The joyment. They desire therefore, to see their influence of a Napoleon, a La Fayette and a children qualified not only to take part in the Washington, is still felt' in our world, though active business of life, and provide for them. these names are numbered with the dead. Vol. selves, but also prepared to enjoy pleasures of taire, Hume and Paine, still live and act in the an intellectual and moral kind, both in the pur. infidelity which they set to work, and which suit and possession of the good things of this continues and will continue to work in poison life. But to be thus educated the mind of the ing minds to successive generations.
youth must be occupied with something more My object in making these few remarks with than the dry detail of learning to read, write regard to individual responsibility and the im- and cypher. He must know the history of the portance of recognizing and meeting individu. past and present; must be taught to think, com. ally our obligations, is to introduce the subject pare and judge. There are few parents, how. to which I design very briefly to direct your at ever, who have either the time or the qualifica. tention, viz: The Responsibilities of those who tions for performing a task of this kind; and sustain the relation of teachers to the rising geo of those who make the instruction of youth
therefore they avail themselves of the assistance neration.
their business, and commit the whole subject to If we measure the responsibility of men, by them. And their desires and hopes with regard the amount of influence which they have the to their children, are realised, only when the opportunity of exerting, either for good or bad, teacher, entering into their views and feelings, or by the influence which in point of fact they aims at securing these ends. And this they do not exert, (and it will be admitted by all I have a right to expect. They are, on the one presume, that this is a just rule,) then there is hand, obligating themselves to pay to the teacher no class of men, unless we make the ministers a reasonable compensation for his services; and of religion an exception, on whom devolve more he, on the other, assuming the responsibilities weighty obligations and solemn responsibilities of an instructor of youth, is bound in honesty than that to which is entrusted the primary to discharge all the duties which that office coneducation of our youth. This will appear evi- /templates. If he neglect to do so, he wrongs dent, I think, if we consider the various relą. those who have employed him. tions sustained by the instructor of youth.
SARATOGA. the first pla:e. h: systains an important re
(To be continued.)
that a majority of the intelligent and judicious
part of our population were in favor of this, I To the Editor of the District School Journal : should be in favor it myself. There are many
DEAR Sır-Inasmuch as Suffolk county has of our intelligent and valuable citizens who are not been much heard from in the very interesting in favor of this abolishment, but I think a much educational movement which has been made dur greater number who are opposed to it. There are ring the last three years, in the way of impro. some individuals high in office, also, who are ving the common schools throughout the State, using their influence to this end ; but I am happy by means of the new system, in the supervision to say that we have some intelligence in our county of schools by county and town superintendents; out of office. This carping, however, about the I have thought it to be my duty to give some ac- office, renders it very unpleasant for the officer, count of my action as superinlendent of this and in a great measure destroys his usefulness. county, and to state some of the many trials and But though I find so much that is trying, I must, difficulties which it is my lot to encounter, as in justice to the people of my county say, that I well as the few encouragements with which have found much that is pleasant to me; I have I am occasionally cheered in the discharge of found in many sections of the county an interest my duties. When I first entered upon the dis. manisested in the schools, and a readiness to coeharge of the duties of my appointment, I felt operate with me on the part of trustees and inha. a very considerable degree of zeal for the probitants of districts which has been encouraging motion of the interests of the schools. I was and gratifying to me; and I have had extended well aware that it was very necessary that the to me the kindest hospitality, which I shall not schools in this county generally, should be im- soon forget. Finally, I can say that my interest proved ; and though I felt that in the discharge in the schools has not in the least diminished ; of the duties of the office I might be subjected but that I believe that some other person may to pecuniary sacrifices, as well as to all that is be selected to in the once, who may be more disagreeable in leaving a home of some com. useful to the schools than I can be. I shall forts and many endearments, to travel about the therefore not visit the schools again as an officer, county at the inclement seasons of the year ; yet after I have gone through with my present lour I consoled myself with the reflection, that if I / of visitation. And though I shall not act as an could be of any service to the schools of my na- officer, yet I expect to exercise my little influtive county, it would be something that I could ence as opportunities shall offer, for the improve. look back upon with pleasure, and which would ment of the schools; and I can but wish that be an ample reward for any sacrifices which I if the office of county superintendent be abo. might be called upon to make. I have endea. Jished, there may be no effort made to abolish vored, in all my action in this matter, to keep the schools. SAMUEL A. SMITH, myself back-to avoid any thing like the arro
