« PreviousContinue »
IN THREE PARTS.
SOLD BY JENKS & PALMER, AND BY BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY.
Part First, is a small book, designed for the use of From the Masters of the Public Shools of Boston, in the joung classes, from five to eight years of age.
Department of Arithmetić. PART Second, contains within itself, a complete sys: tem of Mental and written Arithmetic, united; and Third Pari,) has been in use in the Public Schools
Emerson's System of Arithmetic, (First, Second and this book, having been lately enlarged, is suficiently of Boston for several years, and it affords us pleasure exteasive for common schools. PART THIRD, for advanced scholars, comprises a brief ed by observing its effect in the business of instruction.
to say, that our opinion of its value has been confirm. review of the elementary principles, and a full devel. It is written in a perspicuous style, its i!lustrations are opment of the higher operations, with extensive como lucid, its arrangement is judicious, and the gradatiou mercial information.
of its' exercises is exact. This System of Arithmetic has been adopted by the Boston School Board, to take the place of Colburn's justly entitled to the high reputation it has acquired, First Lessons and Sequel--by the Providence Board, teachers, who have not had opportunity to become ac.
and we sincerely recommend it to the attention of to take the place of Smith's Arithmetic, and by the quainted with its merits. Philadelphia Board, to take the place of Pike's. The recommendations of the work are from gentlemen who
P. Macintosh, jr., Hancock School. do not lend their names to give countenance to indif.
James Robinson, Bowdoin School. ferent publications. They are such as the following:
Levi Conant, Eliot School.
Aaron D. Capen, Mayhew School, To Mr. Frederick Emerson.
Josiah Fairbank, Adams School. Sir,-I have received the First and Second Parts of John A. Harris, Hawes School.
Reuben Swan, jr., Wells School. your North American Arithmetic, and am highly pleased with the plan of the work, and the manner of its
Nathan Merrill, Franklin School. execution thus far. It unites simplicity with fulness,
Loring Lothrop, Endicott School. and will thus be sure to interest the beginner, while it
Charles Kimball, Boylston School. furnishes, at the same time, an ample guide to the
Joseph Hale, Johnson School. more advanced pupil. Respectfully and truly yours,
Samuel L Gould, Winthrop School.
Boston, Jan. 29, 1842.
Emerson's Arithmetic, Part Third, has for several Late Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philoso.
years been a text book in the Boston English High phy in Williamstown College.
School. I think that it is a highly useful book for those
scholars wbo have faithfully learned the Second Part, To the Publishers of Emerson's Arithmetic. Gentlemen, -I have examined the Third Part of Mr. which, in my opinion is an excellent work.
THOMAS SHERWIN, · Emerson's Arithmetic with great pleasure. The perspicuity of its arrangement, and the clearness and bre.
Principal of the Boston English High School. vity of its explanations, combined with its happy adap.
Having for several years, used Emerson's North tation to the purposes of practical business, are its American Arithmetic, and having had a fair opportuni. great recommendations. I hope it will soon be intro- !y to compare it with other works upon the same subduced into all our schools, and take the place of ill. ject, I cheerfully certify, that I consider it decidedly digested treatises, to which our instructors have hith. ibe best Arithmetic which has fallen under my notice. erto been compelled to resort. Respectfully,
I confidenily recommend it as a work of rare merit, BENJAMIN PIERCE.
and well deserving the extensive use and great popu.
larity which it has hitherto enjoyed, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy,
LUTHER ROBINSON, Harvard University.
Sub-Master of the Boston English High School.
ERASTUS H. PEASE, BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER,
ALBANY. Is constantly supplied with a large assortment of Particular attention given to supplying Public, Pri School Books. Merchants and Teachers supplied on vate and School Libraries. the most favorable term3.
