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of this state.

the same.

free-put upon our necks the tyrant's yoke, and On taking the chair, the president of the association, We would break it, and slay him and his 'min. John M. Holley Esq, briefly stated the object of the

meeting, and the success which had attended thus far ions with its fragments-crush us under a mon.

the efforts of the association. eyed aristocracy and we would on principles of On motion of Samuel Cole, Esq., committees on equal justice turn its golden streams into chan teachers' institutes, town associations and common nels, to bless the poor, the widow and orphan-school celebrations, were appointed.

The committee on teachers' institutes reported the yea, demolish our academies and universities, following resolutions, which were unanimously adoptand from their ashes, phænix-like, would spring ed: others of equal fame.

Resolved, That we regard teachers institutes as " But what is this system-its foundation---su- 1 lion, by educating the teachers in not

only the great

powerful auxiliaries in promoting the cause of educa. perstructure and furniture? It is founded in be. principles of science, but also in the most approved nevolence-in pure good will. This is its chief methods of teaching, and that in our opinion, such incorner stone. It is constructed of the principles stitutes ought to be established in each of the counties of equal rights and protection to the poor. It is

Resolved, That the county superintendent, John T. furnished with houses of refuge, in which are Mackenzie, Esq., and Professor N. Brittan, le, and are eyes for the blind, ears for the deaf, and under hereby appointed a committee to make the necessary standing for the simple. This is the system. It arrangements for, and establish a teachers' institute in is impartial; it knows no name, no seci, no cast, Lyons, and such others, at such places in the county no color-alí are alike invited to partake of its September next; that they give notice of the same benefits. Its object is to promote universal in. through the several newspapers in the county, and that telligence and virtue; to banish semi. barbarism

leachers throughout the county are respectfully invited

and expected to attend the same, preparatory to en. from every nook and corners of the land.

gaging in the business of their profession. “But what is this system without proper The committee on town associations and celebra. agents to work it. What are school-houses, tions, reported the following resolutions, which were (houses of refuge for intellect,) libraries, offi. unanimously adopted, viz:

Resolved, That in view of the beneficial results which cers, literary funds, &c., without the common

follow from the establishment of town associations school teachers. It constitutes a splendid and and the holding of common school celebrations, by afperfect machine, but destitute of the motive pow. fording to the teacher increased facilities for improve. er. The teacheris this power. It gives us a

ment in the art of teaching, and awakening anew an

interest in the mind of the patron as well as the pupil, body perfect in it form and adaptation, but it is we earnestly recommend the immediate organization lifeless, till the presence of the common school of such association in each of the towns in this coun teacher animales it. Teachers ! you are the sine 'y, and that the town superintendents of the several qua non of the systom. Without you it is no lowns are requested to use their efforts in establishing thing. You are its animating principle--upon Kesolved, That we recommend the holding of public you therefore as a class, more than any other of examinations or celebrations of the schools, in the the secondary agencies, depend the pierpeluity several towns in this county, at the close of each ierm, of all that is excellent in our national character and that parents and all others interested be invited to

attend the same. and institutions, above other nations. Is it ex.

J. M. HOLLEY, President. aggeration then to affirm, that your calling takes J. T. MACKENZIE, Secretary. rank-nay high rank among the useful and hon. orable? The thrift, intelligence and virtue of

(For the District School Journal.) the producing classes, the bone and sinew of our

THE PLASTER BLACKBOARD. country, and the eminent in the learned profes. sions, many of whom were the oflspring of or. phancy and poverty, as they call to mind the made in any of the appendages of the school

Perhaps no greater improvement has been spring of their ambition, answer no-nay the cultivated fields and thriving villages, with their room, than in that useful article the black board. glittering spires, pointing heavenward, that dot colored plaster instead of the painted board.

This improvement consists in the use of the landscape at every view, send up the respon; It has many considerations to recommend it. sive reply, no! no!! Turn where you will and The chalk is used upon it without noise. It is the same reply will meet you, except from two easily erased. There is no reflection of light sources. Those whose children never suffered the so called disgrace of association with the least, it is very much cheaper than boards.

thus obstructing the sight; and last, though not children of the populace, and who of course ne. ver condescend to so low, or rather so high a pro.

