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proper names !


that while the teacher was doling out his accustomed formation of those habits which are the bulwarks dose of abe's, the mind, If not the eyes of the cabildo of character and the safeguard of the state. were wandering about or dwelling upon some object to him much more attractive than the lesson before him.

Habit is principle in action, and unless princi. This practice has been carried so fır, that children have been known repeatedly to be capable of repeating the ple is confirmed by action it loses all vigor, all more than half a dozen letters and give them their own vitality. It may be talked about eloquently,

"Carelessness, indifference, and often disgust have, but it directs, not the hand, it sways not the thus early been inculcated; and the destructive in: heart. The great duty is to arouse every dor. through the whole of after life. Probably more injury mant principle of good, and to embody it in action, has been done, more bad habits formed, and more false that it may gain strength by trial, and for trial. and injurious notions imbibed, during the first two years of a child's pupilage, than in all lnis school days And if the teacher will reflect on his opportu. thereafter.

nity to lessen the sorrows and dangers of life, as With reference to the existing system of county presented in the following extract from Waters. and town supervision, the superintendent obton, and then read the sad record of those evils, serves:

which to so great an extent might have been " Though our present school laws may be defective prevented by right influence in the schools, in some of their details, yet after all, the system is as may be. A state, a county and a town superintendent,cer. Iturbid stream of existence—he will not be surperfect in theory, and as salutary in practice, as well those fountains from which flow the swelling, tainly forms a simple, regular, efficient and unbroken chain of intercommunication ihrough the whole body (prised that we have brought together subjects in productive of the greatest positive good Though in themselves so utterly repugnant as the radiant already won for itself opinions; more than ful dawn of childhood, and the unimaginable wretchfilling the expectations of its friends, and confoundedness of the evening of that day to the forlorn, ing or making converts of inost of its enemies. The drunken pauper. The child—the school, the me to believe, that notwithstanding the violent opposi life-the drunkard--the death. And what be. tion which the whole system has to contend with in certain quarters, the day is not far distant, when the yond? Cannot the sequence be broken?-Ed. peculiar and distinctive features of our present school organization, shall be so enshrined in the hearts and affections of the people, thal neither faction nor dema

"Here is the replenishing of the world; here gogueisin will be able to shake it."

is a new wave of existence. From these little But our limits admonish us that we must re.

children will be selected the judges and states.

men of the next half century. Thus are we the fer those who desire farther to pursue the rea creators of a world's destiny; we are moulding sonings of this admirable report, to the docu. the elements of coming society. Every generament itself, which will be found in every dis. tion is called to make its own impress upon days

yet to come. And by the removal of one gene. trict library in connection with those of the ration and the coming forward of another, Hu. state and the other county superintendents. And manity may receive perpetual renovation. The while on this subject we cannot withhold the mature become fixed in their views ; old preju. expression of our opinion that every candid and souls. New minds come, and why may not these

dices fasten around them, and are riveted to their unprejudiced citizen wiro will take the pains to inherit the virtues without the vices of their peruse this volume, and make himself acquainted sires ? God offers the world fresh opportunities. with what has been actually accomplished under The gates of the past close ; the gates of the fu.

ture open. If wisdom and love were all that the auspices of the several county and town passed through, the world were indeed blessed. superintendents, by virtue of the existing organi. In children, a new Humanity holds out its hand. zation, will rise from the perusal, satisfied that When will mankind bequeaih to it only what is the clamor so assiduously brought to bear at good? We take one race and score them all

over with errors ; then God seems, in his kind. each session of the Legislature, against this ness, to say, · HERE IS A NEW RACE ; BEGIN ONCE system and its practical administration, has its MORE." "--R. C. Waterston. origin in far other motives than those which ap.

(From the Albany Argus.) pertain to the true interests of " the people and THE PAUPERISM OF INTEMPERANCE. their children."

