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State to fountains of truth, beauty and goodness, never saw so many bright eyes sparkle at once and thus develop and foster a general taste for with delight, as when, a few days ago, I had the æsthetics.
pleasure of announcing to one of our largest dis. Will not this be desirable ? and can it not be at trict schools (No. 4, in the fourteenth ward) that tained? Let parents review the subject and ask the trustees had agreed with me to send them a wherein they can contribute to the great work of music teacher. regenerating their schools; how they can best con. tribute to raise the living spirit, in their drooping (Extract from the Report of Ezra SMITH, Co. Superioformalism! And let teachers and school officers
tendent of Schoharie.) stand ready to answer the call of an awakening I must not omit to mention that within the past public, with hearts and hands consecrated to the year, vocal music was taught by rote in about noble work, and we shall then have reason to liwenty schools with a happy effect. For the join with them in singing a song of triumph bescholars it proved to be a most delightful exerfore many years are gone.
cise, making the school house to them the most
pleasant of places. It no doubt has a powerful (Extract from the Report of Ira PATCHIN, Co. Superin. influence in refining their minds, improving their tendent of Livingston.)
morals and manners, and in rendering them susMusic has received but little attention. The ceptible of being more easily governed. I obwant of teachers who understand the science is served that generally every scholar in the schools the only reason. of the whole number of pupils took a part in the exercise. In those schools in in the county, but three hundred and forty-one in which singing is practised, the scholars appear the summer, and one hundred and forty-five in to be more happy and to get their lessons more the winter schools, were taught to sing-enough, cheerfully than in other schools. That such however, to show the importance of introducing effects are produced to a greater or less extent, music as a branch of education, into all our no rational person can doubt, after visiting å schools. It is an excellent means of government, school in which it is taught by a judicious teachas I have found; for where there is good singing er. Ought it not then to be more generally intro. the whip is very rarely seen. It secures early duced ? attendance, and produces cheerfulness and joy, There is no doubt of the happy tendency singing has upon the morals of children, and over their
FEMALE TEACHERS. passions. Every tendency to virtue seems to be strengthened, and the chords of every vice weak. (Extract from the Report of H. E. ROCHESTER, Co. ened.
Superintendent of Monroe.) [Extract from the Report of W.L. Stone. Co. Superin your order of August 1, I proceed to give you my
In compliance with the duty assigned me by tendent of New York.)
views in regard to the employment of female But I think there is still another preventive of teachers in our common schools. If I rightly apabsenteeism which can be rendered yet more prehend the design of the Department in assigneffective. I mean the teaching of vocal music ing to the several county superintendents" some by competent instructors, to be employed where one topic connected with the subject of educait can be conveniently done, and at a reasonable tion,” for their special consideration in their an. expense, for that special object. I am informed nual reports, it does not contemplate an extended that they are pursuing this course in the common dissertation on the particular topic assigned, beschools of Massachusetts, with the most happy yond the results of their personal experience. results. A few experiments in this city and This opinion is in some measure induced by the State have been attended by like results; and I am reflection, that, so far as the present writer is happy to inform you that there is a prospect that concerned at least, little or no value can be atwe shall shortly be able to introduce musical in tached to his crude and theoretic notions on a struction into most, if not all of our district subject which has engaged the consideration of schools. Whether I shall be able to persuade the so many distinguished and able writers on popuPublic School Society to fall into the measure is lar education. uncertain. But I am fully convinced that it Practical results, which are really the most would have a very speedy and visible effect in valuable features of our reports, exert the great, winning the affections of youth to the schools. est influence in securing public confidence and “Music,” says Martin Luther," is one of the the adoption of proposed improvements. In an fairest and most glorious gifts of God, to which age of experiments and chimerical schemes like Satan is a bitter enemy; for it removes from the this, it is no wonder that people are beginning to heart the weight of sorrows, and the fascination regard with suspicion, and cautiously to adopt of evil thoughts. It is a kind and gentle sort of whatever rests upon mere opinion, however rediscipline, which refines the passions and im. spectable--It is well that it is so, especially when proves the understanding. Even the dissonance the success or failure of the experiment involves of unskilful fiddlers serves to set off the charms consequences so important, as it must in the matof true melody, as white is made more conspicu. ter of the moral and intellectual training of the ous by the opposition of black. Those who love youth of our land. Experiments are essential to music, are gentle and honest in their tempers.” the origin of every improvement in art, and to “I always loved music,” adds the great reform some extent in moral subjects, but should be reer, “and would not for a great matter be with stricted to a few insulated cases, until the value out the little skill which I possess in the art." or worth lessness of their results are ascertained. These opinions are substantially my own; and in harmony with my uniform course in the disI would add, that I never saw a more universal charge of my duties as superintendent of schools manifestation of joy diffused through a school, I in this county, it shall be my aim, in the brief
consideration of my subject, to express no opi. school being assigned as a reason for employing nions which are not sustained by practical results teachers of a second or third rate grade, and then coming under my personal observation.
