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The convention should appoint one of its num. pline that had unconsciously formed her habits ber, Recording Secretary. He should be provi. of mind-that to do good, she must first please; ded with a substantial blank book, at the ex. that she must predispose those whom she would pense of the members, and in this, all the reso serve, to the reception of benefits. “It is high Jutions, discussions, and proceedings should be treason against virtue to be good and disagree. recorded. The convention would then presentable,said the accomplished Elizabeth Smith. the appearance of a permanent body, assem " Trumpery etiquettes are going out of use.” bling at stated intervals, to deliberate upon the said Sir Walter Scott, and he was right. But great subject of popular education. Its endu hollow forms of artificial society make no part ring records might furnish valuable materials for of that inbred civility, which truly grows out of the future historian.

brotherly kindness-that forbeareth in loveI cannot doubt that each town is able to fur. that seeketh not its own, but being clothed in nish at least one competent individual, who has humility, postpones its own claims, in all small public spirit enough faithfully to attend said matters, to others better entitled to precedence. conventions. And if a person chosen to the of. So careful are the French in this matter, that fice of town superintendent, has so little regard for two centuries they have used a little book for the cause of education that he will not at. called “ Civilité du premier age.” It teaches tend, the people should turn him out, and fill his the child how to conduct himself al table, at place with some one who is more worthy.

church, and in all the ordinary intercourse of

A. R. life. It may be urged that example and oral in. Dutchess County, N. Y.

struction ought to do this without books, and

we admit the obligation. But if neither the (For the District School Journal.] example nor instruction of home are afforded, GOOD MANNERS.

as they are not, 10 multitudes of children, may

not the school. book, and the school-master, or By the Author of the “ School Friend." Popular

school-mistress, do something for the neglected Lessons," &c.

child ?-Or, if he be not neglected, will " line

upon line, and precept upon precept,” be super The cultivation of good manners is an essen. Auous to him, whose early virtue has been fos. tial part of education. “Evil communications tered where character, of necessits, takes its corrupt good manners," says the Apostle. He first impressions ? probably meant, by good manners," the whole We remember that forty years ago the little outward life. His notions of virtúe were ex. children of the country deffed their hats, and tended beyond dispositions and principles, to dropped their curtsies on meeting a stranger in outward manifestations; for when he says, Be the highway. This practice has long been dis. pitiful,” he adds,“ be courteous." In truth, continued; but there was something amiable in the outward act--the observance-operates upon it. Under instruction of the good Oberlin, the the inward mind, as the disposition does upon people of the Ban de la Roche, thongh they al. the ordinary demeanor. Europeans universally ways remained extremely poor, became remark. Temark upon the want of veneration, common able for their graceful politeness. An English to the Americans. Veneration is not mere awe traveller who visited them, was charmed with anil admiration for proper objects of religious ihe polish, the mutual deference of their man. sentiment, but it is respect to superiority. In a ners. The teacher of a school, who disciplines republican country, we do not recognise any in the manners of his pupils, does much for their feriority of one person to another on account of hearts, and for the beauty of society. He sets the station or the wealth of the more favored; up a rule of action above and beyond self-love. but who contends that all men and women, and

"Are there none whom I can please, or dis. all ages of life, and all modifications of charac. please-can serve, or injure ?" is an inquiry ter dependent on condition, are equal?

constantly to be set before the mind of a child; "We live by admiration, hope, and love,"

and Miss Hannah More has answered this ques.

tion, in saying, says Mr. Wordsworth. All elevated and wor. thy life, is exalted by the former sentiment, in

"Few oan save or serve, but all can please." higher or lower degrees. “Honor all men” To all who live in society, the good opinion " in honor preferring one another," are among of others is necessary-necessary in some sort, the good counsels of the great teacher above to success in life-necessary to a cordial and quoted, and we wish to urge upon the cultiva. satisfactory reception among men-necessary to tors of the young, to make practical use of his give efficacy to virtue. “ Abstain from all ap. injunctions.

