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plying them.” These wants I consider to be of a I shall expect no compensation. looking merely somewhat higher order than mere improvements for an extension of the rites of hospitality along in the manner of reading, writing, cyphering, &c., my route, if my labors be thought useful. or even than the extension of the course of in I am, gentlemen, respectfully yours, struction to the mathematics, the sciences, or the
THOS. H. PÁLMÍR. languages. The subjects to which I would direct the attention of the community are the following: tion, which was unanimously adopted.
Mr. S. S. Randall offered the following reso. 1. IN INTELLECTUAL. EDUCATION.
Resolved, That the members of this conven.
tion. in behalf of theinselves and their associates, The best means of making the pupil an inde., do hereby gratefully accept the very liberal and pendent thinker, of giving him such a power over generous otier of Thomas H. Paluer, Esq., comhis attention as will enable him to read, or tolis. Imunicated through their president, te deliver a ten to a public speaker, with his whole mind. course of lectures in the respective counties of without necessarily allowing it to wander off' in this state, on the most pressing wants of the day.dreams, and thus to fit him for self-educa: schools and the best inethods of supplying them," tion. To give him a taste for literature; to lead and that they tender him their thanks, and the him to look deeper than to mere externals in the hospitality of the inhabitants of their respective objects around; to open his eyes to the beauty and counties. harmony of creation; or, in other words, to ex.
Mr. Sprague moved that a committee be apcite a taste for the sublime and beautiful in the pointed to report in reference to the proper course works of nature and of art.
of studies to be pursued in our common schools. 2. IN MORAL EDUCATION.
The chair named Messrs. Sprague, Mack and
Bebee. The best method of awakening and arousing to Mr. moved that those county and town healthful action God's vicegerent in the soul, the superintendents who have any peculiar way of conscience; of leading childhood into a habit of examining teachers and schools, be requested to acting, not from momentary, impulse, but from comraunicate their views to the convention in the principle; of seeking what is right, not merely afternoon. what is agreeable; of looking ahead to remote Mr. Wright of Washington, moved a commit. consequences, instead of considering nothing but tee on female teachers, which was carried. immediate results.
Mr. Olmsted called attention to a resolution As intimately connected with this subject. I passed by the Young Men's State Association, should also speak of the best means of making vo. as follows: cal music a universal accomplishment, consider. Resolred, That the county superintendents are ing it as an aid to devotion; as a powerful means hereby invited to attend the sittings of this Assoof impressing moral truth on the mind; as a ciation. strengthener of the family tie, as a means of sav.
Mr. Woodin of Columbia, presented and read ing youth from vicious courses, by substituting the following report from the committee on mo. a cheap, ever-ready, innocent and most attrac- ral instruction, in reference to the duties of teach. tive recreation, in place of the objectionable ers. He presented a series of resolutions, which, amusements in which very many now spend their together with the report, were referred back to leisure; as a refiner of the taste and as a sharp- the committee for revisión. ener of the intellect.
REPORT. I should also speak of discipline in this con.
The committee on “Moral Instruction" in nexion, founding it on the conscientiousness of the pupils, on the great principles of right and wrong, the consideration in their power in the present
common schools, have given to that subject all to ourselves as well as to others. I should also circunstances, and beg leave to present ihe fol. point out a few prevailing dangerous errors, easy lowing report: to avoid or correet in childhood, but exceedingly hard to extirpate at a later period.*
The possession of a good moral character is These lectures would be particularly addressed teacher of a common school. The use of pro.
made by law, an essential qualification of the 'to the town and county superintendents and tea fane language has properly been made, by the chers, and I should expect some pains to be taken State Superintendent, an adequate and imperato collect them together. But I flatter myself tive reason for the dismissal of such a teacher. they would be found interesting to all who feel the The law and the executor of the law thus pay importance of education, especially parents, and their homage to virtue and morality. The fact would therefore wish an invitation to be extended to all such. I should prefer delivering the first exert a high and beneficial intluence upon the pu.
seems to assume, that the teacher is designed to on an evening, and the other four on the fore. pils, at least by example. It implies inore-that noons and afternoons of the two subsequent days, the power, in truth delegated by the parent to But, if this should be thought too much time for the teacher, involves the inculcation and enfore. the teachers, I would deliver three on the first ing of morality as a part of instruction and goday, (one of them in the evening,) and two on vernment, for good moral character in the teach. the second day.