N. B. The School books recommended by the Super. Globes in pairs, or sold seperately, to accommodate intendent of this County, always on hand, wholesale or purchasers, -81.50, $10, $12.50, $13 each. The larger retail. Also, the School Ledger, a Register of whatev. globes are furnished with a quadrant.
er is required by law to be recorded in District Schools. Agent for the sale of Mischell's Outline Maps for
Theological, Medical, Scientific, Classicaland StandSchools, Academies, &c., at the publisher's prices. ard Works. Bibles, Commentaries, &c. &c. These maps have been lately improved, and a new map The Sabbath School Bible and Traet Depository, emof Europe, of large size added, ihe whole secured in a
braces the whole range of this class of publications. strong case, without any increase in the price. The above maps have received the most gratifying
Orders supplied at the very lowest prices. testimonials wherever they have been introduced, and
Blank Account Books of all descriptions, and all are specially recommended by the Secretary of State / kinds of office and School Stationery. and Superintendent of Common Schools of the State of
Please nidress Erastus H. Pease, State-Street, AlNew York,
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL, ,
OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.
ALBANY, JULY, 1844.
ever, are not yet convinced that health is con. Albany, June 20, 1814.
nected with abstinence ; and as I was many DEAR SIR-I hare received yours of the 14th years an unbeliever, I dare not censure their ininst., in which you state, that ca fuw teachers credulity. in this county are in the practice of attending
I wish innocent amusements for the young balls, playing at cards and checkers and using could be multiplied, varied, and made so attracalcoholic drinks as a beverage ;' that you have tive as wholly to exclude games of chance or invariably condemned such practices, and as a
skill, because I think that such games frequently consequence are at issue with those teachers. I lead to gambling. Youth must and will have And you ask my opinion on this subject. amusements and hours of relaxation; and the
If, instead of playing at cards and checkers,” | character of these amusements often leaves a duyou had said they were in the practice of gam- rable impression. bling; and in lieu of " using alcoholic drinks as
The French peasantry frequently congregate, a beverage,” were in the practice of becoming and dance, and sing, and compliment each other, inebriated or disguised with liquor, I should and make themselves happy. The peasantry of have had no hesitation in advising you, that such some other nations moet to bait bulls, fight cocks individuals could not be regarded as possessing and dogs, run horses, drink gin and beer, indulge “a good moral character," and that it would be in gambling, drunkenness, wrestling, pugilism, your duty to admonish them, and if they did not &c. Who, in a foreign country and strange land, reform, io annul their licences. But, in the esti. would not much rather find himself in company mation of a great majority of the community, with a social Frenchman, than a surly Englishdancing is not condemned ; and the playing of iman or morose Spaniard? I wish there were "cards or checkers merely for amusement, and twenty sports for the young as innocent, as sowithout being connected with money or mingled cial, as healthful and exhilarating as dancing. with the black passion of avarice, is regarded It appears to me that when dancing is properly as harmless; and if we attempt to enforce a conducted, (and any thing may be perverted and higher grade of morality than is entertained by abused,) it is not only harmless, but healthful, the community in which we live, that communi. social and beneficial. It has been practiced in ty will always be too strong for us. The moral all ages, among all nations, savage and civilized, standard can be elevated only by reasoning and and has been tolerated if not encouraged by the persuasion, and is never benefited by the man. great majority of sects, denominations and creeds dates of law or the dogmas of authority. of Jews, Christians and Pagans, from the be
If the individuals to whom you allude are in ginning of the world to the present day. Singdanger of contracting habits of dissipation, or if ing is equally universal. It is applied to devoyou apprchend that their example will do injury, tional as well as to secular exercises ; and if our I should conceive it to be your duty to call upon minds were disencumbered of all the prepossesthem in a private and friendly manner, and in sions of youth, and the prejudices of education, the most delicate and least offensive way, ex. it would perhaps be difficult for us to prove that plain to them your apprehensions, point out the dancing might not with equal propriety be apdangers they incur, and appeal to their under. plied to both purposes. I am aware that my standings for the remedy. By treating each of opinion in respect to dancing, will not be deemed them as a brother and a friend, instead of in- orthodox by all. Should it not meet with your dulging in public rebuke, your chances of suc approbation you will please to reject it. cess will be a thousand fold multiplied.