pearance of evil,” even that appearance of it Good breeding has been well described, as which a reckless, self-engrossed, careless de. the art of rendering to all what is socially their portment presupposes-the evil of egregious due.” Selfishness, or more properly, exagge. self-consideration, and of consequent disregard rated self-importance, and apathy. are occasions and oversight of the convenience and approval of rudeness and incivility. Politeness is the of others. lou est form of virtue; but it is, nevertheless, a What can education do for a people? This form of virtue ; an expression of respect and is a question for the profoundest minds to inves. concern for others. Madame Roiand, a French ligate, anil reply to. But all of us have a praca woman of the last century, distinguished hy the tical answer to give to it, whether we will or largest benevolence, and the highest self.cul. not; for we all have responsibilities, of our tore, thus briefly describes her-elf in her child. Maker's appointment, to the rising race and hood. “My only desire was to please, and to the next ase. We do not create the moral lau's, do good.". She knew intuitively-or she did not they are propounded to us by Him who cannot distinguish first nature from the early disci. Terr; but in our ripeness, we may not disclaarge

2

ourselves from our obligations to the young.

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT. We may develop in the unformed, the affec. tions, which in their exercise constitute the co!. lective virtue and happiness of the present and Extracts from the last Annual Report of Hon. H. Mam.. future generations; we may cultivate in them the principles, and induce the habits, which I HAVE uniformly made inquiries respecting socialize a people; and may prepare them to the use of corporal punishment as a means of become, what the Creator has designed them to order, and an incitement to progress, in schools. be. No part of this preparation is more impor. In Holland corporal punishment is obsolete. tant, than that which inculcates respect for several teachers and school officers told me others, founded on self-respect. E. R. there was a law prohibiting it in all cases.

Others thought it was only a universal practice (For the District School Journal.]

founded on a universal public opinion. The ab.

sence of the Minister of Public Instruction, DISTRICT SCHOOL ASSOCIATION when I was at the Hague, prevented my obtain.

ing exact information on this interesting point. FOR WAWARSING, ULSTER COUNTY.

But whatever was the cause, corporal punish.

ment was not used. In cases of incorrigible. The friends of common school education in ness, expulsion from school was the remedy. the town of Wawarsing, Ulster county, impress. One of the school magistrates in Amsterdam ed with the importance of good schools, and be told me, that last year, about five thousand chillieving, that the low condition of the common dren were laughi in the free schools of that schools throughout the state generally, is in city. Of this number, from forty to fifty were consequence of the indifference felt and mani. expelled for bad conduct. This would be about fested by the people in regard to these primary one per cent. institutions; and believing also, that frequent At Haarlem Mr. de Vries told me he had and close examinations, and a thorough super- kept the same school for about twenty years, vision by the friends of education, is all that is that its average number had been six hundred necessary to make them the boast and pride scholars, that not an instance of the infliction of of the state;' have recently organized an asso. corporal punishment had occurred during the ciation, known as the “Common School Asso- whole time, and that two only, (boys,) had been ciation of the town of Wawarsing," adopting a expelled from it, as hopelessly incorrigible. He constitution, requiring monthly, quarterly, and added, that both those boys had been afterannual meetings, at which addresses, discus. wards imprisoned for crime. On seeing the sions, &c., are to be had, all relating to the in. manner of Mr. de Vries, his modes of instructerests of popular education, by suggesting and tion, and the combined dignity and affection discussing new and improved methods of teach with which he treated his pupils, I could readi. ing in the schools.

ly believe the statement. The officers of the association, are a presi. The schools of Holland were remarkable for dent, seven vice-presidents, a secretary, and a good order,-among the very best, certainly, treasurer. The town is divided into seven dis which I have any where seen. Nor does this tricts, over cach of which a vice-president has arise from any predominance of phlegm in the jurisdiction, assisted by two individuals. who constitution, or any tameness of soul; for the accompany bim in his examinations of the Dutch are certainly as high-toned and freeschools under his charge, and advise with, and spirited a people as any in Europe. This fact assist him in all his duties. Thus a committee may be read in their organization and natural of three is formed in every section of the town, language, as well as learned from their history. whose special duty it is to visit and examine In Hamburgh I visited an institution of a no. the schools under its charge, at least once in vel character. It was a Punishment School, or each quarter, and report the result of such exa. school-prison,--a place of instruction and re. mination at each quarterly meeting, including straint for those children belonging to the poor. their statistics, general appearance, condition, schools of the city, who commit any aggrava. improvement, &c.

