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to compete with Livingston in this interesting subject of much inquiry, and of some debate. department of education.

But wh!le some of the county superintendents Mr. Brown of Monroe, produced works of si. await its organization, more in doubt than in milar, if not equal merit, and the county super-hope, all exhibited the deepest interest in its perintendent of Albany offered satisfactory evi- prosperity; and the resolution introduced by dence that that county would not prove a laggard Mr. Randall, as chairman of the committee on in this generous struggle for excellence.

this subject, received a cordial and unanimous Mr. Dwight also exhibited some beautiful response from the convention. drawings and maps from public sehools No. 12

CHAPTER 311. and No. 4 in the city of New York, by pupils of 14 and 15 years of age.

AN ACT FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF Nor.

MAL SCHOOL.
THE CHALLENGE OF THE Cities.

Passed May 7, 1844. Challenges were given and accepted by Mr. sented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as fol

The People of the State of New York, repreMack, city superintendent of Rochester, Mr. lous : Hawley, city superintendent of Buffalo, Mr. Tho.

$1. The Treasurer shall pay on the warrant mas, of Rensselaer, in behalf of Troy, and Mr. of the Comptroller, to the order of the Superin. Dwight, of Albany in behalf of the schools of that tendent of Common Schools, from that portion

of the avails of the literature fund appropriated city, that for improvement in writing and attend. by chapter two hundred and forty.one of the ance the schools of these several cities would laws of one thousand eight hundred and thirty. present their comparative claims for rank, at the four, to the support of academical departments

for the instruction of teachers of common next convention." Will not New-York, Brook- schools, the sum of nine thousand six hundred lyn, Utica, l'udson and Schenectady send on their dollars ; which sum shall be expended under the statistics on these subjects, in relation to the pro- direction of the Superintendent of Common gress of improvement in remedying this greatest Schools, and the Regents of the University, in evil of the school, irregularity of attendance.

the establishment and support of a Normal

School for the instruction and practice of teach. In order to judge of merit and improvement in ers of common schools in the science of educa. writing, each teacher is expected to prepare a tion and in the art of teaching, to be located in copy book of as many pages as there are writers

the county of Albany. in his school, and to require each pupil to write arter the present year, be annually paid by the

§ 2. The sum of ten thousand dollars shall, two lines and sign his name and the date; and at Treasurer on the warrant of the Comptroller, the close of every three months to write two more

to the Superintendent of Common Schools, from lines, and sign name and date. In this manner tenance and support of the school so established,

the revenue of the literature fund, for the mainthe progress of each writer will appear. for five years, and until otherwise directed by

law. NORMAL SCHOOL.

$ 3. The said school shall be under the superWe forbear making at this time any remarks perintendent of Common Schools and the Re.

vision, management and government of the Su. upon the proper organization of this great insti. gents of the University. The said Superinten. tation. It is in the hands of the Regents of the dent and Regents shall from time to time make University, whose characters are a guarantee ber and compensation of teachers and others to

all needful rules and regulations, to fix the num. of fidelity and ability in the discharge of their be employed therein, to prescribe the prelimi. high trnst; and the friends of education a wait nary examination and the terms and conditions their action with deep interest, conscious that therein, the number of pupils from the respec.

on which pupils shall be received and instructed upon the results of their labors mainly depends tive cities and counties, conforming as nearly as the success or failure of this munificent endow. may be to the ratio of population, to fix the lo.

Nor is this feeling manifested in our cation of the said school, and the terms and condı. own state alone, the letter of Horace Mann, for shall be renied, if the same shall not be pro

tions on which the grounds and buildings there. published in this journal, and the communica vided by the corporation of the city of Albany, tions that have reached us from Connecticut, and to provide in all things for the good govern. Ohio and New Hampshire, show that in other ment and management of the said school. They

shall appoint a board, consisting of' five persons, and far-distant sections of the Union, the pro. l of whom the said Superiniendent shall be one, gress of this institution is watched with the who shall constitute an executive committee, deepest interest.

for the core, management and government of

the said school, under the rules and regulations At the convention at Rochester, it was the preseribed as aforesaid, whose duty it shall be