In erecting a building the black surface can fession, as common school teaching; and those applied to any old surface with equal facility.

be put on at a very trifling expense. It can be who hate knowledge and despise reproof. By such your calling will never be appreciated. Any common mason can apply it who knows

how to use the hard finish.We may do the This is their folly, and as the fruits of it, they furnish by far the greatest proportion of fops and

cause of common schools an essential service by fools on the one hand, and the embodiment of giving the following simple directions for vice and crime on the other. The mass of the MAKING THE PLASTER BLACKBOARD. intelligent, however, in whose hearts, not on First, wet a sufficient quantity of lamp-black whose tongues, virtue has fixed her abode, will with alcohol, to color the plaster to be used, award to you the honor due to your exalted and mix this coloring with the “ hard finish,' station,"

at the time of putting it on.

The lampblack may be wet with sour beer in. WAYNE.

stead of alcohol. If it be wet with water it will not mix uniformly with the plaster on ac

.count of the oily matter contained in it, and the Pursuant to notice, a meeting of the "Wayne County surface will not dry uniformly black, but will Common School Association' was held at the Court have a spotted appearance, House, in Lyons, on the 230 day of August, iast.



During the past term, lectures by the Princi:

pal have been given, on various subjects. ALBANY, OCTO ER, 1845.

The Professor of Mathematics has given

courses of lectures on Mathematical and PhysiTEACHERS' ADVOCATE.

cal Geography-Tides-Laws of Motion-Laws

of Falling Bodies—Mechunical Powers--Teach. This is the title of a new school journal re ing Arithmelic, &c., &c.

A course of twelve chemical lectures was cently established at Syracuse, under a resolu.

delivered to the school by Professor MATHER, . tion of the teachers' convention. Its editor, illustrated by experiments. Hon. SALEM Town

Edward Cooper, Esq., as principal of various and J. H. MATHER, Esq., by invitation, favored academies in different parts of the state, has the school, each with several practical lectures. manifested great zeal and devotion in the cause

Ainong the other individuals who have lectured

by invitation, may be mentioned, Rev. Dr. Pot. of education, and we trust that his journal will ter, of Union College-Prof. HENRY, of Princebe distinguished as the eloquent and successful ton--JAMES HENRY, Jr. Esq., of Herkimer advocate of its interests.

county--Prof. Comstock, of Philadelphia

and Francis Dwight, of Albany. STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.


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The full notice of the recent review of the

STATE NORMAL GRADUATES. Normal School, given by the Evening Journal

The subjoined is a list of the graduates : and Argus, makes any further account unneces.

FEMALES. sary. In a word, it was worthy of the reputa


Rensselaer county, PHEBE C. CAZIER,

Madison tion of the school.


ELIZABETH C. Hance, Wayne
Nancy Cross,

DAVID P. PAGE, Principal.



Ontario Mathenalics.

Silas T. BOWEN,

Otsego SUMNER C. WEBB, Assistant To cherci WM. W. CLARK,

Livingston Arithmetic.

Dennis B. CHAPIN,


SILAS T. BOWEN, Assistant Teacher of

REUBEN H. BINGKAM, Saratoga Grammar and Geography.

Jas. LYSANDER Esos, Wyoming
WILLIAM W. CLARK, Assistant Tcacher Jas. La Ror FAY,


Onondaga of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry.


Monroe WILLIAM F. PHELPS, Assistant Teacher

Nelsos W. Burts,

Orleans of the Experimental School.




Teacher of Reading and Spelling.

F. J. ILSLEY, Prof. of Vocal Music.

J. B. HOWARD, Prof. of Drawing.

Jas. W. MANDEVILLE, Chenango
Enw C. SEYMOUR, Tompkins





Besides an abundant supply of text-books for WILLIAM SCISM,

Columbia the use of the pupils, there is connected with WILLIAM NIMS,


Cortland the Institution, a valuable educational and


Livingston miscellaneous library, consisting of about sir WM. F. PHELPS,

Cayuga, hundred volumes. This library was mainly pro REUBEN OTTMAN,

Schoharie cured by funds received from the heirs of the late llon. James Wadsworth, of Geneseo.