Very respectfully, yours, &c. Having myself, when young, indulged in all the
S. YOUNG practices which you have enumerated, I cannot
F. B. SPRAGUE, Esq. find it in my heart to issue an official reprimand against these teachers. I should be met by that MINISTERS OF THE GOSPEL. troublesome text "let him who is without sin " INDIVIDUALS licensed to preach according to &c. In my youth I attended balls and danced, the rules and discipline of the Methodist Church, which I confess I have never seen cause to re-are, during the continuance of such license, to gret. I indulged also in using alcohol as a bev. be regarded for all ta xable purposes as Ministers erage, and escaped intemperance, whilst thou of the Gospel or Priests of the denomination to sands of others fell victims. I look back with which they belong. terror at my narrow escape; and am also con. Such individuals are ineligible to any school scious that my health would now be better and district or other civil office, under the clause of my constitution more vigorous, bad I totally ab- the Constitution prohibiting ministers of the gosstained from my earliest years. Others, how.' pel from holding such office.
APPRAISAL AND APPORTIONMENT OF A fourth tells us that it is e sort of sensibility
so delicate that it can be effected by a past sensa. On the formation of a new district from one
tion, (as a place once struck is susceptible to a or more existing districts, the library of the lat. slighter blow afterwards, but we are not told ter is to be appraised and apportioned in the how or by what the repeated blow is given.) same manner as other property of the district.
A fifth has called memory that faculty which The avails, however, instead of being applied in experiences anew what has been already per. reduction of any tax thereafter to be imposed for ceived, with the consciousness that it has been building a school-house in the new district, are
previously perceived, (but this is a statement of to be applied by the trustees to the purchase of facts and no explanation of them.) books for a district library.
A sixth describes memory to be a power of The unexpended and unappropriated public the mind to revive or recall former impressions. money belonging to the districts from parts of
A seventh insists that memory is not a faculty which such new district is formed, is to be equi. itself, but
an attribute of every other faculty, &c. tably apportioned by the Town Superintendent rious faculty have been so various, not so have
But although the descriptions of this myste. among the several districts interested, in propor- been the systems of instruction based upon them, tion to the number of children between the ages for these have been very uniform, and, I fear, of five and sixteen in each.
uniformly erroneous. All the theories of me.
mory but the last I mentioned, agree that it is a A LECTURE
single power of the entire mind, and that it only Delivered at Rochester, before the Convention of requires an act of the will for the mind to per.
form one act of memory as well as another. In County Superintendents of Common Schools: other words, the common notion seems to be that
every mental storehouse is fitted up for the same By WILLIAM B. FOWLE, of Boston, Mass.
kind of goods, and it is the duty of the teacher Published in accordance with a vote of the Convention. often carried on until school days are over, when
to fill all alike; and this attempt at filling is
the mind, no longer controlled, for the first time GENTLEMEN—The subject on which I propose discovers its own fitness and capacity, and begins to offer a few plain remarks for your considera- to accumulate treasures entirely different from tion, is Memory—Memory, that wonderful fa. those which had been forced down, notwithculty of the mind which alone perpetuates the standing the disgust and nausea that always ac. product of all the others, which resuscitates the companied the operation. past, and enables us to lay up for sulure use the We do not know what the mind is, and we knowledge we may acquire by study or experi. can hardly expect to understand all its faculties.
But, as in the case of electricity and the subtler What, then, is Memory? The aged will per. Muids, if we cannot ascertain the nature of me. haps tell us that it is a gloomy treasure house of mory, we may ascertain some of its laws; and regrets ; the young, that it has no existence ; by this method we may approach nearer and the fortunate, that it is a paradise to which his nearer to that seat of the mind, which is surconstantly receding footsteps would fain return, rounded with clouds almost as impenetrable as but from which he is constantly driven by the those tremendous shades which involve the eterfiaming sword of his onward destiny, -while, to nal throne ; and though mortals may not hope to the disappointed, memory is a barren waste, be admitted to the secret place where light acwithout onc verdant spot, a cheerless desert, tually dwelleth, we may, we must ascertain where the monuments that rise over buried something more of its nature and of its laws, or hopes, never cease to cast their deep shadows the very light that is in us will continue to be upon the present scene. In this sense, memory darkness. is
very much what our propensities and habits, I have said, that various as are the theories our virtues and vices, may make it ; but thé of memory, the use that is made of it in educa. memory with which teachers have to do is less ' tion is altogether too uniform. So prevalent is poetical, a matter of fact affair, and as such only the error on this subject, that when men speak would it become me to speak of it.