only continuing the school some six or eight The idea is very prevalent that female teach months. The average compensation of female ers are not competent to govern most of our win. teachers is now less than half that paid to male ter schools. This would readily be granted were teachers. Were female teachers of a higher it necessary for them to adopt the system of gov. grade of qualifications demanded, they would exernment heretofore so much in vogue, that is, pect and in justice ought to be paid more liberal. one of indiscriminate flagellation for all offences. I ly than they are at present; but still they would I would not subject delicate females to the un. be content and could well afford to receive less pleasant task and trial of physical strength inci. than is paid to male teachers of (he same attaindent to such a system. If better motives to obe. ments; for the reason that the customs of society dience are presented, such as self-respect, and and other circumstances forbid their engaging in love of approbation, and the incentives which an many other vocations peculiarly appropriate for intelligent pursuit of knowledge will invariably the other sex, and also for the reason that their furnish to the observance of quiet and good order, employment would be coatinued throughout the I can conceive of no ground for the apprehension, year. This permanency of employment of the that females are not as capable as males to go. same teacher, let me suggest also, would be one vern a school. On the contrary, I have found of the most important advantages resulting from female teachers succeeding admirably in the go- such a system. Often one-half the term for vernment of the same schools that male teachers which a teacher is engaged passes away before of good qualifications utterly failed to control. the scholars become attached to their teacher, and There is a spirit of independence fostered by our familiar with his peculiar modes of instruction free institutions which prompts to high and no and system of government, and before too, the ble bearing, but which, unguided by intelligence, teacher is well acquainted with the various capaand unchastened by the moral virtues, degene- cities and dispositions of his pupils, all essential rates into harshness of manners, and disregard of to secure the best results from the labors of the all law and authority. It is this blind and un teacher. And scarcely are these advantages atchastened spirit which develops itself, in the re tained when the term closes and a new teacher is sistance to the legitimate authority of the school. employed, a stranger to the scholars, and who master, on the part of so many of the young men most probably introduces new books and methods in our schools. They entertain the false notion, of teaching, that such conduct evinces a manly independence which will elevate them in the regards of their devotion to the vocation of teaching as a profes
Permanency of employment further secures a fellows. But who ever saw a young man, possion, calculated alike to call into exercise the sessing any self-respect, pride himself upon his utmost abilities of teachers, elevate the character success in resisting the authority of a kind and of the profession, and call into its ranks those of respectable female teacher ? If any such there the best talents. There are few that engage in be, they should not be allowed to poison the mo- the business of teaching under the present system ral atmosphere of a school room by their pre- of change and limited employment, who do not sence.
One other objection to the employment of fe. regard it as a temporary business, to be relinmale teachers deserves a passing reinark, and for employment in one more permanent, and in
quished so soon as an opportunity is presented that is the difficulty of their conforming in the which they will be better remunerated for their winter season to the almost universal custom of services. And what reputable business, I may teachers boarding in the several families of the ask, is there, requiring a moderate share of litedistrict It is sufficient in answer to this to say, rary and scientific attainments which in this resthat such custom is detrimental to the interests pect, does not hold out greater inducements to of the school, and in no case ought it to be required of a teacher. The distance they may A correspondent of the Common School Journal,
young men qualified to be successful teachers ? have to walk is the least objectionable feature of in a recent number, says: “Not long since, in one the system. It were well if young women gene of the most cultivated towns in the Common. rally practised daily walking more than they do, wealth, I took great pains to ascertain the wagęs and especially would it be calculated to preserve of journeymen shoemakers, carpenters, black, the health and strengthen the physical and men. smiths, painters, carriage-makers, cabinet and tal constitution of those confined so many hours pianoforte makers, and some others. The result to the school room. The practice of boarding of this examination showed, that while every from house to house interrupts any systematic class of these received more, some of them re. course of study by the teachers, and often sub-ceived fifty, and a few one hundred per cent jects them to inconveniences and discomforts, ren.