Co. Sup't Suffolk Co. gance or “insolence of office." I was, from the Smithtown, Feb. 15th, 1845, first, impressed with the belief that I could do very little myself, except by the co-operation of those who were immediately interested in the schools: I have therefore endeavored to exer. cise the little influence which I possess, to the
A contest for a set of Outline Maps. end, that a greater interest might be felt by pa Mr. Dwight-I have recently enjoyed the op. rents and trustees of districts, in a matter which portunity of attending the common school exis so closely connected with the best interests of aminations and celebrations in Berlin and Petheir children. I have, as opportunities have tersburgh, Rensselaer county. Mr. William Van offered, addressed the people of the districts; Rensselaer had offered a set of outline Maps, but I have found that it is very difficult to be each set worth fifteen dollars,) to the best very interesting upon this, as well as upon any schools in the towns of Berlin, and Petersburgh, other subject, where there is no sympathy-10 and Grafton, to be adjudged by an impartial feeling in common between hearers and speaker. committee of five. What a difference between talking to an audi. In Berlin, three schools entered for the prize, ence upon this subject, and the subject of poli. and were examined in reading, arithmetic, geog. ties! In politics, all feel the inspiration, and raphy and English grammar, by their respective the most commonplace and even senseless re. teachers, and also by the committee. The ques. marks are sure to meet with a response from the tions were promptly answered in all the branch. aadience, il there be a pretty frequent repetition es, and the peculiar mode of teaching, clearly of the words democracy and whiggery. It is exhibited. Many of the inhabitants of the re. very unfashionable in this country for the people, spective districts were in attendance, and mani. or even the trustees, to visit the schools, and it fested a deep interest in the examination. The is rather seldom that they get out at my visita. scholars of each school, and their teachers, actions. It is sometimes said to me that I am paid quitted themselves in a manner highly satisfac. for visiting the schools ; it is my business, and I tory to all present; and led the committee and must go without them. This is rather trying, others, only to regret that they were not supplied but I have, notwithstanding, endeavored to do with a set of maps for each school. Berlin has my duty as well as I could. I have been very done nobly, and may she continue her onward sensible, though, that I was doing, and could do course. In Petersburgh, only two schools were much less good to their schools. The town sa. examined. The prize was warmly contested by perintendents I have ever found ready to co each school. The schools had been thoroughly operate with me. There is a considerable cla- trained, and were so equally balanced that the moring in this county for the abolishment of the committee were greatly embarrassed in giving office of county superintendent; and if I believed the preference to either school. The reading by
SCHOOL CELEBRATION IN BERLIN AND PETERS
BY JULIA A. FLETCHBR.
Mr. Clows' school was decidedly the best I ever loffences in the bud, when a warm-hearted old heard in a common school; but the school taught; gentleman exclaimed, depend upon it, more by Mr. Green, excelled his in arithmetic and young people are lost to society from the first geography. A pupil in the school of Mr Green offeuce being treated with injudicious severity, drew a map of the world upon the blackboard, than from the contrary extreme. Not that I with such a degree of skill and accuracy as to would pass over even the slightest deviation astonish all present. Indeed, there was much from integrity, either in word or deed; that to admire in the modes of teaching adopted by would cerlainly be mistaken kindness; but on all the teachers in both towns, while the appear. 'the other hand neither would I punish with seance and conduct of the scholars were such as to verity, an offence committed, perhaps, under the excite our admiration.
influence of temptation-temptation, 100, that I had the pleasure of addressing large and at. we ourselves may have thoughtlessly placed in tentive audiences in the evening, on The great the way, in such a manner as to render is irre. subject of education. Though I cannot approve sistable. For instance a lady bires a servant; of the principle of awarding prizes, yet I trust the girl has hitherto borne a good character, an impulse has been given to the cause of edu- but it is her first place; her honesty has never cation, through the efficient county superintend yet been put to the test. Her mistress, withont ant, Dr. Thomas, in Rensselaer county, which thinking of the continual temptation to which will lead to important results.
she is exposing a fellow.creature, is in the hal
8. R. SWEET, it of leavtag small sums of money, generally City of Albany, March 5th, 1845.
copper, lying about in her usual sitting room.