It has been frequently remarked, that in a free country like the United States, where taxa.

tion bears so comparatively light upon the hand YOUNG CHILDREN.-THE PAUPERISM of labor, there would be no poor, if man was OF INTEMPERANCE.

only taught to rule those impulses and check

those appetites, the gratification of which inevi. We re-publish, from the Argus, these gloomy tably brings upon him and his relatives, misery,

disgrace and poverty. statistics of some of the lesser evils of intempe.

This remark is made, not without cause. In rance, that their lesson may be pondered by the looking over the late returns of the Secretary of teachers of the six hundred thousand children State, embodying the special reports of the su. r.ow in the schools of New York. For we know perintendents of the county poor, under the act

of March, 1842, which directed them to make no more important duty of the teacher, than the returns of the causes of the pauperism within

were :

their respective counties, we find facts of the first cry is 658--or about 5 per cent. Combining interest to those who would seek to stay the in. these two classes of persous reduced to pau. creasing tide of pauperism. These tables will perism by kin vices, we have 7093 out of surprise even those who have for years traced 13,636—or about 52 per cent--that is, more the fell progress of the Moloch of Intemperance. than one-half of all the pauperism in the state

In these special reports, the causes of pauper. arises from intemperance and debauchery !! ism were specified in only 13,636 cases. Of this If the same returns could be extended to eve. number, the following is the classification of the ry case of pauperism--from the present data, it several causes :

is not improbable to suppose that a like propor. of the number of persons who were reduced tion would still exist. Applying this principle, to pauperism by intemperance, there were :

let us see what will be the result.

In 1843, the whole expense of' paupers relieved Males,


by public charity in the state of New York, was Females,



As the above facts have shown that intempeTotal, .....


rance and debauchery constitute 52 per cent of Of persons becoming paupers by debauchery; the pauperism, it is clear that for these two vices there were :

the people have paid in the year 1843, $270,000. Males,

142 The annual tax levied to support the victims Females,

516 of intemperance, seems also to be increasing

with the growing population. Cannot this floodTotal, .....

658 gate of expenditure be arrested? Will not tax of persons becoming paupers by idleness, there payers unite in a vigorous effort to reduce their

taxes, which must be the inevitable consequence Males,


of the thorough and final triumph of the tempe. Females,


rance reformation? These are the pecuniary

results ; but the moral and social results would Total, ...


be infinitely higher and nobler. The true glory Of persons becoming paupers by idiocy, there of the temperance cause is, that'. It brings glad.

ness to eyes which fail with wakefulness and were : Males,

205 tears, and ache for the dark house and the long Females,


Total, .....

For the District School Journal. Or persons becoming paupers by lunacy, there

ORTHOGRAPHY, were : Males,


MR DWIGHT : Allow me through the columns Females,


of the Journal, to say a few words upon OR.

THOGRAPHY. It is the most important branch Total, ....


of Education; and yet, I am sorry to say it is the of persons becoming paupers by blindness, visited many schools in this and the adjoining

most neglected. Within the past year I have there were : Males,


counties, and in about one third of the number Females,


no attention is paid to Orthography. The Teachers in the remaining two-thirds, seemed to appre.

ciate it, and yet, although they try to teach it, not Total, .....


the acquirement of a single practical principle, is Of persons becoming paupers by sickness, there the result of so doing. "The ideas intended to be were

conveyed by the teacher, or by the use of the Males,


book, to the pupil, are all erroneous. The pupil Females,


begins with the consonants, and commits to

memory what is said of them and of the vowels, Total, ......


in the fore part” of the Spelling-Book. He Of persons becoming paupers by decrepitude, recites the same; and if he does it without "misthere were :

sing” his knowledge of Orthography is proMales,


nounced complete. He then is, with his teacher, Females,


ready, and as he presumes, prepared to testify

to the importance and the excellency of this great Total,


branch of study. But what scholar, after comOf persons becoming paupers by old age, there mitting to memory or “ learning by heart,” the

fore part” of any spelling. book, can candidly Males,


say that by it he does in reality better under. Females,


stand the nature and power of letters and just

method of spelling words?” I have good reasons Total,


to believe that no one can. I well remember the

time when I could recite every sentence upon Grand total of pauperism for speci.