more than was paid to any of the teachers of the dering their situation very unenviable.
district schools in the same town. If then we But I must hasten to the consideration of some pay less for teaching than for painting or shoeof the advantages to be gained by the more gene-making, and give only temporary employment, ral employment of competent female teachers. we cannot expect that men of the best talent, thé On this branch of my subject, as in what has greatest sagacity, the highest hopes, will leave preceded, I shall be unable to present any thing those callings to go into schools, or will be will new, but can only corroborate by my testimony ing to prepare themselves with the expectation what has so often been urged by others.
of being idle during most of the year. But if we And first in order I will suggest the economy offer women the wages we now pay men, we of the plan, a consideration which we may deem hold out to them higher inducements than is offer of no little consequence when we are aware ofed by any other calling, and we shall therefore the expense ordinarily incurred in sustaining a have our choice of all the female talent and ener
BY HORACE MANN.
gy that is to be hired; and then we may engage are females. This, we think, is as it should be. the first rate women to do the work which we A large proportion of the children who attend too often entrust to second and third rate men.” the summer schools are quite young, and as it
Great value is justly attached to the cultiva. seems to be universally admitted that females tion of habits of neatness, and whatever pertains are peculiarly fitted for moulding the infant mind, to good manners, in childhood; they are condu. the custom of employing them to teach the sum. cive to health, refine the mind, and secure for mer schools would seem to be dictated by sound their possessors the respect and association of wisdom; and we believe it would be well for 80those who will exercise over them a virtuous ciety, if the instruction of children under ten or and moral influence; I have found more attention twelve years of age was exclusively assigned to paid to the cultivation of these habits by the fe. them. Formerly, a deep rooted prejudice against male teachers of this county, than by the male; the employment of female teachers existed in this and such I presume is generally the case every county, but this is now rapidly yielding to more where.
enlightened views. Many of our winter schools I am not so enthusiastic in urging the employ, are now taught by females; and we do not hesi. ment of female teachers as to be unwilling to ad. tate to say, that in some instances they are decid. mit that there are difficulties to be encountered edly the best conducted. in the system. The objections, however, are overbalanced in my judgment, by the peculiar (Extract from the Report of E. Comstock and S. Mool advantages to be gained; and what may be grant
STON, Co. Superintendent of Oneida.) ed as tenable arguments against the universal The proportion of female teachers is evidently employment of females, are inapplicable to a increasing in this county, and it is perhaps a system which only contemplates their more gene matter of congratulation that such is the fact. ral employment, retaining male teachers at the From the experience which we have had in the head of our large city and village schools, where schools in this county, we have no hesitation in they can be retained throughout the year; and in saying, that full one-half of the winter schools all cases where the school is sufficiently nume might be successfully taught by females, while rous, and the district able to maintain a school of of the summer schools very few are to be found two or more departments, it may be well to have in which it is found necessary to employ male a male teacher as principal.
teachers. While I have aimed to present all the more important facts and arguments on the subject, I MASSACHUSETTS ANNUAL REPORT. am aware that I have omitted many things, which, from their being so universally conceded, or from my want of personal knowledge of their value, I have deemed unnecessary or inexpedient We have drawn freely from this admirable re. to embody in my report. I ought not, however, port, but our readers will rather complain that to omit altogether in its proper place, one other objection that I have heard to the 'system fre anything has been omitted, than that so mach quently raised, which is, that when young ladies space is given to its important topics; we shall, have acquired some practical experience in teach however, return to it again and again, until all ing, and are thus qualified to be most useful in its stores of wealth are exhausted. our schools, they will get married. This is so, and it is vain to remonstrate against it. We
Mr. Mann,has but recently returned from a criti. must in such cases console ourselves with the re- cal examination of the schools of Europe, and flection, that what we lose in the practical expe- his report gives to his countrymen, counsels and rience of those who are thus drawn from the work, we make up in the greater zeal and ener. warnings of surpassing value, drawn from an insy of the younger and less experienced who take telligent and careful investigation of the leading their places.