er cannot otherwise haveits full bearing upon the As soon as I receive invitations from any of the school. Our laws are based too on the truth that county superintendents, I shall give notice in the good moral principles are as necessary as know. District School Journal of the days at which I ledge itself, to the performance and complete shall attend at the several places, leaving to operation of our institutions. the superintendents themselves the care of ex. The teaching of honesty, sobriety, truthful. tending the notice through their respective coun. ness, temperance, kindness, obedience to parents ties.
and subjection to law and all lawful authority,
the love of God and man, and of the great and Resolved, That teachers ought carefully to benevolent rule of doing to others as we would avoid all undue appeals to the baser passions of that others should do to us, involves no sectarian our nature, such as the love of distinction, the or illiberal spirit, because all sects and classes of love of power, and the love of wealth. men adopt all those principles, and thus stand up. Resolrod, That the power of conciliating the on common ground and are united by a common confidence and affections of children is an indisbond. Such teaching must form one part of in. pensable qualification for a good teacher and that struction in common schools. On the other hand, this faculty ought especially to be exercised in dishonesty, dissipation, lying, intemperance, cru: imparting moral instruction: elty, disobedience to parents and disregard of These resolutions were subsequently adopted. proper authority and law, contempt of the divine
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT. Being and disregard of his commands and of the rights and interests of our fellow men, are as uni.
The convention proceeded to the consideration versally condemned by all sects in religion and all of Mr. Randall's resolution on corporal punishclasses in society. The criminality and dishonor ment, which reads as follows: of all these and their kindred vices and crimes Resolved, That the infliction of corporal punmust form one part of the instruction of all teach ishment as a means of school discipline, has no ers of children and youth.
sanction but usage, and that this convention whol., The moral power of man is the highest and ly disapprove of the practice, and recommend its noblest and most important of his endowments discontinuance. from the hand of his Maker. All education Mr. Henry of Herkimer, addressed the conmust be very imperfect, which does not respect vention. He was unable to tell as well as oththis power. This power comes into action early ers, what the inspired volume taught on this subin life. Children know and feel moral obliga. ject. It was contended that the practice of cor. tion; the sense of right and wrong is an early poral punishment was barbarous and of barba. development
The teacher must make it an rous origin, and that it was an absurd idea that important part of his effort to bear upon this physical force could, in the light of the nineteenth sense of right and wrong, and enlist the con- century, convey moral instruction. Appeals to science of the pupil as a propelling power to his reason and moral principle, were considered suf. action in the school and through life. To all the ficient in all cases. He had a child whom no extent in which moral suasion shall be substitut- persuasion could induce to open his mouth to ed for corporal punishment, there must be intro- have a tooth drawn, and was obliged to interpose duced moral instruction. The teacher will in his authority to effect the object. We have not evitably fail, unless he shall introduce the latter yet arrived at that state of perfection that we simultaneously with the diminution of the form. say to every man, “ do as you please.". If so, er. There are only these two modes of govern. why was every house in this city locked? Why ment and discipline-moral influence and phy. all the immense machinery of law? The mob sical force. In society and enlightened govern. at Philadelphia were deaf to moral suasion.vernments, as well as under the beneficient go. The appeal to arms was one which they undervernment of our Creator, these two modes are stood. He ventured to say, that those very perunited. The reason alone is inefficient; and we sons were educated under a mild system of moral must bring into constant operation the conscience suasion. Napoleon in quelling mobs, fired the and the heart. The teacher must reiterate the grape shot first, and blank cartridges afterwards. questions on conduct-is it right? is it proper? He would not give the snap of his finger for the is it reasonable? is it consistent with good and schools of New York, if it were understood that the pursuit of good ? is it becoming? is it doing coercive measures were thrown entirely aside. as you would like to be done by? would your fa. The resolution is radical, and proposes an entire ther approve it? your mother and sister, how revolution. He admired the goodness of heart will they think of it? above all, will God, who that prompted this movement, but the time for its gives you lise, or who holds you in life, approve adoption has not yet arrived. Order could not this conduct, action, or feeling?