Orthography in the “fore part” of Cobb's fied causes,


Spelling Book; but the importance or advantage

of so doing, I was not able to illustrate. The These authentic tables are deserving of more fact is, that but few pupils in Orthography un. than a passing scrutiny. The number of regu- derstand what they are learning. I do wish, lar paupers from intemperance is 6 135--or 47 per however, that one thing, if no more, could be ceni of the whole. The number from debauch.! well understood; and that is, that the daily les.

were :

sons of all scholars in the “fore part” of the an unconquerable dislike for the study of mathespelling book, are as false as they are tedious. matical science, the author having treated the Convince them of that fact, and perhaps some subject as is the learner were actually inca pable good may be derived from so learning many as of comprehending the reasons for the rules he surdities.

had laid down; and the old teachers had but Although I may by some be considered rather little difficulty in persuading the tyro that he enthusiastic, yet the following facts will, I trust, was thus incapable of entering into the scientific be sufficent to convince any one, that the above part of Arithmetic; and so it has been with declarations are no more nor less than true. other branches taught in our schools to a greater

We are told in Sanders' Spelling-Book, that or less degree. the letter b has one proper sound as in bind. Now We now have text-books suitable to be placed that the proper sound of b is "be,' is not de in the hands of the young pupils, well ealculated nied; then 6 with its proper sound, (saying to draw out the latent powers of the juvenile nothing of the other consonants composing mind- to expand the understanding-teachers the word) would make bind stand for be-ind; qualified to explain whatever may be obscure "but," for be-ut;“ bite," for be-ile;' broke," for or unintelligible ; the beauties of science are be-roke; "bin," for be-in,&c. The consistency disclosed and made attractive-happy associa. and beauty may again be seen by giving to all tions are formed in the school-room, and in short, the consonants in the following sentence, when the great obstructions to the onward march of reading it, their “ proper” sounds: A-en o.e. popular education have been measurably rel-de em a en ef-ou-en-de a ar-u-dere be.oy up-o-n moved, and the common school is beginning to 0-en-e'o-ef aitch-i-e-es te- ar-ee-es, es-te-a-el-ing take its place among the other institutions of a-pe-pe-el-e-es: generally, but not very "nalu the land—to supersede those select and private rally, read thus: “An old man found a rude establishments which have so long retarded its boy upon one of his apple trees, stealing apples." progress, and to secure the patronage and influ.

Í believe the sound of no consonant is heard ence of the more wealthy and intelligent part in a word, as the sound of the consonant is spo- of community. ken by the a-be-ce-darian. Of what use to us Teaching is becoming an honorable profes. then, are our consonants, with their present Alsion--the talent of the country is embarking in phabetical or" proper" sounds? We might jnst it, and we may confidently expect that the rising as well, or with as much propriety, call them generation will become the enlightened and in. other names; for the pupil is taught to call them telligent supporters of our free, civil and reli. by one name when he learns them, and by anoth-gious institutions, and an honor 10 their revola. er when he puts them together into words. tionary ancestry,

I.o.h:n was formerly pronounced John; And whence this great change? Every one l-o-s-h-v-a, Joshua. The v was called "peaks will see upon a moment's reflection that it must ed u;' but with how much propriety, I can tell be dated from the commencement of the present as well (and no better) ihan I could the propriety efficient system of county and town supervisionof calling our present consonants in theory, one the diffusion of intelligence among all classes thing, and in practice another. In my next, I through the medium of the district librarieshope I shall be able to give what I think is the the columns of the excellent School Journal, true System of teaching Orthography to children; and other valuable auxiliaries. and when I say " children," I mean a-be-ce-da. Popular education is the hope of our republic. rians, as well as those who can spell and read. Its friends have but to continue their efforts in

DAVID PARSONS. this noble enterprise—to launch out farther and Public School, No.5, Syracuse.