Mr. Stevens was understood to present the game of from time to time to make full and de!ailed re. . Wyoming, offering to show similar or go ater improve. ports to the said Sup endent and Regents ; ment ia thut whole couuty, than any city could exhibit land among other things to recommend the rules

ment.

and regulations which they deem necessary and in habit. The teacher will have occasion to proper for the said school.

repeat the precept, and it will not be strange if $ 4. The Superintendent and Regents shall the face of some urchin furnish apparatus for a annually transmit to the Legislature a full ac. practical illustration. count of their proceedings and expenditures of Benevolence is a moral quality that should be money under this act, together with a detailed carefully cultivated ; and with its simple mean. report by said executlve committee, of the pro ing before them-wishing good-opportunities gress, condition and prospects of the school. will occur frequently in the school room favora

ble for the exercise of this virtue, and when the MORAL CULTURE.

young mind may be led not only to desire the (Extract from a report made to the Troy Association of happiness of those around them, but to yield to Teachers, by X. Heywood, chairman of the com.

some personal inconvenience for the sake of mittee.)

promoting it, and when they have once“ learned

the luxury of doing good” they will have a dou. We have seldom read a report with higher ble motive prompting to the exercise. gratification, and we regret that we cannot draw Honesty is a sterling moral quality; and more freely from its truthful and earnest argu- better advantnge than in the school room, faith

there is no place where it may be promoted to ments in behalf of thorough moral culture in fulness in little things is the gerin of this virtue the school room. The teachers of the district in its practical sense, and however trifling the schools of Troy, have long since distinguished matter of appeal, it will not be beneath the tea: themselves by their devotion to duty; among tributive justice for the pillered pencil may pre

cher's attention where honesty is concerned ; re• their number are some of our best educators, vent the heart breakings and the disgrace conand while we accord to them the merit of nected with a prison life. Politeness ioo, which fidelity and ability in their sacred offices we

is in reality the out-goings of a benevolent

heart in the common intercourse and little civili. frankly warn them that New York, Hudson, ties of life, with patience and perseverance and Rochester, Buffalo an Utica, claim to have industry and the whole train of moral virtues, made as great improvement as Troy, during the may, in this nursery of immortal plants, under

the fostering care of the faithful teacher, be last few years, and that their neighbor, Albany, made to bud and blossom for a harvest of rich is determined to hold no second place among fruits in future life. the cities of the state, in the great and

Toiling in this interesting garden he will also generous struggle for pre-eminence in tho. cious weeds spring up spontaneously in the soil

find much to prune and much to eradicate, perni. rough and general education. We hope that of the human heart, twining dissimulation, other associations will favor us with communi. gnarled obstinacy, and indolence gathering cations; we should be gratified if the teachers blight and mildew, will continually trouble him.

Bat amidst all his discouragements, he will be scattered through the state, would regularly fill sustained, if faithful, by a sense of ihe impor. a part of this journal with the results of their tance of his work, the witness of a good conexperience.

science, and the cordial co-operation of the wise

and good around him. As a teacher we must now proceed to the va. Exemplifying the moral virtues through all rious intellectual pursuits of our interesting the varieties of his daily duties, and seasoning charge. But important as the intellectual at. the intellectual instruction with the salt of motainment is, it must be held in constant subser. ral precept, the moral teaching though it have viency to the moral training. Not a gem so taken bui little time, and though it will not pu. sparkling in the gift of science that would not rify the fountain of a corrupt heart, must exert be too costly an attainment for an immortal mind an influence to some extent permanent and salif its possession marred a single moral virtue. utary. And at the closing hour, if that interA school is a community in miniature, where esting part of an education (vocal music) has are constantly in exercise the principles and not been neglected, a closing song will better feelings that regulate our conduct in society prepare the elastic bow so long bent, to go off and the varied intercourse of social life. when the signal is given in a right dircction.