be kept one hour if it were known that physical In effecting the great result of moral instruc- force were entirely dispensed with. tion, a resort to the Bible and the language of the Mr. Hawley of Buffalo, did not think we could Bible and the authority of the Bible, will be found draw general conclusions from particular instan. of the highest consequence. The daily opening ces, such as those mentioned by the gentleman of the school with the reading of a select and from Boston, (Mr. Fowle.) We must first asshort portion of the Scriptures and the offering certain what corporal punishment is. Any phy, of a short, humble prayer will admirably fit both sical restraint would come under that head, and the teacher and the children for the influence of he hoped that those who voted for its abolition moral suasion and rational government, as well would not consider outrageous flogging alone as as for all the duties of the school. The teacher such. The subject embraced so wide a range is to show his own cordial subjection to the pow- of principles, that it could hardly be voted uper of these principles.
on understandingly. He thought the punishIn conclusion, your committee present the fol. ment of the intellect often more cruel and more lowing resolutions, for the consideration of this disastrous in its consequences than physical pun. convention.
ishment. Every boy, sooner or later must subResolved, That moral instruction ought always mit to his superior. It was good for a man to to be enforced by a corresponding example in the find his superior. There was much argument in teacher, and that occasions arising incidentally the feelings. He would not only say, remove for enlightening children in regard to the true spi- not ancient landmarks," but remove not the an. rit and import of moral laws, ought to be care. cient body marks." fully embraced and will frequently prove the most Mr. Randall had but very little experience as efficient means of moral culture.
a teacher. He had arrived at the conclusion
from reading and reflection, that corporal pun. a resolution entirely disapproving its use.
The ishment was not in accordance with the enlight-time had not yet arrived for its total abolition. ened philosophy of the day. If physical vio. Dr. Potter resumed by saying that he was quite lence were threatened, it must be repelled by sure the practice was rapidly diminishing; and physical force. But if the mind or heart are to he confidently believed that in time it would fol. be enlightened, moral means must be used. low the errors of the dark ages. He deprecated the Ministers of the gospel in, reforming character, action of this convention in the manner proposed appealed entirely to moral means. Attempts by the resolution. All reformations should be had been made io propagate religion by force, gradual. This sudden innovation upon a long and all the horrors of the inquisition never con established usage, would be attended with dis. vinced the mind, although they might have sup astrous consequences. He believed the time pressed the free discussion of opinions. By cor would come when prisons and the gallows would poral punishment he meant flogging, not physi. be done away with; but what would be the ef. cal restraint of every kind. He did not believe feet if the legislature were to proclaim throughthis principle conflicted with the Bible. Solo. out the length and breadth of the land that every mon has said, “ foolishness was bound up in the prison wall was to be razed to the ground and heart of a child, but the rod of correction must every gallows taken down? Children whom bring it out." But a greater than Solomon has Providence has not blessed with good parents, said, “Suffer little children to come unto me, often go from houses of iniquity and shame to and forbid them not ; for of such is the king the school-room, where they must be dealt with dom of heaven."
according to law. What must the teacher do? Mr. King regretted the tone of this discussion. If the child has become a brute, he must be dealt It should be conducted with calmness and delib- with in a corresponding manner. How rouse eration. When the advocates of mild discipline the petrified powers of such child's nature? If attack the rod, they arouse the feelings of all you cannot make his intellectual nature feel, those engaged in school teaching. One gentle. you must find a sensitive spot on his bodyman, (Mr. Olmsted,) had inflicted punishment the avenue to his nobler nature, and the key when he was ready to weep tears of blood, but that will open the way to his nobler feelings. he imagined that all the blood flowed from the Physicians pore over a disease, to find the most backs of the flogged children. He had said, sensitive part, to commence the work of renovahowever, that he had punished only three times tion. After a child has become morally incura. in five years and it was a source of congratulation ble, he has in his physical nature a sensibility that he had come so far over to the side of mo- which cannot be destroyed, through which you ral suasion. Another gentleman (Prof. Dewey,) cannot fail to reach his intellect. Corporal pun. bad spoken of the stripes inflicted upon his ishment has been banished from the schools of back, in a manner that would lead the audience Holland and Prussia. But do those governments to believe that he would refuse instruction uno issue proclamations to the children, telling them Jess accompanied with a certain amount of that it is not to be used in any case? No. Ev. stripes. He had not read the good book aright, ery child in those countries knows that it will be if our Savior had ever used force to inculcate used, but used only as a last resort, when every his principles and measures. [Mr. Henry here other means have failed. said." He did in driving the thieves frora the Dr. P. said he did not commonly use corporal temple.”']