After a time, she begins to think that these sums THE ERRING,
are not always found exactly as she left them. Suspicion falls upon the girl, whose duty it is to clean the room every morning. Her mistress,
however, thinks she will be quite convinced be Think gently of the erring !
fore she brings forward her accusation. She Ye know not of the power
counts the money carefully at night, and the With which the dark temptation came, next morning some is missing. No one has In some unguarded hour.
been in the room but the girl, her guilt is evi. Ye may not know how earnestly
dent. Well, what does the mistress do? Why, They struggled, or how well,
she turns the girl out of her house at an hour's Until the hour of weakness came
potice ; cannot, in conscience, give her a charAnd sadly thus they fell.
acter ; tells all' her friends how dreadfully disThink gently of the erring!
tressed she is; declares there is nothing but inOh do not thou forget,
gratitude to be met with among servants ; laHowever darkly stained by sin,
ments over the depravity of human nature ; and He is thy brother yet.
never dreams of blaming herself for her wicked Heir of the self-same heritage!
- yos, it is wicked thoughtlessness in thus Child of the self-same God!
constantly exposing to temptation a young ige He hath but stumbled in the path,
norant girl ; one, most likely, whose mind, if Thou hast in weakness trod.
not enveloped in total darkness, has oply an
imperfect iwilight knowledge whereby to disSpeak gently to the erring!
tinguish right from wrong. At whose door, I For is it not enough
ask, he continued, growing warmer, will the That innocence and peace have gone, sin lie, if that girl sink into the lowest depths of Without thy censure rough?
vice and misery? Why, at the door of her who, It sure must be a weary lot
after placing temptation in her very path, turn. That sin-crushed heart to bear,
ed her into the pitiless world, deprived of that And they who share a happier fate, which constituted her only means of obtaining Their chidings well may spare.
an honest livelihood-her character; and that Speak kindly to the erring!
without one effort to reclaim her—without af. Thou yet mayst lead them back,
fording a single opportunity of retrieving the With holy words, and lones of love,
past, and regaining by future good conduct the
confidence of her employer. From misery's thorny track. Forget not thou hast oftened sinned,
There is, I fear, too much trath in what you And sinful yet must be,
say, remarked our benevolent host, who bad Deal gently with the erring one
hitherlo taken no part in the conversation ; and As God hath dealt with thee!
it reminds me of a circumstance that occurred
in the earlier part of my life, which, as it may From Chambers' Edinburg Journal.
serve to illustrate the subject you have been THE FIRST OFFENCE.
discussing, I will relate.
There was a general movement of attention ; In the cheerful dining-room of my bachelor for it was a well known fact that no manufac friend, Stevenson, a select party was assembled turer in the town of - was surrounded with to celebrate his birth-day. An animated dis so many old and faithful servants as our cussion had been carried on for some time, as to friend Stevenson. whether the first deviation from integrity should In the outset of my business career, said he, be treated with severity or leniency. Various I took into my employment a young man to fili were the opinions, and numerous the arguments the situation of under clerk; and, according to brought forward to support them. The majoria rule I had laid down, whenever a stranger en. ty appeared to lean to the side of crushing all | tered my service, his duties were of a nature to
involve as little responsibility as possible, until The greatest regularity and attention the utsufficient time had been given to form a correct most devotion to my interests—marked his busiestimate of his character. This young man, ness habits, and this without any display; for whom I shall call Smith, was of a respectable his quiet and humble deportment was from that family. He had lost his father, and had a mo- time remarkable. At length, finding his conther and sisters in some measure dependent up. duct invariably marked by the utmost openness on him. After he had been a short time in my and plain-dealing, my confidence in him was so employment, it happened that my confidential far restored, that, on a vacancy occurring in a clerk, whose duty it was to receive the money situation of greater trust and increased emolufrom the bank for the payment of wages, being ment than the one he had hitherto filled, I placed prevented by an unforeseen circumstance from him in it; and never had I the slightest reason attending at the proper time, sent the sum re- to repent of the part I had acted towards him. quired by Smith. My confidence was so great Not only had I the pleasure of reflecting that I in my head clerk, who had been long known to had in all probability saved a sellow.creature from me, that I was not in the habit of regularly a continued course of vice, and consequent misecounting the money, when brought to me; but ry, and afforded him the opportunity of becoming as, on the occasion, it had passed through oth- a respectable and useful member of society, but I er hands, I thought it right to do so. Therefore, had gained for myself an indefatigable servant--a calling Smith back as he was leaving my count: faithful and constant friend. For years he served ing-house, I desired him to wait a few minutes, me with the greatest fidelity and devotion. His and proceeded to ascertain whethor it was quite haracter for rigid, nay, even scrupulous nonesty, correct. Great was my surprise and concern on was so well known, that as honest as Smith, befinding that there was a considerable deficiency, came a proverb among his acquaintances. One
'From whom' said I, did you receive this morning I missed him from his accustomed place, money ??