The virtues and vices which exist in the mind And the pupil who is now like the lark" up and heart of the individual are of course and away with a hymn in his heart," though in bronght into the school room, and are more or his sports he will find little use for his arithme. less called into exercise every hour of the day. tic or grammar, yet will his moral lessons be Over these the teacher must exercise a constant, applicable in the scenes of every hour. And supervision. It will be obvious indeed that in they will have an influence too,

It is not easy order successfully to reprove vice, or to exbibit to throw aside a command that comes with the the loveliness of virtue, his own garments must sanction of the high and lofty One that inhabi. be unspotted-he must avoid the very appear teth eternity; and when urged, as he will be, to ance of evil,--and the teacher who is unwilling join in some transgression, he will hear a voice to give up any habit which he cannot recommend saying : " My son, is sinners entice thee to sin for the adoption of his pupil under similar cir. consent thou not." If tempted to begr his part cumstances, or who will cling to a principle with the profane ones, the command will stand that he cannot cordially recommend to others, in his way—" Thou shall not take the name of has need himself yet to be a learner.

the Lord thy God in vain." Cleanliness is a moral virtue, but it is not in: Nor will these precepts cease to exert an in. nate ; nor is its origin so much in prir as Auence as he goes forth into the world. Tbey

NO. 1.

may slumber in the mind years, and then many purified, the most liberal endowments, the best in the hour of deep distress, may come up in outward arrangements, will avail nothing. Let the memory to enlighten and to bless. One up. us then endeavor skilfully to fill up and perfect on whose sullen and distracted mind the truth the noble outline that has been provided, recolbroke in, like light upon thick darkness, gives lecting that as yet we have only made a vegininteresting testimony on this point.

ning—that we cannot stand still—that not to adIn confirmation word on word

vance is to retrograde-and, above all, let us be Rose sweetly too from memory's store,

exceedingly careful to take no steps likely to en. Truths which in other days I heard, But never knew their worth before;

danger a reaction in the public mind. Lodg'd by a pious mother's care

If these views be correct, surely time cannot be In the young folds of thought and sense, more profitably spent than in thoroughly sifting Like fire in hint, they slumber'd there,

this most important subject-in endeavoring to Till anguish struck them bright from thence. The beacon lighis of holy writ,

point out the present deficiencies and defects of the They one by one upon me stole,

schools, and in inquiring how the one shall be Through winds and waves my pathway lit,

supplied and the other removed. Will you, Mr. And chas'd the darkness from my soul.

Editor, accept of my humbe mite in aid of this

great cause? Can you spare me a corner of your COMMUNICATIONS.

useful paper for a series of articles, in which I

shall endeavor, with a firm though gentle hand, DEFECTS OF THE SCHOOLS.

to probe to the bottom the errors that exist in

the schools, and do my best to suggest their apWe hope the patience of our correspondent has propriate remedies? I propose to arrange my not been exhausted. The communications from subject in the usual manner, under the heads of

physical, intellectual and moral education. But the Department—the publication of the Laws I shall deviate from the customary order, by and their exposition-have hitherto excluded commencing with moral education. My reason this communication. If we are favored with a for this course is, that I conceive it to be the

point on which the schools are most defective. second article on the subject proposed, it shall in fact it has become a serious doubt with many not so long claim admission in vain.

of our most intelligent thinkers, whether we are not pushing purely intellectual education rather

too far; whether it is cither prudent or safe to It is truly exhilarating to see so many intel. devole the whole attention to the improvement ligent minds, at the present day, earnestly di. of the understanding, while the moral senti. rected to the advancement and improvement of ments-which were meant to be supreme-which education. And still more cheering is it to ob. were given by the Creator for the regulation of serve, that not a few merely, but the great mass the intellectual powers-are left wholly undeve. of the people, are fast becoming aware of the loped. importance, indeed I may say necessity, of a I trust, sir, that none of your readers will ima. sound and thorough education for the whole gine, from what has been said, that I am about community. In proof of this, it is only necessa. to run foul of the vexed question which has ry to refer to the laws of the State on the sub. caused so much excitement in the city of New. ject: for, in a free government like ours, the le. York. No, sir. If we wish to have good schools, gislature generally follows, seldom leads, public we must keep them free from even the slightesi opinion.