ted offence. In Hamburgh many poor people The association has held two monthly, and receive assistance from the city. One of the two special meetings, and three addresses have conditions of the succor is, that those who re. been given by its members.

ceive it shall send their children to the schools Alvan B. Preston, President; Foster D. Bird provided for them. If a child in these schools sall, Secretary.

commits any trivial or ordinary offence, he is A committee has also been appointed, con punished in the school in the usual way. But sisting of the president of the Association and if the transgression is gross, or if he persists in the town superintendent, for the purpose of a course of misconduct, he is sentenced by the communicating with the county, and the several competent authorities to a Prison, or Punish. town superintendents in the county, in order to meni.School, (Strasschule). Here he must go take measures for the formation of a County at eight in the morning, and remain until eight Association, having the same objects in view. in the evening. A part of the day is spent in GEO, A. DUDLEY,

study, a part in work. I saw the children pick. Town Sup't Wawarsing. ing wool. There were twenty-one boys in one

room, and eleven girls in another. The school Truth can only be discovered by peaceful was in the third story of a building ! and near minds ; it is only adopted by kindred spirits. If the schoolrooms were small and wretched bed. it change the opinions of men, it is only by in-rooms, where those whose sentence covered the sensible gradations-a gentle and casy descent night, as it sometimes did, were compelled to conducting to reason,

sleep.

The children were usually sentenced to so In some of the proprietary and endowed many stripes, as well as to so many days' con schools of England, the practice of solitary confinement ; and the teacher kept a book, as a finement still prevails. In large establishments jailer keeps a record of his prisoners, in which at Birmingham, Liverpool, &c., I saw cells, or the case of each child was recorded. At the ex. solitary chambers, four or five feet square, for piration of the sentence, the children return to the imprisonment of offenders. These were not ihe school whence they came. Instances of a for mere children, but for young men. I have second, and even of a third commitment some seen a lad fifteen or sixteen years of age, dress. times occur.

ed in a cap and gown,-the scholastic uniform While I was stopping at the punishment of England,-a prisoner in one of these apartschool, the hour of dinner arrived. All the ments. boys left their schoolroom for one of the adja. In some of the private establishments at Pa. cent rooms, and all the girls for another. They ris, an extent of surveillance over the conduct of arranged themselves in groups of four each, on students prevails, of which we have no idea. the opposite sides of a long table. A bowl of This is intended to supersede the necessity of bean-porridge was set in the centre of each punishment, by taking away all opportunity for group, and to each child was given a large, transgression. Some of the private schools are round, coarse wooden spoon. The teacher en subsidiary lo the colleges,-that is, the master tered a sort of pulpit and said grace, after of the private school has the general charge which the children ate their homely meal. and superintendence of the students, maintains There was very little of indecorous behaviour, them at his own house, instructs them himself such as winking or laughing in a clandestine or by his assistants, at home, but takes them manner, but the sobriety appeared to me to come daily to the college, where their lessons are more from fear than from repentance. One of -nally heard by professors. I attended, one the rules was, that during the twelve hours of morning, the opening of the College Bourbon, daily confinement the children should have no in Paris. At eight o'clock the private teachers communication with each other; but it happen- came, followed by their pupils marching in pro. ed here, as it has in many other cases where all cession. All entered a large square or court, communication is interdicted, that it is carried enclosed on all sides, except the gate-way, by on clandestinely, or by stealth,-an evil much the college buildings. Soon after, the roll of a greater than any which can result from allowed drum was heard, at which all the students ar. intercourse.