still farther in this great ocean of expansive be

nevolence, and they will ere long witness the A CONTRAST.

consummation of their highest hopes and most

ardent aspirations. MR. DWIGHT

There is much that remains to be done. Dear Sir-It is not a little gratifying to notice Notwithstanding all the light that has been the happy change that has been wrought in our thrown upon the subject, there are not a few common school system during the last few individuals who still adhere with great tenacity years—to mark the striking contrast between to the antiquated notions of their venerated its present condition and what it was in my grand-parents and think forsooth that because school-boy days, when the course of training, things were thus and so in days of yore, they with some few honorable exceptions I am hap ought to be so at the present time. py to say, was calculated to produce disgust in

Let the old pioneers regard the present as the the mind of the young pupil to every thing con- incipient stages of reformation in this great de. nected with the—10 blunt the per. partment of civilization and refinement, and ceptions of the understanding-to stifle the as. make our common school system indeed worthy pirations of the young and promising genius, of the Empire State. and in short to prevent effectually the develop.

DANIEL B. ROSS. ment of all that is valuable in the human charac.

Canadice. ter. Perhaps some may think I am exaggerating,

(For the District School Journal ] but I appeal to the past experience of every CHILDREN IN THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. observer if what I have asserted is not true: it coincides, at least, with my own. I would Of that memorable change of the inhabitants make the inquiry is the manner of teaching of the Sandwich Islands from thick darkness to Arithmetic according to Daboll's system was marvellous light-among the agents were chil. not calculated to create in the mind of the pupildren and youth. The first fruits of their know

ledge of divine things were the conviction and of initiating children in the faith of the gospel. edification of others older than themselves. The " A little boy who was accustomed to wait on history of these islands eminently illustrates the the missionaries, carried home to his father, who docility of the young, and the direct benefits to was blind, intelligence of what he had seen or their seniors which flow from their emancipation heard, from time to time, in their company. The from error.

father was deeply touched by these communica. After intelligence of the gospel was proclaimed tions; they set him to thinking; he soon abjured in one of the Sandwich Islands, a priest of the his old heathenism, and became a sincere Chriscountry assured his hearers that should they for tian. He loved to hear of Christ, and prayed for sake their ancı nt worship there would be no those who believed not on him. more rain and fruitful seasons ;-their offended The king hearing of his faith, sent for the poor deity would thus punish them for their desertion. Wind man, and inquired of him concerning his A youth named Joseph Banks-after Sir Joseph religion ; he was able to give such an account of Banks, who had accompanied Captain Cook to it as showed his sincerity in renouncing idols. the islands in 1778—had made voyages as a sai. One good effect of this religion upon the blind lor hoth to England and the United States, and man was that it made him cleanly and decent. being a shrewd observer, heard with contempt The islanders, in their heathen conditioa, were the declaration of the priest, and one day under in the habit of devouring dog's flesh, live insects took to ridicale the superstitions of the country and other offensive things, but from the time in his presence. He declared that the people of that the blind man received the Christian docEngland and America did not worship stupid trine from his intelligent little boy, he refused blocks of wood and stone, but one God only, who this disgusting food. A man who lived under was not to be seen himself, though he saw, and the same roof continued his own filthy feeding, heard, and knew every thing in the world. “In anil provoked to perceive the abstinence of the England and America,” said Joseph," there are blind man and his son, complained to the king no idols, but there is plenty of rain, and fine that they would not eat like others, demanding crops too.