SUGGESTED. The school is already supplied with a valuable philosophical apparatus, and also with globes,

(For the Journal.] maps and charts, and other means for illustrating Mr. Dwight--I very well know it is not pleathe various sciences taught. Additions will be sant to look at the dark side of the picture made to the apparatus of the school, till it shall when contemplating our institutions, but prube sufficient for all the purposes of instruction. dence admonishes us to look at both sides. En

tertaining these views, I must add that there are LECTURES.

probably hundreds of school districts in the state, During each term, a course of lectures will be ihe inhabitants of which do not avail themselves given by the Principal, and Professor of Mathe. of the advantages of the libraries in their dismatics, on various topics connected with teachtricts. ing and the teacher. Other distinguished indi. I have frequently heard the librarians of disviduals have occasionally favored the school tricts say that not a book was called for from with lectures, by invitation of the Principal.

one month to another, and sometimes for six

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months in succession. This subject ought to be titles of these books are all befor them, and hence agitated by every newspaper in the state. I have they have no apology whatever to offer for this abuse

of the English language. something to say about the delinquency of town

" The establishment of libraries,” says Mr. superintendents, aye, and of county superinten. dents, too, which I will send you if you wish it. Lindsley, county superintendent of Yates, "is


ten years in advance of public opinion; a Perrysville, Madison co., August, 1845.

generation must pass away before they will be We hope our correspondent will fulfil his pro read.” “Our libraries," says Mr. Cooke, coun. mise and expose whatever may require amend. ty superintendent of Niagara, " are rather lights ment or reprehension in any part of the working under a bushel than on a candlestick." of the school system. Our columns have ever And is there no remedy? It is easy to reply been open to every communication whose spirit

that a taste must be created; but how can it be was good and whose object was improvement. done? The statements in regard to the district libra.

We must begin with the children. The art ries, however unwelcome, are corroborated by

of reading is now taught, the taste to use the the returns made to the department. The fol. art must be cultivated, until the mind craves lowing extract from the report of J. J. Rocka

knowledge, as the body, food. Then the libra. fellow, county superintendent of the southern

ry will be valued as the treasury of riches" that district of Allegany, graphically portrays the waste not in the using,” and books, that are bright and the dark side of this picture, and we books, will become the companions and friends call attention to it for the purpose of inquiring of those barren hours which now drag so wearily whether some remedial action is not possible onward, scattering few seeds on the field of and practicable ?

thought, but tares, for life's great harvest. Then DISTRICT LIBRARIES --The whole number of ro.

the Martyrs, the Heroes, the Sages of humanity; lumes in all the libraries, as reported by the librarians at the time of visitation, is ....

9036 its Socrates', its Hampdens, its Howards, its Average number in circulation for the summer,

Washingtons, its Franklins and its Shakspeares, Leaving a balance of .............. .............. 7606 will find a reverential but cordial welcome in

District 2 in the town of Genesec has no district li. brary, for the reasons that they have a large, well se:

the homes from which ignorance now churlishly lected circulating library, and have never sully approved excludes those, whose presence would honor and of our library regulations. They therefore chose rather to lose the benefit of the library money than to throw whose influence would bless.