and, upon inquiry, learned that he was detained He replied 'from Mr. -' naming my con- at home by indisposition. Several days elapsed fidential clerk.
and still he was absent; and upon calling at his ' It is strange,' said I, looking steadily at him. house to inquire after him, I found the family But this money is incorrect, and it is the first time in great distress on his account. His complaint that I have found it so. He changed counte. had proved typhus fever of a malignant kind. nance and his eye fell before mine ; but he an. From almost the commencement of his attack, swered with tolerable composure, that it was as he had, as his wife, (for he had been some time he had received it.
married) informed me, lain in a state of total It is in vain, I replied, to attempt to impose unconsciousness, from which hc had roused only on me, or to endeavor to cast suspicion on one to the ravings of delirium, and that the physi. whose character, for the strictest honesty and cian gave little hope of his recovery. For some undeviating integrity, is so well established. days he continued in the same state ; at length a Now, I am perfectly convinced that you have message was brought me, saying that Mr. Smith taken this money, and that it is at this moment wished to see me; the messenger adding that in your possession : and I think the evidence Mrs. Smith hoped I would come as soon as against you would be sufficient to justify me in possible, for she feared her husband was dying. immediately dismissing you from my service. I immediately obeyed the summons. But you are a very young man; your conduct On entering his chamber, I found the whole of has, I believe, been hitherto perfectly correct, his family assembled to take a farewell of him and I am willing to afford you an opportunity they so tenderly loved. As soon as he perceived of redeeming the past. All knowledge of this me, he motioned for me to approach near to matter rests between ourselves. Candidly con- him, and taking my hand in both of his, he fess, therefore, the error of which you have turned towards me his dying countenance, ful! been guilty ; rcstore what you have so dishon. of gratitude and affection, and said, 'My dear estly taken ; endeavor, by your future good con. master, my best earthly friend, I have sent for duct, to deserve my confidence and respect, and you that I may give you the thanks and blessing this circumstance shall never transpire to injure of a dying man for all your goodness to me. To you. The poor fellow was deeply affected. In your generosity and mercy I owe it, that I have à voice almost inarticulate with emotion, he ac- lived useful and respected, that I die lamented knowledged his guilt and said that, having fre- and happy. To you I owe it, that I leave to my quently seen me receive the money without children a name unsullied by crime, that in aster counting it, on being entrusted with it himself, years the blush of shame shall never tinge their the idea had flashed across his mind that he cheeks at the memory of their father. O God!' might easily abstract some without incurring he continued, 'Thou who hast said blessed are suspicion, or at all events, without there being the merciful, bless him. According to the mea. sufficient evidence to justify it ; that, being in sure he has meted unto others, do thou mete undistress, the temptation has proved stronger to him.' Then turning to his family, he said, than his power of resistance, and he had yield. My beloved wife and children, I intrust you, ed. I cannot now, he continued, prove how without fear, to the care of that heavenly Padeeply your forbearance has touched me; time rent who has said, “Leave thy fatherless chil. alone can show that it has not been misplaced. dren to me, and I will preserve them alive, and He left me to resume his duties.
let thy widows trust in me. And you, my dear Days, weeks, and months, passed away, dur. master, will, I know, be to them as you have ing which I scrutinized his conduct with the been to me-guide, protector and friend.' That, greatest anxiety, whilst at the same time, I continued the kind old man, looking round upon carefully guarded against any appearance of us with us with glistening eyes, though mixed suspicious watchfulness ; and with delight I ob with sorrow, was one of the happiest moments served that so far my experiment had suceeeded. lof my life. As I stood by the bedside of the