continental school systems. In view of the whole subject, aided by the ex. perience and observation which the supervision
We need say nothing more in commendation of of the schools in this county for the past two this document, than that it is worthy of the exalted years has afforded me, I am satisfied that if well reputation long since won by this great champion qualified female teachers were employed by the of universal education. year in four.fifths or even seven-eighths of our common schools, it would be a wise and beneficial
Whatever may be the especial object of the reform, diminishing very much the expense of American citizen in going abroad, still, if his sustaining our schools, and calculated to improve mind is imbued with the true spirit of the institu. them in every important and valuable feature.
tions of his country, he cannot fail, in travelling that the schools in this county, generally, were tion. There is no earthly subject, in its own na. It may be proper for me, in conclusion, to add through the different nations of Europe, to find
material for the most profound and solemn reflecas well, if not better conducted, during the past ture, of higher intrinsic dignity and interest than summer than any preceding term, summer or winter, since my first appointment as superinten- a contemplation of the different forms into which dent. More districts are now employing teachers humanity has been shaped by different institu. by the year, and more females are now engaged
tions. This interest deepens, when we coin pare in teaching than in any previous winter.
our own condition with the contemporaneous con.
dition of other great families of mankind. Trac[Extract from the Report of D. McForLand and R. s. ing back, by the light of history and philanthro. HUGHston, Co. Sup'ts of Delaware.)
py, these respective conditions to their causes, in It will also be perceived that a much larger some period of antiquity more or less remote, we proportion of the teachers in the summer season behold the head-springs of those influences wlich
have given such diversity to the character and leaves wholly untouched the side of positive, fortunes of different portions of the race. We are boundless suffering and wrong. In the Europe of enabled not only to see the grand results which the nineteenth century, incomputable wealth have been wrought out by certain agencies, act. flows from the bounty of heaven, during the reing through long periods of time, but we are volving seasons of the year, and is elaborated brought into immediate contact and we commune from the earth by the ceaseless toil of millions of as it were, face to face, with these great princi. men ;-that wealth which is wrought out by hu. ples which bear the future destinies of mankind man labor and ingenuity, in conjunction with the in their bosom. Whatever now is, whether of great agencies of nature-fire, water, wind and weal or woe, is the effect of causes that have pre- steam, - and whose aggregates are amply suffi. existed ; in like manner, whatever is to be, whe-, cient to give comfort and competence to every bu. ther of glory or of debasement, will result from man being, and the joys of home and the sacred causes put in operation by ourselves or others. influences of the domestic circle to every family, The past is a unit, fixed, irrevocable, about which that wealth, by force of unjust laws and instithere is no longer either option or alternative; tutions, is filched from the producer, and gatherbut the future presents itself to us as an infinite ed into vast massez, to give power, and luxury, of possibilities. For the great purposes of duty and aggrandizement to a few. Of production, and happiness, to-morrow is in the control of the there is no end ; of distribution, there is no be. weakest of men ; but yesterday is beyond the do- ginning. Nine hundred and ninety-nine children minion of the mightiest prince or potentate ;-it of the same common father, suffer from destituis no longer changeable by human or divine pow. tion, that the thousandth may revel in superfluities. er. The future, then, is our field of action ; the A thousand cottages shrink into meanness and past is only valuable as furnishing lights by which want, to swell the dimensions of a single palace. that field can be more successfully entered and The tables of a thousand families of the indus. cultivated. For this purpose, we study the histo- trious poor waste away into drought and barrenry of particular parts of the globe, of particular ness, that one board may be laden with surfeits. portions of our race,-of Europe, for instance, As yet, the great truth has scarcely dawned upon for the last thousand years; we learn what man. the mind of theorist or speculator, -that the poner of men have borne sway; we discern the mo. litical application of doing as we would be done tives by which they have been actuated; we study by, is, to give to every man entire equality before the laws they have made, and the institutions the law, and then to leave his fortunes and his they have established for shaping and moulding success to depend upon his own exertions. their unformed future. We go to Europe, or by That there must be governors or rulers where other means, we examine and investigate the pre- there are communities of men, is so self-evident sent social, intellectual and moral condition of its a truth, that it is denied only by the insane. Yet people; and here we have the product-the grand under this pretext, a few individuals or families result, of men, motives, laws, institutions, all have usurped and maintain dominion over almost gathered and concentrated into one point, which two hundred millions of men. That a nation must we can now see, just as we see the fabric which possess the means of defending itself against ag; comes from a piece of complicated machinery, gressors, or submit to be vanquished, despoiled when the last revolution of the last wheel rolls it and enslaved, has been equally obvious. Yet un. into our hands for inspection.