" For a good themselves under such "rigid, unreasonable, sestric: book is the best of friends, the same to-day and tions. District No 5 in the same town, district No 11 in the town of Independence, district No. Il in the town forever ; unalterably it speaketh the truth, of Alfred, and district No. 6 in the town of Scio, are also destitute, having been organized since the last ap warped not by envy or interest ;--thy sin, thy portionment of library money. The books are gener; slander or neglect chilleth not, quencheth not its ally in good condition. In most districts they are read with a good deal of interest and are duly appreciated. love ;-it listeneth or it speaketh when thou In others they are allowed to sleep upon their shelyes listest ;-it praiseth thy good without envy, it month alter month-il they have shelves; otherwise, they are often crainmed away in some remote nook of chideth thine evil without malice :-it is thy greasy hole of a pantry, as though they were the most valueless things of earth's valuables. In a few instan- willing slave and thine unbending teacher ;-it ces, upon opening the library case, I have beheld a he: draws thee out of self, thy petty plans and cau. terogeneous mass of books, newspapers, antediluvian scraps and documents, dirty snuti boxes, greasy can- tions, to teach thee what thou lackest, to tell dlesticks, shaving implements, and in one instance a nest of young vermin! Thc condition of those districts thee how largely thou art blest ;-10 lure thee and their schools is apalagous. But these were ex. from thy sorrow and to grast another's wisdom treme cases, and perhaps ought to be withheld. I re. gret to say that many injudicious selections have been on the barren stock of thy own thought.” made-works of a pernicious tendency; some through ignorance of the real character of works selected, Such is the glorious office of the good book ; others through carelessness, and a few from choice. "Thaddeus of Warsaw,""! Tu its of The Ocean," upi: such the exalted privilege of those who can hold rates' Own Book, and a few others of similar stamp, communion with the great and good of all time, have found way into almost every library In every And yet it is unvalued by thousands, who hold case their removal has been promptly urged, and generally performed. A great many are kept in very bad the key of knowledge in their hands, without a laste, or rather without taste--catalogue and library the very pictures of chaos. Among other novel circum- wish to unlock its treasures. Life is to them a stances, I found one library stuffed away in an old blank, a weariness ;-aimless, hopeless; its ined the catalogue, and found at the bottom "pinety. pathway full of the pitfalls of ignorance, and were all jammed down in a dirty hole. From other cat leading at every step deeper into the gloomy alogues, I read, Tails of a Granfather,“ Tails of shades of superstition. It is therefore a ques. American Yuth," "Tailes for Childern, &c. These are specimens among hundreds equally ridiculous and tion of momentous importance, whether there is un pardonable. I would pot make an illiberal attack upon the igr. orance of parents, for I am but too well not a remedy for this evil; whether the million aware that they were destituie of those great educa. and a half of volumes now in the libraries of our tional advantages which their children are enjoying. It is their sheer carelessness of which I complain. The districts are to be the means of forming a new


race, of purer, wiser, lappier citizens, or to be. dren is usually too small, it will soon be increased come the food of moths, in the “holes" and by the trustees, if they see this class of books

corn baskets” in which they now are kept. thus made subservient to the good of the children. Were there but few districts and small sections If the books are not kept in the school-house, of the state, where the libraries were neglected, there will be more trouble imposed upon the we hardly should press this subject, rather wait- teacher, but there are many teachers in every ing patiently for the gradual awakening of in. county who cheerfully encounter much greater telligent interest ; but the number is large and difficulties in their earnest devotion to duty. The if a remedy cannot be found, there is danger that good teacher says with Leggett, " satisfy me the library system itself, admirable and benefi- that it is right, and I will find a way to reduce cent as it is, will be in jeopardy.

it to practice." We, therefore, earnestly call upon superinten. The occasional exercise, called “ Topics," dents and teachers, to devise and apply a reme-now in somewhat general use, might also be dy to this corroding evil, and if no better plan is made-subservient to rendering the library more proposed, we trust they will adopt one which interesting and useful both to the school and to has been successfully tested in a few districts.

the district. Geography and history should be

so taught as frequently to send the pupil anx. Let Wednesday afternoon, or at least an hour ious for farther knowledge, to the library of the of the afternoon, be set apart by the teacher for district. But we must leave the subject, with questioning and conversing on the books drawn those who feel and are able to unfold its relafrom the library. Call upon some of the more tion, to the well being of the communities in intelligent pupils to relate any fact read in those which they are called to labor. books that may have interested them, and upon some who are less advanced, to read some short THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND THE

FUTURE. passages, making them the occasion of remarks, sometimes relating an anecdote or stating any In perusing the last annual report of the fact that will illustrate the same subject. For County Superintendent of the southern section the teacher, the Germans say, should be a good of Washington county, (WILLIAM WRIGHT, story teller, and we assume that he is equal to Esq.,) we were forcibly struck with the contrast his duties. Connect with this reading and con- which it so ably and forcibly exhibits, between versational exercise, information in regard to the present and the past condition of the schools the events of the day, referring to the map to under his supervision, and with the sanguine show the pupils where the Russians are now but lucid and well digested views of the future carrying on their operations in the Caucasus, in which he indulges. What has here been done, where the free ports are, opened by China, or with reference to a portion only, of the schools through what region our army is now moving to of a single county, we hope to be able at an the frontiers of Texas. In this manner books early day to present, with reference to the en. will be associated with the business and inter. tire state ; to note the progress which has been ests of life, and connected with the exercises of made under the existing system of supervision, the school. The pupils becoming interested, in elevating the character and extending the iBwill not only draw books with avidity, but take Auence of our common schools to contrast their them to their homes and make them the subject present condition with that in which they were of conversation, awakening a wish in their se. found not only by the County Superintendents veral families to know what pleases and inter on their first visitations, and by the gentlemen in ests their children. Thus the circle of readers differen: scctions of the state who had previous. extends, until the library is prized as the best ly been designated as Visitors, under a special friend of the district.