approach to sectarianism, taken in its most ex. Amid so much cause for rejoicing, however, tended sense. Religious doctrines must find no we must be careful not to relax our vigilance entrance there, because they cannot be touched for a moment: for we ought not to shut our without offence to some religious denomination, eyes to the fact, that our liberal system of pub. No, sir. The sort of culture which I advocate lic instruction, has still many powerful, influen. has no relation to this exciting question. It retial enemies. There are still too many who are ters to subjects on which all mankind are agreed. so blind to their own best interests, as to grudge It furnishes a common ground on which sects the every dollar expended by the public in this most most contlicting can harmonize. For where is profitable of all investments. And, to say the the parent who does not desire his child to be truth, our whole system, more especially the trained to truth and virtue? Who is it that would practical part, is still in an uncertain, unsettled object to the exercise of the conscience of youth state. Even the most enlightened among us are on simple questions of right and wrong? Who far from correctness in our views. The whole would be offended by the inculcation of obedi. matter is still but an experiment. There is no enee and honor to parents, of affection to broprecedent that we can safely follow, no model thers and sisters, of kindness and generosity to that we can profitably copy. If we advance, playmates, of piety, reverence, and gratitude to and we

are bound to do so, we shall fre God? No one, surely; unless these topics were quently commit blunders, we shall often have blended (as they never ought to be in the public to retrace our steps. And every mistake we school) with others with which they have no necommit will be greedily laid hold of by the ene- cessary connexion. No, sir. However low the mies of universal freedom and intelligence, as an parent may have sunk in vice, gladly would he argument against the whole system. Let us not see his child free from its vile thraldom. Let us be disheartened, however. These circumstan. then, carefully exclude every invidious reflection ces should only tend to increase our watchfulness on any religious persuasion whatever, both from and care, to lead more and more to the thorough our oral-instruction and our reading school books, investigation. We have done well. Our tegis. and let those and those only be used wliose molatures have made noble arrangements. But, rality is founded on proper motives, and which unless our system of teaching is reformed and are otherwise wholly unexceptionable. Let the

teaching of religious tenets be left altogether to Well, said I, “Should not you like to learn to parental instruction, to the Sunday schools and make pictures with a pencil?” “0, I should to the pulpit. And let the moral teaching of the like that very much," answered three or four public school be wholly confined to the awaken at the same time. Can we learn?" earnestly ing and enkindling of the moral nature; to the inquired another. After a little explanation, i development of the sense of right and wrong; told them that the drawings and pictures in their to leading the child in the paths of virtue; to geographies and picture books were first drawn rectifying the false notion that happiness depends on plates or types by men, and then transferred on external circumstances, and convincing him to the paper. "I guess we can learn, then," that it rests almost exclusively on faithfulness to said another, in his ecstacy; for the song says, duty, on virtue, purity and love.

" What other folks have done, why with patience I have said enough, I believe, to show (the may not you.” course I mean to pursue on the subject of moral

On taking up a geography, a token card fell training. When I come to speak of physical from it, on which was a small plain tree. I de. education, I shall point out the common mistake termined instantly to make this my first lesson ; in the construction and management of school and you would have been astonished to have seen houses, particularly as to light, heat, and venti. the proficiency made by these little adventurers. lation. I shall treat, also, of injurious postures, After this, they were permitted to choose their improper confinement, and defective discipline. own pieces to copy, in order to remove from the With respect to intellectual education, it will be exercise every feature of a task. Except when my aim to show that we dissipate our strength too hard pieces were chosen, when the more on acts of trilling importance, while essentials difficult parts were explained and they were are utterly neglected; and that, by mismanage. readily abandoned. I would sometimes say that ment in the rery first steps, our children acquire I thought some piece named was a good one, al. habits beyond our power to remove, habits ways recommending at first pieces marked by which in a great degree nullify all our future ef boldness of outline and simplicity, pointing out forts, and almost place a veto on self-culture.

the particular beauties of each performance, and I shall patiently wait your decision, Mr. Edi- keeping improvement constantly in view. itor, on the suitableness of this plan for your periodical. If it is approved of, I may probably

These lessons usually occupied from fifteen to furnish a short paper monthly. I have only to thirty minutes each balf day, at the expiration add, that it shall be my aim to make these arti- of which, on being asked if they were not nearcles as definite, as perspicuous, and as practical ly rested, they again took to their books with a

cheerfulness and zest which would do any one's as I can. Meanwhile, I am yours respectfully, P.

soul good. Yet a time should be allotted to this

exercise, as every successful teacher will have for DRAWING IN SCHOOLS.

every thing, and be attended to in its time.