der pretence of doing this, naval and military arAnd what is this result? In a world which God maments are kept up, at incalculable expense, has created on such principles of wisdom and be. and men are converted into the soulless machinery Devolence, that nothing is wanting, save a knowl. of war, far more to uphold thrones, and to subju. edge of his commands and an obedience to them, gate all independence of thought and action at to make every human being supremely happy, home, than to repel assaults from abroad. Rewhat amount of that knowledge is possessed, ligion is the first necessity of the soul ; but because what degree of that happiness is enjoyed? It is every human being, though he were heir to all no adequate representation of the fact to say, that the glories and profusions of the universe, must not one-half of the adult population of Europe still be a wanderer and an outcast, until he can can read or write in any intelligible manner, - find a supreme father and God, in whom to conand hence are shut out from knowledge of all his fide-because of this instinctive outreaching of tory; sacred and profane, and all contemporary the soul towards some Almighty power, crafty events:—that not one-third are comfortably hous. and cruel men have come in, and have set up idols ed, or fed or clothed, according to the very low. and false gods for its worship; and then, claimest standard of comfort amongst the laboring class. ing to be the favorites and ministers of Omnipoes in this country;—that not one individual in five tence, have dispensed the awîul retributions of hundred has any voice in the enactment of the eternity against all questioners of their authority, laws that bind him, or in the choice of the rulers and brandished every weapon in the armory of who dispose of his property, liberty and life ;-heaven, not merely for the slightest offences and that, excepting in a few narrow and incon against themselves, but for the noblest deeds of siderable spots, the inalienable right of freedom duty towards God, and of benevolence towards in religion, and liberty to worship God according men. Hence, throughout wide regions of country, to the dictates of conscience, is not recognized or man is no longer man. Formed in the image of known ;-nay, that the claim of any such liberty his Maker, the last vestiges of that image are is denounced and spurned at, and its advocates nearly obliterated. He no longer breathes that punished, not only by a denial of the right itself, breath of independent and conscious life that first but by the deprivation of all human rights what- animated his frame, and made him a living soul. ever -all these facts, deeply as they affect hu. The heavenly spark of intelligence is trodden out man happiness, greatly as they derogate from hu- from his bosom. In some countries which I have man
y, present no living pictu of Europe, visited, there are whole classes of men and wosit now exists All this is negation only ; it men, whose organization is changing, whose
whole form, features, countenance, expression, thus, from parent to child, the race may go on are so debased and brutified by want and fear generating in body and soul, and casting off, one and ignorance and superstition, that the natura- after another, the lineaments and properties of list would almost doubt where, among living races humanity, uniil the human fades away and is lost of animals, to class them. Únder governments in the brutal, or demoniac nature. While the where superstition, and ignorance have borne vicious have pecuniary means, they have a choice most sway, the altered aspect of humanity is as- of vices in which they can indulge ; but though similating to that of the brute ; but where resist. stripped of means to the last farthing, their abil. less power has been trampling, for centuries, up. ity to be vicious, and all the fatal consequences on a sterner nature and a stronger will, the like to society of that viciousness, still remain. Nay, ness of the once human face is approximating to it is then that their vices become most virulent and that of a fiend. In certain districts of large cities, fatal. However houseless or homeless, however -those of London, Manchester, Glasgow, for diseased or beggarly, a wretch who is governed instance,--such are the influences that surround only by his instincts may be, marriage is still open children from the day they are brought into the to him ; or, so far as the condition and character world, and such the fatal' education of circum. of the next generation are concerned, the same stances and example to which they are subjected, consequences may happen without marriage. that we may say they are born, in order to be This also, the staiesman and the moralist should imprisoned, transported or hung, with as exact heed, that however adverse to the welfare of huand literal truth as we can say, that corn is grown man society may be the circumstances under which to be eaten.