punishment in his family, but when he had occaMr. Bloss made some remarks on the subject, sion to use it as a last resort, he did it in a me. but gave way before he had fully expressed his morable style. If he were to tell his nine child. views.
ren that they were never more to be punished, Dr. Potter thought it necessary to restrain the he should immediately expect a domestic insurrange of the discussion. He should therefore rection. Two of his lads, not long ago, came confine himself entirely to the subject of pun. home from school in great glee, informing him ishment in schools, without reference to the gov. that the teacher had told them that they were ernment of families, except so far as it was con gentlemen, and that he should punish them no nected with schools. He took it for granted more, as he thought it degrading to punish gen. that those in favor of the abolition of corporal tlemen. And in four weeks' time the school was punishment, were in favor of order; and hoped a perfect bedlam. So great was the confusion Those who took ground in favor of retaining the and disorder that the teacher was obliged to nsage, would not be considered in favor of avail himself of the first opportunity to resume stripes for the sake of stripes, and be represent his former practice. Dr. P. regarded the theory ed as gloating over the pains inflicted upon the of intellectual punishment alone unsound. It subjects of punishment. He believed corporal was not the way that God, in his divine governpunishment was decreasing in every part of the ment, dealt with his creatures. Ile awoke the country. If this was not the case, he should be dormant nature of man through the physical glad to be informed of it, and would take his system—by the light that breaks upon the inseat, in order that any person might, if the faet fant's eyes, and the sounds that fall upon his ear, had come to his knowledge, state it to the con. By these means he taught his power and prero, vention.
gative. He made the body sensible to pains and No one having any such information to com- pleasures, and made use of those physical pro. municate, Dr. Potter requested the conventim to perties to advance his own divine purposes. hear Mr. Northend, of Salem, Mass. This Shall we be wiser than God? We should never gentleman, a teacher of some years' experience, lay aside our physical nature. All the great ensaid that to his knowledge corporal punishment terprises of life were carried on through it. was decreasing, in consequence of the general Why were the citizens of Rochester actively en. discussion of the subject ; but he thought it gaged, from “ early morn to devy eve," in in. would be unwise in this convention to send forth | creasing their comförts and making their capital
productive? Simply because they heeded the! Read and referred to the committee on laws well established physical law, that "he who and applications to the legislature. will not work shall not eat." This principle Mr. Spencer, of Aliegany, offered the follow. runs through all the progress of society. ing resolution on the subject of the study of Hu.
Dr. P. made some very able remarks on the man Physiology. Laid on the table. graduation of punishment.
Resolvell, That the study of human physioloWhen helial conclude:1, the convention took gy as a general exercise in our common schools,
is of great importance, and that in the opinion of this convention no person should be entrusted
with the sacred office of teacher, who is not well The Convention, in the afternoon, resumed the acquainted with the laws of health and life. subject of corporal punishment.
I. F. Mack ofered a series of resolutions on Dr. Potter moved the following substitute for the subject of free schools, recommending the Mr. Randall's resolution :
passage or a la' authorizing each town to raise Resolve1, That the substitution of moral for by tax a sum sutlicient for the support of schools. physical punishment be recommended to teachers After some discussion, the resolutions were to be adopted its rapidly as the preservation of withurawn. good order and the best interests of the schools Mr. Thomas offered a resolution recommend. will allow.
ing that the Bible or select portions should be The substitute was accepted by Mr. R. and read daily in all the common schools, as the best adopted by the Convention.
book of Christian morals. Mr. Dwight, from the Library Committee, Mr. Hawley of Buffalo, although he agreed reported the following resolutions on school li with the sentiment of the resolution, yet from braries, which were laid on the table, but subse. his peculiar position, representing, as he did, a quently adopte:l :
large community, composed of all sects of ChrisWhereas, a deplorable indifference prevails in tians, some of whom would be opposed to it, many sections of the state, to the use, fate and moved to lay the resolution on the table. condition of the district school libraries, and Dr. Potter said he need not inform the convenwhereas, doubts of the expediency of maintain. tion that he was in favor of the resolution, but ing this part of the common school system are he did not think it expedient for the convention to gaining strength from the conviction that in many place itself into a controversial position with any cases the books are now useless ; therefore, ciass in the community.