of memory, it rarely happens that any other ope. As all discipline of the mind depends upon a ration of the mind is meant than that which we proper education of this wonderful faculty, it is exercise in common with parrots, I mean the re. important surely that we should endeavor to as: 'collection of words. You who have been teach. certain what it is, and we naturally go to the ets know, that when parents brought their little metaphysicians and put the question to them ;'1 dntledged angels to you, and wished to make you but the definitions of these philosophers are as sensible of their prodigious talents, the burden various as they are unsatisfactory. Whilst all of praise almost uniformly was that they could acknowledge that memory is a faculty of the commit ever so many pages at a lesson. Com. mind, all have been puzzled to tell how it is con- mit!-yes, and commit suicide at the same time. nected with the mind, and how it operates. It is this notion, this mistaking of the mere
One maintains that it is only a continued but memory of words for the whole of memory, that weakened perception, (that is, a feeling not re. I consider the unpardonable sin of teachers and peated, but forever felt.)
bookmakers at the present day. I hope my re. Another says it is only what remains after a marks will not be considered as those of one who, sensation, (like the vibration of a string that is having laid aside the harness, has no better use never to be struck again.)
for his leisure than to make observations upon A third declares it to be a sensation or an idea those whom he has left in the traces, but rather renewed, (but he could not tell us what renews as the remarks of one who, for twenty years at it.)
Icasc, has practised what he now preaches, and
who has reason to believe that thousands of his guages, and all the branches usually tormented late fellow-laborers would be glad to adopt the in our higher schools ; but I have said enough to system he recommends, if those who superintend illustrate my remark that common school educatheir schools would second their endeavors, and tion is generally conducted as if there were no mesupply the means of communicating ideas in mory but that of words, and as if this were all stead of words.
that is essential to the proper development of Let us consider for a moment the position I ideas, and the full exercise of every intellectual have assured, that the memory of words is gene faculty. rally considered the whole of memory: What Leaving the school for a moment, let us look is the first employment of the mind in the nurse abroad into the world, and see how facts corrobory? Learning to say things by heart, that is to rate this opinion. If you select lali a dozen say them heartlessly. When I was at a daine's persons of good intelligence, it is probable that school, I learned the Assembly's Catechism, the the memory of each will be different froin the compend of' it that was then printed in the N. E. others. You will, perhaps, hear the first deplorPrimer, so thoroughly that I could repeat it back ing his wretcher memory, which cannot recol. wards as well as forwards, and understood it lect his children's names, and in the next breath one way just as well as the other. When the he will hun a tune that he beord but once half dame had visitors, I was often brought forward a century before. Another says he cannot reto perform this feat, erab-fashion, to the great member the name of a person, but if he has amazement of the visitors, the glorification of seen a man once, he never forgets him, and yet the venerable dame, and to my own great edifi. he complains of a treacherous inemory! A third cation in Christian knowleige and humility! (had no memory at schcol, and could never learn God forgive her, if she erred in teaching me the his lessons ; but he can never forget the brutality first step in that narrow way, whose gate she of the master who regularly flogged him for pot opened with love is not with judgment!
doing what he would gladly have done if he Then the child reads books without having could. He “ncver can forget," and yet he has them explained, and generally without any exa. no memory. A fourth, perhaps, has travelled mination by the teacher, for who, until perhaps much, and can describe most particularly every very lately, ever heard of examining a child in route or every object he has seen, but as he somehis reading lesson, except perhaps to correct the times forgets an appointment or a message, he pronunciation of a word, or to settle the power laments that he hus no memory: A filh can of a dash or comma, although the reading lesson never quote a line of poetry, and concludes she may be the best medium for conveying useful has no memory, although the chronicles of scan. knowledge to the mind, the best opportunity for idal are engraved on her memory of adamant, teaching the definition of words, the precious oc- and she is not unlike one of our western mounds, casion for inculcating a healthful taste for sub- the capacious receptaci of worthy characters stantial food!