rangell themselves in classes. At a second The highest tension of authority which I any drum-beat they marched to their recitation where witnessed, was in the Scotch schools. rooms. The teachers then returned home, but There, as a general rule, the criminal code at the end of the college exercises they were to seemed to include mistakes in recitation as well be in attendance again, to take back their charge as delinquencies in conduct; and, where these in the same way as they had conducteu them were committed, nothing of the “law's delay" thither. To us this would seem singular, be. intervened between offence and punishment. If cause many of the students had already passed a spectator were not vigilant, there might be an the age which we call the age of discretion. erroneous answer hy a pupil, and a retributive By the invitation of one of the teachers, I ac. blow on his head by the teacher's fist, so instan. companied him home. The collegians were taneous and so nearly simultaneous, as to elude only the older pupils in his school, and I wished observation. Still the bond of attachment be- to see the rest of his establishment. It was tween teacher and pupils seemed very strong. laid out on a most liberal scale as to play. It was, however, a bond founded quite as much grounds, schoolrooms, dormitories, kitchen, &c., on awe as on simple affection. The general and was in an excellent condition of order and character of the nation was distinctly visible in neatness. The arrangement was such that he the schools. Could the Scotch teacher add could inspect all the play.grounds while sitting something more of gentleness to his prodigious in his study,-in this particular resembling energy and vivacity, and were the general influ. those prisons where all the wards can be in. ences which he imparts to his pupils modified in spected from a central point. But this was not one or two particulars, he would become a mo. all. As I passed round to see the several del teacher for the world.

schoolrooms, I observed that a single pane of Jo England, as there is no National system, glass had been set into the wall of each room, nor any authoritative or prevalent public opinion so that the principal, or any one deputed by towards which individual practice naturally gra. him, could inspect both the class and its teach. vitates, a great diversity prevails on this head. er without a moment's warning. This was In some schools talent and accomplishment have pointed out as one of the distinguishing excelwholly superseded corporal punishment; in oth lences the construction of the rooms. It was ers, it is the all-in-all of the teacher's power, stated also, that, in order to save the younger whether for order or for study. I was standing from contamination by associating with the oldone day, in conversation with an assistant teacher, there was not only an entire separation of er in a school consisting of many hundred chil. them in the schoolrooms, but also in the play. dren, when, observing that he held in his hand grounds and sleeping apartments; and it was a lash or cord of Indian rubber, knoited in. added further, that if two brothers of different wards the end, I asked him its use. Instead of ages and belonging to different classes, should answering my question in words, he turned round attend the school at the same time, they would to a little girl, -sitting near by, perfectly quiet, not be allowed to see each other. I afterwards with her arms. which were bare, folded before saw the same contrivances for inspection, not her and lying upon her desk,--and struck such only in other schools, but in the Royal College a blow upon one of them as raised a great red of Versailles,-a very distinguished institution. wale or stripe almost from elbow to wrist! I feel unable to decide whether, in such a

state of society and with such children, this with the masters of the Pensions. For this puz. piercing surveillance is not the wisest thing that pose careful inquiries are made ; and, some can be done ; but with us the question certainly times, agents are employed to search out lade arises, whether the cause of school morals of promise, and bring them to the school. IQ would' gain more in the end by a closeness of some instances, not only tuition, but the whole inspection, designed to prevent the outflow of expense of board, lodging, &c., is gratuitously all natural action ; or by allowing more freedom furnished ; and, in extraordinary cases, a pecu. of will, with a careful training of the conscience niary bounty beyond the whole expenses of the beforehand, and a strict accountability for con- pupil, has been given. It may be said that this duct afterwards.

has a good effect, because it searches out the At all times, and in all countries, the rule is latent talent of the country, and suffers no ge. the same ;-the punishment of scholars is the nius to be lost through neglect. But here, as complement of the proper treatment of children every where else, the great question is, whether by parents at home, and the competency of the the principle is right, for no craft of man can teacher in school. Where there is less on one circumvent the laws of nature, or make a bad side of the equation, there must be more on the motive supply the place or produce the results other.

of a good one. The teachers do not supply EMULATION.