Resol red, That every county superintendent Mr. Thomas said he merely wished the introshall, in his next annual report, state to the de. duction of the Bible as a matter of discipline, partment not only the condition of the library, as it contained the best code of morals under but the average number of volumes in use du henven. ring the year, that the actual extent of this in. Mr. Curtiss adverted to the difficulties attend. difference may be known, and fit remedies ap. ing the same questions in New York and Philaplied.
delphia. He deemed the resolution impolitie. Resolved, That in the inean time it is expedi. Every thing calculated to excite religious prejuent, in accordance with the recommendations of dices should be carefully avoided. the last report of the State Superintendent, to Mr. Patchin of Livingston, said he had never promote the purchase of books adapted to the known but three persons in his county who ever tastes of children, and that they should be en. opposed the introduction of the Bible. He spoke couraged to draw books from the library, and to in the highest terms of the Bible as a code of read theia thoroughly, by the teacher's appro- morals. He had never known but one teacher priating a part of the afternoon of the semi. I who objected to reading it in schools. Had the monthly return day to discuss with the pupils the moral precepts of the Bible been feit, we should object and usefulness of the books read.
have seen different conduct in the Philadelphia Resolved. That the libraries should during rioters. Unless intellectual cultivation is imterm time be kept in the school-house, or in some proved by moral principle, education will be of neighboring dwelling, and that the teacher should
no avail. in all cases be employed as assistant librarian. Mr. Olmsted asked whether it would be disMr. Reynolds, from the same committee, re.
creet at this time, to recommend the Bible to be ported on the District School Journal. Laid on read in schools. It would be regarded as an atthe table.
tempt to coerce the people into their opinions, Mr. Arnold, of Dutchess, offered the follow and do more hurt than good. ing resolution, in reference to the purchase of Mr. Barnes of Onondaga, offered an amend. text books with the public money.
ment recommending the reading of the ScripResolved. That in order to aitain uniformity tures : where there are no objections." of text books, and to secure to the indigent an Mr. Thomas withdrew the resolution, and eqnal participation in the benefits to be derived Mr. Patchin immediately renewed it. The from attending school, it is expedient that a por: chairman, under the rules, referred it to the tion of the public moneys distributed to school business committee. districts, be exclusively devoted to the purchase The convention spent some time in discussing of text books, which shall be the property of the time and place of the next convention. The each district for the use of its school; that to en. subject was finally referred to a committee of title a district to a share of such text book mo eight. ney, it should raise and add to itan equalamount, On motion of Mr. Dwight, a committee of to be expended with it: and that the selection nine was appointed to report on the organization of such text books shoull be made by the trus. of the next convention, as follows : Dwight, tees, subjeci to the approval of their expective Johnson, Cooper, Henry, McKoon, Shumway. town or county superintendents.
Pendleton, Finch and Wheeler.
The convention resolved to attend the public Mr. Dwight, from the committee on the orga. school celebration at the Fitzhugh-street Chapel, nization of the next convention, then reported as on Thursday, at two o'clock.
follows in favor of giving town superintendents Some time was spent in hearing Dr. Com. seats in the body and a right to vote collectively. stock, of Philadelphia, explain his system of Resol red, That the next convention of super. elocution.
intendents shall be so organized as to include MR. FOWLE'S ADDRESS.
both town and county superintendents as mem. Mr. Fowle, of Boston, addressed the school bers, possessing equal rights and privileges. convention on Wednesday evening. He is a Resolved. That every filleen members of said practical teacher of great experience, having convention, by rising in their places, may require been engaged in the business of teaching for any vote to be taken by counties, and in case twenty one years, and consequently understands such a demand is so made of the presiding offi. well the duties and responsibilities of a teacher, cer, he shall put the question to each county and as well as the best modes of imparting instruc- district of a county, separately, and the county tion to the youthful mind.