that have been slain, and from which the curious Then, at an early age, English Grammar must may at any time extract the sad memorials of be studied, committed, I mean, for the words are human frailty. A sixth, in fine, who cannot reby no means synonymous. The words of some collect the text at church, or a single sentiment manual must be said or sung for a given number of the discourse, will tell you how long her of years, until the child arrives at that ne plus poorer neighbor has worn the same bonnet, and ultra of philology, “a substantive or noun is how every person in church was dressed'; or, the name of any thing that exists or of which perhaps she recollects every christening for more we have any notion, as man, virtue, London ;" | than half a century, to the great annoyance of and then, if the child is at a loss to know exactly juvenile advanced-spinsters, and young old-bachwhat sort of notion“ man, virtue, London” is, be elors. will not fail to learn what it is “ to be, to do and If this be a true picture of life, it follows that to suffer.”
every person has a memory for something, and Geography, of course, cannot long stay un that something is usually what occupies the committed. A book is placed in the child's strongest faculty of the mind, and, of course, hands, containing on an average, about 350 pa. affords the greatest pleasure. A musician will ges. The committing of this to memory is gene. be more likely to remember tunes than sermons, rally the work of years, and by the time the task a mechanic will remember the form and operais done the world has so changed, that more than tion of machines, better than any written dehalf the book contains is incorrect, and the only scription of them. The painter will recollect the consolation the poor victim has is the considera color of a dress, and the dress-maker the fashion tion that, if what has been learned is not true, it or cut of it. An angry person will remember an will do no harm, for it has been forgotten as fast affront, and a benevolent person will never for. as it was learned.
get a kindness. Shall a man who remembers Next, the child must study history--study his words most easily, say to any of these, you have tory! That is, he must commit page after page no memory? or shall he take airs because he can to memory, or only such paragraphs as have been remember words, when they are so stupid that adjudged a sufficient answer to a stereotyped ques. they can remember only things ? tion. The meaning of the language is not eli. One thing is certain, the memory of words is cited by any impertinent inquiries, the Geogra- no criterion of intellectual power. Some of the phy of the country at different epochs is not al. greatest talkers have been the shallowest logilowed to interrupt the thread of the narrative, cians, and some of the greatest linguists have and the practical and moral conclusions are left, been the greatest simpletons. In fact, the me. as the grammarians say, understood.
mory of one class of facts is no pledge for the I could add to this summary, astronomy, bota. memory of any other, and few persons have ny, the various branches of natural history and ever been distinguished in every department of natural philosophy, the modern and ancient lan. memory. But we are told that this committing
to memory strengthens the mind and leads to a gard. Now, I conceive the greatest, the highest habit of application. So it does. It does effort of teaching to consist in so clothing useful strengthen this particular faculty, it does lead to subjects with interest, that those who may not a habit of application, but only to words, con- love them are still induced to attend to them. sidered as words, and not as embodying ideas. This exercises the weaker faculties, and in. Let me not be misunderstood. I am not con. creases their ability. As the hand or foot actending that a great verbal memory, and great quires strength and skill by judicious exercise, general scholarship, great practical knowledge, so does every faculty of the mind ; and as the are incompatible, but only that one branch of muscles lose their power and skill by inaction, memory, like the high priest's rod, has swal. so does every organ of the brain. If a child is lowed up other branches as large as itself, and malicious and quarrelsome, vindictive and pasis likely to die of repletion.