these facilities, or encourage this talent, from In the Prussian and Saxon schools, emulation benevolence. It is speculation. It is pecuniary is still used as one of the motive powers to stu- speculation ; and if they did not anticipate a dy; but I nowhere saw the passion inflamed to richer return for their outlay, when invested in an insupportable temperature. I was uniformly this manner than when used in a legitimate told that its employment was becoming less and way, they would not incur such extraordinary less, and that the best authorities throughout trouble and risk. Hence they devote them. the country were now discountenancing, rather selves in an especial manner to the training of than encouraging it. Just in proporuon as the these prize-fighters, while other pupils suffer a qualifications of teachers had improved, it had proportional neglect. The very children, there. been found less necessary to enlist this passion fore, who are attracted to the school in conse. in their service ; and as the great idea of edu- quence of its celebrity, are defrauded of their cation,—that of the formation of Christian cha. share of attention, in order that the reputation racter and habits,-had been more and more of the school, for which they have been made developed, emulation had been found an adverse victims, may induce others to join it, to be made and not a favoring influence.

victims in their tarn. Thus the system pros. France and Scotland are the two countries in pers by the evil it works. There is the same Europe, where emulation between pupils, as ambition among the colleges to win the prizes one of the motive powers to study, is most vi. of the university. The day of examination, gorously plied. In France the love of approba. when these prizes are awarded, is one of great tion, of conspicuousness, of éclat, of whatever pomp and ceremony. The Minister of Public ministers to the national passion of vanity, holds Instruction, and other high official dignitaries, pre-eminence. In Scotland rivalry is more fre usually attend ; the king himself has sometimes quently stimulated by the hope of reward. been present in person; and it is a standing rule,

In one of the Pensions, or Boarding Schools, that the successful competitors are invited to of Paris, I was struck by the sight of a large dine at the royal table. number of portraits of young men. These were

Who that is conversant with the history of hung around the walls of the Principal's room, France does not see how much of lier poverty, which was a large apartment, three of whose her degradation and her suffering, even in the sides were nearly covered by them. They were proudest periods of her annals, is directly attri. the portraits of those pupils of the school who butable to this inordinate love of praise ; and had afterwards won prizes at a college exami. especially, how much of the humiliation of later nation. The name of the pupil, the year, and times,—when the charm of her invincibility was the subject matter on which he had surpassed broken, and she was obliged to ransom herself his competitors, were inscribed respectively be from the grasp of her conquerors, by gold wrung neath the portraits. In the room of the Head from her toiling millions,-is directly traceable of the Royal College at Versailles, I also saw to the predominance in her character of this love the portraits of those students of the College of applause. It was this blind passion for glory who had won prizes at the University. This which created Bonaparte, and which sustained display and the facts connected with it, speak him not less faithfully in all his vast schemes of volumes in regard to the French character, and wickedndss than in his plans for improvement. the motive powers under which not only the “Had the Romans not been sheep, Cæsar had scholars, but the nation works.

A brief ac

not been a wolf!" count of a single phasis of this system,--for it

Among all the nations of Christendom, our is reduced to a system, if not particularly in own is perhaps second only to France, in the teresting, may be instructive.

love of approbation as a prompter and guide to The Pensions, or Boarding Schools, are equi- action. Ought we then to cultivate this pas. valent to our Select or Private Schools. Their sion, already of inordinate growth, by the use patronage depends upon their reputation; and of emulation in our schools ? that reputation is mainly graduated by the number of distinguished scholars they send out. LOGARITHMS.-Logarithms in calculation are Hence to send pupils to the college who gain like the steam-engine in mechanics. They ena. prizes for scholarship, brings celebrity to the ble the calculator to overcome every obstacle, school and emolument to the master. To obtain and render the most intricate combinations of talented boys, therefore, becomes a grand object numbers comparatively easy.

BCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF BUFFALO. ist in other departments of life, in this pursuit

all should be placed on the same level, and ac. Extracts from the Report of S. CALDwu, city super.

knowledge a republic of letters. intendent, for 1843.