act of the legislature passed in 1839—and to "There is no difficulty," we may be told, “in show distinctly and specifically the source of trying this experiment, where the library is kept the manifest improvement which has been the in te school house, the teacher is sub-librarian, result, in the more thorough, efficient and uni. and suitable books are found in the library adap. form supervision growing out of the system of ted to the age and wants of the children." There County and Town Superintendents, and particu. is little difficulty in most cases, we reply, if the larly the former. In the mean time we are teacher is anxious to test its practicability. Suit- anxious to present our readers with a few exable books are generally to be found in the li-tracts from the admirable synopsis of the Wash. brary, and although the numler adapted to chil. ington County Superintendent, as a favorable





specimen of the salutary change which has al. who always look to the law and the testimony," have

imagined inat they saw, or could see, an insuperable ready been effected in this respect :

barrier in the structure and peculiar features of the " When I first entered upon the discharge of the du. common school laws; and hence they have, and still ties of my office as county superintendent, some two maintain, that the only remedy that can be furnished years ago last February, I entered upon the duties of a adequate to the disease in question, is new legislation! ihankless office, and upon an employment, against “Without stopping to examine the arguments pro and which there were then strong and bitier prejudices ! con upon this subjeci, I rather propose to myself to show The common school system had just been revised. that after all the primary difficulty consisted more in new officer, wheretofore unknown to the laws," had the false notions and false principles upon which our been created. A new system of supervision, never, in whole system of instruction was founded, and the con. any form, a favorite with the people, had been institut: sequent erroneous practice under it, than in any thing ed; and that too, without having been clamorously else; and thut, inasmuch as both teacher and people called for by the great mis3; and hence the whole were responsible for the maintenance and perpetua. movement was looked upon with a jealous eye; the new tion of that system, both are perhaps equally to blame! officer regarded as a pensioned agent, settled upon the

"The great radical error of that sysiem consisted in people, to eat out iheir substance, and his duties teaching written" words” rather than developing ideas; as involving an unwarrantable and meddlesome inter. of submitting the arbiirary representative of an image ference with the private affairs of the “sovereign peo.

for the imige itsell, and in treating the memory as

though it were nothing more nor less than a great re. " The bitter spirit of party and of faction, which ceptacle, into which it was the business of the “mas. knows nothing too sacred or too hallowed to pervert

ter" to force, with birchen arguments is necessary, a to party use, not content to leave the battle to the pre certain quantity of words, and then in calling the rejudices of ignorance and cupidity, had been invoked,

tention of those words in that receptacle, education. and readily joined in the strife; so that for a time, de

“An idea," says an eminent author, is the image struction seemed the inevitable consequence. But

of an object painted upon the mind," just as sight is when a democratic Legislature had the high moral known to be the image of an object painted upon the courage to rise above party considerations, and not on

retina. ly to sanction, but to labor to perfect what their politi. "Now, as the pupil of the eye is the only avenue of cal opponents had commenced, the bilterest foe was visible perception, so is language the only medium of disarmed of his most powerful weapon; a truce was

vocal thonghi; and the attempt to feast a blind man immediately sounded, and ihe consequent cessation of upon the beauties of the visible universe, or to delight hostilities which followed, gave a most favorable op.

him with the harmonious blending of colors, would be portunity for reflection and calm consideration. That no more absurd than to attempt to least and gratity the reflection was inost bcnign and salutary in its results. | immortal thinking mind upon the more sounds of inFor the moment this question was deprived of its polici: comprehensible or inexplicable words! And yet I ap. cal aspects, an 1 both great parties, by their acts, Fully peal to the good sense of every man at all acquainted committed to its support; nearly all, either because with the past history of our schools, or with the prel'that which cannot be cured must be endured," or vailing sentiment of ihe public upon this subject, it our from higher motives, seemed to settle down under the school system was not founded, at least practically, conviction that it might, after all, be best to give the upon the error that I have pointed out; and if the popu. system a fair trial!