sionate, you have only to give him cause and opRemarkable verbal memories are almost the portunity for the display of his malevolence, to only ones that have been recorded, and yet every increase its power. But place this child where one can recollect remarkable memories of other his passions will not be excited, treat him with faculties. I spent much time with Zerah Col. unvaried kindness, cultivate his reason and his burn before he went to Europe. He was then moral sentiments, encourage him to acts of be. about five years old, and could neither read nor nevolence, and set him an example, and in time write. His manners were so rude that he knew his lower propensities will become less active not the use of a knife and fork, and when placed and less powerful, if not entirely subdued. I do at table he stabbed a large sausage, and holding not pretend that all evil dispositions can be made it impaled on his fork, he placed both elbows on good ones, nor that all memories can be made the table, and nibbled alternately at the ends equal, for I know that there are original and until the sausage disappeared. And yet this un. irreconcilable differences; but I also know that tutored child performed calculations which in the worst disposition and the weakest memory volved so many figures, that I could not have may be greatly improved. repeated them from memory after a week's ap. After the view which I have taken of memo. plication, but he made the calculation, and gave ry, it may reasonably be expected that I should the answer in a few seconds. When he was ex- endeavor to show how education should be con. hibited in London, he was allowed to overwork ducted if the view be correct, and it be importhis faculty, and it was destroyed, as the verbal tant to improve the whole mind, and not a twenmemory usually is, by the excessive exercise ticth part of it. May I be excused, then, if in of it.
doing this I speak in the first person, for it is in Some have contended that memory is a facul. this person that I have taught for twenty years, ty of the intellect only, and they have denied and ought I not to add, that when I describe it to the propensities, and of course to the irra- what may be done, I only describe what has actional creation. But who does not know that tually been done. the lower animals often have remarkable memo. As it is certain, then, that the intellect of a ries? Horses, dogs and some other animals child under five or six years of age is immature, travel without guide-boards. Some animals I should pay less attention to that than to the speak, but this is only as many children recite senses, on whose power and correct perceptions lessons, by the memory of words without ideas. so much of the future intellectual progress de. I knew an aged crow who had been taught to pends. Most children are very observant of the say, when any curious person stopped to look at ten thousand objects of nature and art that sur. him, “What do you want, boy?” but he said round them, but they are generally left” to find this to old as well as young; to girls as well as out by their learning," that is, to find out without boys. We have even an authentic record of the instruction, the qualities and peculiarities of loss of this verbal memory by a bird. It is re. what they see. The senses are allowed to take lated of a parrot, who had become celebrated care of themselves, as if they could not go for his loquacity, that he was once accompany wrong, could not acquire bad habits, and must ing his master, Prince Maurice, in a vessel of come out right at last. It would lead me too far war, when they were attacked by the enemy, if I should follow out.this idea, but I have alluDuring a tremendous engagement, the poor bird ded to it that your own minds may do so. This shrunk away and hid himself, almost frightened early cultivation of the senses is a delightful to death. After the battle, he was found, and exercise to children ; and clothing, as it does, all drawn out of his hiding place, but he never the objects around them with interest, instead spoke a word afterwards, and his only answer of promoting sensuality, the surest basis is laid to the various questions put to him was, boong! for intellectual and moral progress. Conversa.
How common is it to hear a teacher complain tion, then, with children, about common things, that his pupil will not attend, has not the faculty their form, size, color, number, order, feel, of attention. But children are never destitute smell, taste, sound, &c., next after the fear of of attention. The reason they do not attend to God, is the true beginning of wisdom. the lesson in hand is, that they are attending to I should allow the little ones as much liberty something else. Attention, like memory, is an as is consistent with tolerable order. I should attribute of every faculty, and it is only where give them little or nothing to commit to memory, there is no desire that there is no attention. A and make their exercises light, and vary them stupid boy may forget his lesson, but he will not often. I should not be distressed if they did not forget his dinner, and the same operation that know their letters in six months or six years, for puts one man into an extacy, puts his neighbor they can be taught ten thousand things more im. to sleep. Children, at school, usually prefer portant; kindness, obedience, reverence, truth one study to another ; what they like they at, and justice will do them far more good than the tend to, and what they do not like, and this is alphabet. If I see any evil propensity display. what they have little capacity for, they disre. ling itself, if I cannot demonstrate the impropri