“How mistaken the policy that should sus.

tain a system that inculcates and presupposes a " In obedience to the charter of the city, the distinction of ranks arising from the possession superintendent of schools begs leave to submit of property. The world has often witnessed his annual report.

and groaned under such distinctions ; the gov. "Since the date of my report in February last, ernment from which we separated in 1776 is now the number of children in the city between the exhibiting the legitimate fruits of it, in the misages of five and sixteen years, has increased ery and destitution of the millions under the op. from four thousand seven hundred and ninety pressions of titled wealth. five to five thousand five hundred and seventy. "A Republic recognizes no such distinctions, three ; the number of colored children, between and should never exhibit such glaring evidences the same ages, has increased from seventy-nine of wickedness and mis-government. To guard to one hundred : the number of private and se against the possibility of a similar fate, educa. lect schools and academies in the city, at the tion must be made universal : instead of closing present time, is thirty-seven; the number of the door against the instruction of the poor, they scholars therein one thousand three hundred and should rather be compelled, as in Germany, to fifteen ; and the tuition the present quarter, be educated at the public expence. Hence the amounts to the sum of five thousand one hundred anxiety of patriots and philosophers, the vir. and nine dollars and twenty-nine cents; or, for : tuous and the good upon earth, to accomplish the whole year, twenty thousand four hundred this glorious result. The fathers of the revolu. and thirty seven dollars and sixteen cents." tion warned us that our liberties could only be

"Since my last annual report the increase and sustained on the virtue and intelligence of the improvement of the public schools have been people. It is the part of true wisdom to profit rapid and encouraging. In almost every dis- by the lessons of the past ; and whatever may trict it has been found necessary to furnish addi. be the dictates of prudence in regard to the local tional desks and seats, and in many of them ad. improvements of the city, no sordid selfishness ditional teachers. Hence it was found necessa. should interfere to bias the public councils or ry last spring to divide the school in district No. deceive the public mind when this great cause 9, into two departments; and although that dis. is urged upon their attention. True economy trict labors under the same embarrassment as demands the most liberal appropriations. Bring No. 14 and No. 2, for the want of a proper build. all the children of the city into the schools, and ing, yet the progress of the school has been vice and immorality will take their flight.' Our such as to meet the approbation of the district, courts and prisons will hear no more of juvenile as well as of those who have the charge and su. delinquents; and idleness, a prolific source of pervision of the school department.

mischief, will not be found enticing the honest "In the several districts not above alluded to, school-boy from his studies, or disturbing the the schools are large, and flourishing under the quiet of community by depredations upon the charge of successful teachers."

property of others. " More than three thousand volumes now be. "It is with the work of education as it is with long to the school library; of these more than the political movements of the country. At the four hundred volumes have been added since primary meetings the ball is set in motion that, my last annual report. A part of this library is in its course, may affect the policy, and perhaps at all times in the several districts, placed under settle the destinies of this entire nation. It the charge of the teachers for the use of the should be our glory to add the weight of our in. scholars; while much the larger portion of it fluence in the great effort, now in progress, to remains under the charge of the superintendent enlighten the minds and improve the morals of for the accommodation of the citizens at large. the generation that is soon to take our places, This benign arrangement brings the library with and assume the responsibilities that we now in the reach of every inhabitant ; more than bear : In the eloquent language of a western twelve hundred volumes, including those distri. statesman, “Let the commonwealth take care buted in the districts, are drawn and read every of the children, and the children will take care week. A slight examination of this matter will of the commonwealth." satisfy the Council that a librarian should be " We find ourselves in the midst of a period employed to take charge of the library, deliver that is making mighty strides in all the embel. and receive books, see to the district libraries, lishments of life, as well as in its substantial and keep the books in repair. The time of the benefits. New views are now entertained in re. superintendent should be devoted exclusively to gard to the theory of governments, and the con. the schools ; his visits to them should not be duct of individuals. Man is no longer regarded "few and far between," but his time should be as an instrument in the hands of a tyrannical spent in watching their progress, advising the master, but as a thinking being endowed by his teachers, encouraging the scholars, and keeping Maker with capacity to act and judge for him. the system in harmonious motion."

self, and responsible only to Him for the proper "The system should be brought to such per discharge of the trust that the social compact rection that the entire youth of the city should imposes upon him. Hence we behold the march begin and end their studies in the public schools. of mind into the infinite field of nature the proThey should from first to last know and feel that gress of knowledge, the prevalence of free printhe humblest scholar is equal with the highest; ciples and the community of nations, brought that the factitious circumstance of wealth is un. about by the application of science to the useful worthy of consideration while in the pursuit of arts. In this astonishing progress we find a knowledge; that, whatever distinctions may ex. i stimulus to exertion. As knowledge is exten.

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