lar sentiment does not, among the mass, even now "That system, as I have already remarked, has now strongly sustain it ? We need but to enter the common been in practical operation for about three years. Ils schools of the present day, taught upon the phinciples results hare thus far exceeded the most sanguine ex. of the old system, and listen to the routine of a single pectations of its friends. Its policy and wisdon is now day's exercise, to discover the truth of this position now no longer doubled. Some of its bilterest oppo. "So far, then, as the general order and arrangement nents have now become its warmest friends. The of the schools was concerned, and so far as action office of county superintendent has become a popular could speak, all strongly indicated that mind had little one; so ihat instead of going nbout and beyging for an or nothing to do with ibc various exercises, or that incurnbent, it has now more disinterested and humble thought, the element of mind, was deeply engaged in app icants, chan could well be supplied with places in investigating the hidden mysteries of science, or in ferthe State

reting out the purest rould !o knowledge. In short, a "The tone of public sentiment has also changed, in moment's observation would teach us, that, under that relation to the managerrent of their schools. ln 'the system, masters " kept schools:' rather than taught employment of teachers the question which almost them! But let us not speculate upon a subject, in universally was, " what is your price?" hus now given proof of an assumed position, that so richly a bounds place, in a very good degree, to the much more appro.

in facts; I propose raiher to enter the school room: to priate and judicous one, "whal are your qualifica

withdraw for a moment the curtain, and present a scene tions?"

with which my eyes have been but too familiar! The “ Parents now more frequently visit their schools. A teacher, or raiher the “inister," with all the dignity deeper interest is manifested in the moral, intellectual becoming one so blest with power and authority us and physical training of their children.

bimisels, has taken the chair of state,'' and beside him "School-houses are begioning to improve; school stands, for the first time in his life, the young noviapparatus to be introduced, and the whole system of tiale; the long black catalogue of " skeleton shaped, instruction to be changed. In short, we are in the blood less and ghostly apparitions," in the garb of midst of a great moral, intellectual and physical revo. twenty-six Roman letters, are presented to his astonlution. The tide in our e.lucational career has set, and ished vision; the master's knife is suon directed to the if we will but "takc it at its flow, will lead on to for lop of the column, and in rapid successiva passes from tune."

the first lelter down to the last, and perhaps back "But, I mainly propose to revi: ''the past condition of again; the child repeating after his monitor in a drawl. our common schools; to show from that review, what ing, unnatural, and often monotonous tone, A-ab, B-ah, are some of the prominent errors which were suffered C-ah, and so on to the end of the chapter. The child to grow up under the old system of supervision, and having been thus gravely introduced to the twenty-six which, it must be admitted, are still quite loo prevalent strangers, and made to repeat over their names, is has. among us; the effect which the propagation of these lily dismissed and sent to his seat!

How many of errors has had, and the consequent destructive influ. them, however, he is expected to form a speaking acences which they are still exerting upon community at quaintance with, at this first lesson, and from such an large; and finally, shall attempt briefly to point out a introduction, I have never yet learned. remedy for these evils.

“Now, it would seem to require but very little know. " That our common schools have not fully accom. ledge of human nature, or of children's nature at least, pished the great end of their institution, I believe is al. to teach us that a process so unnatural and so little at: most unirersally selt, and as universally adinitted. tractive as this, could not, in the nature of things, be But with regard io the causes which have hitherto pre very interesting to the restless, buoyant spirits of a vented the full attainment of our hopes in this respect, child, that it could hardly be regarded by bim as a there ever has been, and probably will continue to be satisfactory substitute for his oui.door amusements, a great diversity of opinion. Whilst the one class have because it is so entirely destitule of every feature in streo dously insisted that the whole (ult or blame was those exercises in which he is wont to engage, that conjustly attributable to the teacher; another class have siitute their principal attraction. Such an exercise as strongly urged the doctrine, that the fault was more mast, therefore, early pall upon his senses, and such in the general apathy and criminal indifference of the uniformly was the result. Children, under this

system people than in any thing else. A third class, however, of training, early acquired a babit of inattention; so

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