a fore-doomed class of children are born, yet the Not in a single generation could either the cru. doctrine of the sanctity of human lise protects elties of the oppressor, or the sufferings of his vic. their existence. Public hospitals, private charitim, have effected these physical and mental trans. ties, step in and rescue them from the hand of formations. It has taken ages and centuries of death. Hence they swarm into life by myriads, wrongs to bend the body into abjectness, to dwarf and crowd upwards into the ranks of society. But the stature, to extinguish the light of the eye, and in society, there are no vacant places to receive to incorporate into body and soul, the air and them, nor unclaimed bread for their sustenance. movements of a slave. And the weight and full. Though uninstructed in the arts of industry, ness of the curse is this, that it will require other though wholly untaught in the restraints and the ages and centuries to efface these brands of de obligations of duty, still the great primal law of gradation,-to re-edisy the frame, to rekindle in self-preservation works in their blood as vigor. the eye the quenched beam of intelligence, to re. ously as in the blood of kings. It urges them on store height and amplitude to the shrunken brow, to procure the means of gratification ; but, having and to reduce the over-grown propensities of the no resources in labor or in frugality, they betake animal nature within a manageable compass. themselves to fraud, violence, incendiarism, and Not only is a new spirit to be created, but a new the destruction of human life, as naturally as an physical apparatus through which it can work. honest man engages in an honest employment. This is the worst,—the scorpion sting, in the lash Such, literally, is the present condition of large of despotism. There is a moral and a physical portions of the human race in some countries of entailment, as well as a civil. Posterity is curs- Europe In wide rural districts,-. in moral ed in the debasement inflicted upon its ancestors. jungles, hidden from public view within the reIn many parts of Europe, the laws both of the ma cesses of great cities, those who are next to be terial and of the moral nature, have been so long born, and to come upon the stage of action, will outraged, that neither the third nor the fourth come, fifty to one, from the lowest orders of the generation will outlive the iniquities done to their people, -lowest in intellect and morals and in the fathers.
qualities of prudence, foresight, judgment, temAgain, the population of a country may be so perance; lowest in health and vigor, and in divided into the extremes of high and low, and all elements of a good mental and physical organ. each of these extremes may have diverged so wide. ization ; strong only in the fierce strength of the ly from a medium, or standard of nature, that animal nature, and in the absence of all reason there are none, or but a very small intermediate and conscience to restrain its ferocity. Of such body, or middle class of men, left in the nation. stock and lineage must the next generation be. In The high, from luxury and its enervations, will the mean tiine, while these calamities are devehave but small families, and will be able to rear loping and maturing, a few individuals,-some but few of the children that are born to them. of whom have a deep stake in society, others,
The intermediate class, whom affluence has not moved by nobler considerations of benevolence corrupted, nor ignorance blinded to the perception and religion, are striving to discover or devise of consequences, will be too few in number, and the means for warding off these impending dantoo cautious about contracting those matrimonial gers. Some look for relief in a change of admin. alliances which they cannot reputably and com- istration, and in the change of policy it will insure. fortably sustain, to contribute largely to the con. With others, compulsory emigration is a remedy, tinuation of the species. But the low, the aban. -a remedy by which a portion of the household doned, the heedless, those whom no foresight or is to be expelled from the paternal mansion by apprehension of consequences, can restrain, the terrors of starvation. There are still others these, obedient to appetite and passion, will be who think that the redundant population should the fathers and mothers of the next generation. be reduced to the existing means of subsistence ; And no truth can be more certain than this :- and they hint darkly at pestilence and famine, as that after the poor, the ignorant, the vicious, have agents for sweeping away the surplus poor, -as fallen below a certain point of 'degradation, they famishing sailors upon a wreck hint darkly at the become an increasing fund of pauperism and vice, casting of lots. Smaller in numbers than any of -a parper-engendering hive, a vital, self enlarg. the prece ling, is that elass who see and know, ing,reproductive mass of ignorance and crime. And that while the prolific causes of these evils are