The class, after a little practice, will be able We have to-day received from Public School to master more difficult pieces, and should, as No. 12, New-York, some admirable specimens of soon as practicable, be directed to sketch and de. bold, life-like drawing, which we shall take lineate from nature. How the eye of a little

girl will light up with the eloquent glow of real pleasure in exhibiting to all who may be interest. pleasure and satisfaction, as she presents you ed in this fascinating and useful study.

with the likeness of a favorite shrub, or rose, or Could we send them out with this interesting pink, of her own workmanship. I would say communication, there would be little farther need to the impatient and fretful teacher, that one such

scene is enough to pay you for a thousand little of argument to recommend drawing to the teach- troubles. Try it, my brother or sister teacher, ers of our district schools.

and if you never felt a sympathizing emotion in

the happiness of another, you will then have DEAR SIR-Having frequently seen drawing the portal of one of the ingredients of your betrecommended as an amusement for small scho- | ter nature opened to your real enjoyment. This lars during recesses from study, I determined to exercise, if resorted to as an amusement, should make the experiment, and am now prepared never be mentioned as a task ; but let diversion from experience to vouch for its utility, if judi. be the theme, and in a great majority of instances, ciously conducted. Not being an adept in it if not always, it will be embraced with plea. myself, I labored under the same embarrassment sure. To prevent it from appearing like a task, that many of my fellow-teachers would be oblig. I never urge it upon any, which I think will not ed to, were they to adopt the plan ; yet I found it very often be necessary; for who does not dean obstacle not sufficient to prevent its successful light to imitate the great Creator, in imitating adoption, much less an excuse for not making an his handiwork, especially a child, before its effort. Having the charge of a select school, mind becomes vitiated. The utility of the prac(which I am happy to say is soon to give place tice has been ably developed by your more expe. to a district school,) I determined, as I said be. rienced and talented correspondents; therefore I fore, to make the trial. Accordingly, one day, need not descant largely upon that. No intelli. after a class of little girls and boys from eight to gent parent can object to it since it occupies time thirteen years old had been engaged some time that is in many instances consumed in play, serv. in study, and began to show symptoms of weari. ing only to confuse the school and perplex the ness, accompanied of course by mischief, I teacher. It will also place the children of all called their attention, and asked them if they classes in possession of an accomplishment atwould not like to understand drawing. One lit. tained heretofore by the children of the more tle girl said, after a moment's hesitation, " I don't able, at an extra charge in some higher institu. know what you mean."

tion, or at a private school: hence will strike a

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deadly blow at one of the aristocratic notions of They then counted up to a hundred on the blocks. the age. Common unruled writing paper will Towards the close of the lesson, such questions do very well to commence upon, where proper as these were put, and readily answered: Of drawing paper is not readily obtained. Each scho. what is thirty-eight composed ? A. Thirty. lar should be provided with a soft and hard wood. eight is composed of thirty and eight ones ; of covered pencil, which may be got at a trifling seven fives and three ones ;--or sometimes expense by the parent, or should be furnished thus ;-of thirty-seven and one ; of thirty-six by the liberally endowed teacher, gratis. and two ones; of thirty-five and three ones, &c. Services Yours truly,

Q. Of what is ninety composed ? A. Ninety is A Town SUP. AND TEACHER. composed of nine tens,--of filly and forty, &c., Westchester, Oct. 16, 1843.

&c.

Thus, with a frequent reference to the blocks

to keep up attention by presenting an object to EUROPEAN EDUCATION.

the eye, the simple numbers were handled and (Extract from the last report of Hon. Horace Mann.) | lesson, it is obvious that counting, numeration,

transposed in a great variety of ways. In this

addition, subtraction, multiplication and division ARITHMETIC AND MATHEMATICS.

were all included, yet there was no abstract CHILDREN are taught to cipher, or, if need be, rule, or unintelligible form of words given out to count, soon after entering school. I will at. to be committed to memory. Ney, these little tempt to describe a lesson which I saw given to children took the first steps in the mensuration a very young class.