superintendent of each county, or district of a The remarks of Mr. Fowle were mostly con. county, shall be entitled to one vote, and the fined to the subject of Memory-its importance, town superintendents collectively, of said coun. and liability to abuse. He contended that all ty, or said district of a county, shall be entitled discipline of the inind depended upon this one to one vote, and unless a majority of the coun. faculty. Teachers have been aware of the im. ties, and districts of counties be in favor of said portance of cultivating the memory, but have question, thus put by the presiding otficer, the generally pursued a very injudicious course, said question shall be declared lost. thinking, or practising as ihough they thought, Resolved, That delegates from associations, the mere memory of words all that was neces. I teachers, and other friends of education whó sary in a child. The utter inutility, so far as may be present, and who may wish to take part the acquirement of knowledge is concerned, of in the proceedings of said convention, may be pursuing such a course, and its ruinous tendency admitted to all privileges, except the right of upon the healthy action of the mind, were gra. voting. phically pictured by the speaker. Ideas are far An objection, that the convention would be more important than mere words. Scholars too large and unwieldy, was discussed at length. who could repeat a long string of words, with Mr. Dwight was of' opinion that the largest out understanding a single idea they contained, legislative bodies are the most orderiy, as in the were often considered by their parents and friends case of Massachusetts. The town superintend. as prodigies. Mr. F. said, when a boy, he was ents, if denied a seat in the convention, would taught the catechism from the old New-England have a separate convention, Primer. He could repeat it, word for word,
a town superintendent, spoke from begioning to end, either " barkvard or against admitting the towns. He thought the forward, and understand it as well one way as two bodies were distinct, and that they should the other.” Not an idea was gained, for he was not interfere with each other. taught nothing but the words.
Mr. Hamilton, superintendent of Geneseo, One individual has a memory of ideas, con protested against excluding the towns. nected with a particular subject. The speaker Mr. Randall preferred delegations from the said his practice was where he found a scholar town superintendents. He moved a re-commitpossessing a great memory upon some particular ment. subject, to endeavor to cultivate a memory upon
Mr. Henry spoke at length in favor of the re. those subjects retained less easily ; but not to the solutions. neglect of that point in which the pupil natu
Dr. Potter moved a re-committal. rally excelled. Every child remembers what is Mr. Cropsey, of Suffolk, spoke in opposition most interesting to him, therefore it should be to the resolution. He did not consider the town the study of every teacher to present knowledge officers inferior to those of the counties. If to the pupil in a pleasing and interesting man. the two bodies are associated in convention,
they will come in conflict, and ultimately destroy Our limits will not admit of more than a brief the benefit of conventions. The county superin. glance at the main topic of the address. Those tendents would be responsible for all the acts of who had the pleasure of listening to Mr. F. the convention. On this ground, principally, he were much interested in the subject, and de. was opposed to the measure. lighted by the happy manner in which it was Professor Dewey felt that it was honor enough treated. We hope those who are engaged in for those who were not county superintendents the business of teaching the young idea” may to have the privilege of participating in the proprofit by the advice of so distinguished a teacher ceedings, without claiming a right to vote. He of youth as Mr. Fowle.
believed it ought to be confined to the county 811
perintendents. He should be slow to claim a THURSDAY MORNING, right to vote, and he hoped the convention would Prayer by the Rev. Mr. Church.
be slow in granting it. Dr. Thomas, from the business committee, Mir. Van Ingen viewed the question as one of mtroduced the following resolution, upon which great interest. He had expressed himself in fa. he moved the previous question.
vor of admitting all the towns to a full right in Resolved, That this convention recommend the convention. Tliese were not legislative, but that the Bible, or select portions of it, be read deliberative bodies. It would be desirable to daily in the common schools.
assemble as much wisdom as possibic, and for Mr. Dwight moved, by consent of the mover that reason, not only town officers, but parents of the previous question, that it lie on the table, and teachers should be invited to attend. Il it Carried.
should be found necessary, the votes of the two