In Tahiti and Tuahine they have that they should be punished, and compelled to destroyed the idols, and worship the God of do as other people did. "The man is right," white men, yet there the rain falls, and fruits answered Riho-riho-that was the king's name grow abundantly as ever. Why," he continued, -"I will not suffer him to be harmed. I intend

should not rain fall, and the ground produce soon to learn the new way myself, and to leave food here, as well as elsewhere, when these off bad ways, and then you must do the same.” senseless things are done away wish?" The

It is well known that the king was as good as priest was confounded, and those who heard the his word, and that his successor and his subjects youth's reasoning went away convinced of its are now enjoying the benefits of a good educa. truth.

tion and a true religion. It was asserted by Mr. Bennet, who visited New York,

E. R. these islands in 1821, that the eagerness for in. struction among the natives was so great, that! THE IMPORTANCE OF OUR COMMON SCHOOLS. all the little boys were daily, during their play hours, in requisition as masters. Three chiefs, men of lofty stature, came early one morning to Formerly Teacher of the Lexington Normal School, now obtain a kamu, or teacher. They could engage

residing at Syracuse. none but a child, six years of age, lisping over Whether we realize it or not, the most im. its spelling book. Finding, however, that he portant trust we have to commit to others, is the could tell bis letters, and repeat his ba, be, bi, care of our children,--the most momentous of all bo, bu, one of ti em caught bim up by the arm, our social concerns is the education of our chil. mounted the little fellow upon his own broad dren. Who, that has any forecast, can look up. shoulder, and carried him off in triumph, ex. on the rising generation, without heartfelt soliclaiming, " This shall be my Kamu!"

citude? Out of these infants and joyous youth The children themselves took great delight in are to arise the wise and good men and women, reciting their lessons to the older folks, and help that shall bless,—and the ignorant and vicious ing their fathers and mothers to say their A, B, men and women, that shall curse the coming age, C. Now those children have grown to be men Can any one be indifferent whether they shall and women, and, being better taught than their turn out to be of the one class or of the other? parents were, have no need to take lessons from Because a few years will intervene before their their children. “It was,” says Mr. Bennet in characters shall be unfolded because the change his journal, “ beautiful to behold one of these from infancy to manhood will be gradual, let it little ones standing up among a ring of grown peo. never, for a moment, be forgotten, that a mo. ple, with the eyes of all waiting upon him, ear. mentous change is coming to all children that nestly hearkening to his words, and repeating live. In every infant there are the rudiments of them from his lips, that they might impress both a man. the sounds and their import on their memory. When we look at a flower-see its calix filled Nor was the implicit confidence with which they with petals of exquisite form, of the most delireceived these instructions, delivered with the cate texture, of diverse colors so rich and nicely, ingenuous gracefulness of boyhood in its prime, blended that no art can equal them,-and withal the least interesting circumstance of this new perpetrally diffusing a delicious perfume, we thing on earth.? Did not our Saviour set a child can hardly believe that all this variety of charms in the midst of his disciples to teach them how was evolved from a little seed, not bigger than they must receive the kingdom of Heaven?" the head of a pin.

Another affecting instance is given in Tyerman When we contemplate a sturdy oak, tbat has and Bennet's journal of the happy consequence for a hundred years defied the blasts of winter,



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-has spread wide around its sheltering limbs, seen crying for a sugar-plum, or quarreling with and has seemed to grow only more hardy the his little sister for a two-penny toy. more it has been pelted by the storms, we find it And who are they that are infesting society difficult to persuade ourselves that the essence, with their daring crimes-scattering about them the elements of all this body and strength, were “firebrands, arrows and death ;" boldly setting once concealed in an acorn. Yet such are the at defiance the laws of man and of God? Are facts of the vegetable world. Nor are they hall they not the same beings that a few years ago so curious and wonderful as the facts which are were children, who, could they have conceived disclosed in the history of the human mind and of such deeds of darkness as they now perpetrate heart.

without compunction, would have shrunk from Here is a man, now master of twenty langua. them instinctively with horror? ges, who can converse in their own tongues with

These surely are prodigious changes, greater persons of as many different nations, whose far than any exhibited in the vegetable world. only utterance thirty years ago, was very much And are they not changes of infinitely greater like, and not any more articulate than the bleat. moment? The growth of a mighty tree from a ing of a lamb. Or, it may be, that he, who small seed may be matter for wonder-for admi. could then send forth only a wailing cry, is now ration; but the development of a being, capable overwhelming the crowded forum, or swaying of such tremendous agencies for good or for evil, the Congress of the nation by his eloquence, should be with us all a matter of the deepest con. fraught with surpassing wisdom.