Blocks of one cube, two of superficies and solids, by comparing the length, cubes, three cubes, &c., up to a block of ten and contents of one block with those of others. cubes, lay upon the teacher's desk. The cubes

When the pupils were a little further ad. on each block were distinctly marked off, and vanced, I usually heard lessons recited in this. differently colored,—that is, if the first inch or way: Suppose 4,321 are to be multiplied by cube was white, the next would be black. The 25*. The pupil says, five times one are five teacher stood by his desk, and in front of the five ones, and he sets down 5 in the units place; class. He set up a block of one cube, and the five times two tens-or twenty ones,--are a class simultaneously said one, A block of two hundred, and sets down a cipher in the ten's cubes was then placed by the side of the first, place ; five times three hundred are one thou. and the class said two. This was done until the sand and five hundred, and one hundred to be ten blocks stood by the side of each other in a carried make one thousand six hundred, and sets. row, They were then counted backwards, the down a 6 in the hundred's place ; five times four teacher placing his finger upon them, as a signal thousand are twenty thousand, and one thousand that their respective numbers were to be called to be carried make twenty-one thousand. The The next exercise was, two comes after one, next figure in the multiplier is then taken, three comes after two," and so on to ten; and twenty times one are twenty, and a 2 is set then backwards," nine comes before ten, eight down in the ten's place; twenty times two tens comes before nine, and so of the rest. The are four hundred, and a 4 is set down in the teacher then asked, "What is three composed hundred's place ; twenty times three hundred of ?" A. "Three is composed of one and two,' are six thousand, and a 6 is set down in the Q of what else is three composed ?'. 1. thousand's place; twenty times four thousand

Three is composed of three ones. Q. What are eighty thousand, and an 8 is set down in the is four composed of?' A. "Four is composed ten thousand's place. Then come the additions of four ones, of two and wo, of three and to get the product. Five ones are five, iwo tens one.' Q. What is five composed of?'

. A. are twenty, and these figures are respectively Five is composed of five ones, of two and three, set down; four hundred and six hundred make of two twos and one, of lour and one.! Q: a thousand, and a cipher is set down in the hun. "What numbers compose six? seven? eight? dred's place; one thousand to be carried to six nine? To the latter the pupil would answer, thousand makes seven thousand, and one thou. "Three threes make nine ; two, three and four sand more makes eight thousand, and an 8 is set make nine ; two, two and live make nine ; three, down in the thousand's place ; eighty thousand four and two make nine; three, five and one and twenty thousand make one hundred thoumake nine,' &c., &c. The teacher then placed sand, and a cipher is set down in the ten thou. similar blocks side by side, while the children sand's place, and a 1 in the hundred thousand's added their respective numbers together, , two place. It is easy to see that where the multitwos make four;' 'three twos make șix,' &c. plier and multiplicand are large, this process The blocks were then turned down horizontally

soon passes beyond mere child's play. to show that three blocks of two cubes each

So in division. If 32,756 are to be divided by were equal to one of six cubes. Such questions were then asked as, how many are six less than 75, the pupil says, how many hundred times arc eight? five less than seven ? &c. Then, how seventy-five, or seventy-five ones,-contained many are seven and eight? The answer was in thirty-two thousand and seven l’undred,-or given thus ; eight is one more than seven, seven in thirty-two thousand and seven hundred ones; and seven make fourteen, and one added makes four hundred times,—and he sets down a 4 in fifteen ; therefore eight and seven make fifteen. the hundred's place in the quotient; then the Q. How many are six and eight? A. Eight are

Thus, 4,321 two more than six, six and six make twelve, and two added make fourteen. Or it might be thus; six are two less than eight, fight and

8642 eight are sixteen, two taken from sixteen leave fourteen, therefore eight and six are fourteen.

106,025

25

21.005

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