cern. Strange-passing strange, that it is not There is another, who can conceive the struc. find hundreds ready to adopt the best plans for

so! Go through the community and you shall ture, and direct the building of the mighty ship the culture of vegetables, or fruit trees, where that shall bear an embattled host around the world ; or the man, who can devise the plan of you will find one who is watching with due care

over the growth of his immortal child. a magnificent temple, and guide the construction of every part, until it shall present to the eye of the beholder a perfect whole, glowing with the

MASSACHUSETTS. unspeakable beauty of symmetrical form. And here is a third, who has comprehended the struc. ture of the solar system. He has ascertained the the Normal School at West Newton, (formerly

On the 12th of August last, the former pupils of sizes of the planets, and at what precise mo. of Lexington) met together by appointment to ments they shall severally complete their cir; celebrate as a festival the close of the sixth year cuits. He has even weighed the sun, -measured since the establishment of the school. It was the distances of some of the fixed stars,-and foretold the very hour, when the dread comet," very pleasant to see this assemblage of happy after an absence of centuries, "shall to the fore. faces, to hear their affectionate

greetings for each head of our evening sky return.” These men

other,and for their beloved and respected teacher. are the same beings, who, thirty years ago, were

These young ladies came from every part of puling infants, scarcely equal in their intelligence live fields of labor. A brighter and more intelli


the State, not a few directly from their respec. to kittens of a week old. There, too, is a man who sways the destiny ly be seen. The teacher, Mr Pierce, must have

gent looking company of young women can rare. of nations. His empire embraces half the earth, and throughout his wide domains his willis law: enjoyed himself not a little in looking again upon At his command, hundreds of thousands rush to waked up that expression which so strikingly

so many countenances, in which he doubtless first arms, the pliant subjects of his insatiable ambi. characterized them all. And not only had he tion, ready to pour out their blood like water at waked up the slumbering intellectual powers of his bidding. He arranges them as he pleases, many of the pupils, but he had also breathed into to execute his purpose. He directs their move. I them the breath of a moral life, which, sad to say, ments, as if they were the creatures of his hand. is not always inspired by the schools of youth. He plunges them into battle, and wades to conquest over their dead and mangled bodies. That rior teaching, which induce pupils to be satisfied

Many are the temptations, resulting from infe. man, the despotic power of whose mind over. awes the world, was once a feeble babe, who them to gloss over their deficiencies. But Mr.

with superficial acquirements, and which lead had neither the disposition nor the strength to Pierce has another standard of school morals harm a fly.

One must sit in his school-room for days together On the other hand, there is one who now evin- and listen to his code of morals, as brought out ces unconquerable energy, and the spirit of wil. by special occasions during the common routine ling self-sacrifice in works of benevolence. No of lessons, before the process can actually be toil seems to overbear his strength. No discour- seen, by which he makes the most bashful come agement impairs his resolution. No dangers forward to confess the depths of her ignorance, disarm his fortitude. He will penetrate into the and the most vain crucisy her own love of appromost loathsome haunts of poverty or vice, that balion, by asking humble, elementary questions. he may relieve the wretched, and reclaim the Such are the noblest fruits of this excellent abandoned. He will traverse continents, and ex. teacher's instructions for no intellectual advance. pose himself to the capricious cruelty of barba- ment t'at can be made, is equal in value to the rous mon, that he may bear to them the glad conscientious use of every faculty. He would tidings of salvation. Or, he will calmly face the end into every school a moral power that shall scorn and rage of the civilized world, in opposi. exorcise all the subterfuges of corrupted child. tion to the wrong, however sanctioned by cus hood — corrupted alas! how often in the very tom or hallowed by time; or march firmly to the school-room itself, where vanity and base emula. stake, in maintenance of the true and the right. tion are so frequently made the motive powers! This man, a few years ago, might have been No one can be well acquainted with many of

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