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legislation. It must be adapted to awaken, and lions of the first child will render the practical concentrate, and give effect to the energies of the knowledge of the second easy of attainmentat any community. And what cannot Vermont accom- time. plish in this matter if she shall undertake? and what motives to undertake, and to persevere, exacted. A column or less of words is given out

In some of the schools, dictionary lessons are can be compared with those which are connected to be spelled and defined. Many excellent and with the vast results of the mental and moral experienced teachers consider this practice use. training of her children.”

ful. I do not so consider it. It appears to me

that the time consumed is worth more to the puNEW ORLEANS.

pil and teacher than the advantage gained. It Superintendency of Public Instruction, of the is very doubtful, if one, after defining from First Municipality.

memory every word in Walker's Dictionary, be.

ginning with "Abacus—the uppermost member T. SAWYER, Superintendent. of a column,” and ending a long and tedious jour. In former numbers of the Journal, we have ney through a world of words with “Zoophorus given mere extracts from the reports of the Su. --the member between the architrave and the perintendent (Mr. Shaw) of the Second Muni. ed. Few minds, I am confident, could stand

cornice," can be said to have been really benefit. cipality, and expressed our gratification at the es such a weight of verbiage. Nothing short of tablishment of its admirable system of common the indomitable energy and perseverance of Bun. schools. We have now the pleasure of report. ihe innumerable sloughs of despond that en.

yan's Pilgrim could bear them triumphantly over ing a similar movement, and promising similar counter them at every stage of their progress. results, in the First Municipality, the French If such words as Absonous, Accroach, Balnea. quarter of the City.

tion, Bellipotent, Castrametation, Counterscarp,

Dealbation, Elumbated, lacinorousness, Gym. From what we have heard of Mr. Sawyer, as nospermous, Hederaceous, Immarcessible, Scam. Superintendent of the District Schools of Michi. moniate, Tralineate, Xerocollyrium, Zetetick, gan, we can congratulate the promoters of this &c., &c., were to constitute the mile-stones on

their movement, in securing the services of an officer fore passing a hundredih part of them. The true

way, they would sink down in despair be. so able and devoted to these important duties. way to learn the precise import of words is in read.

We regret that we can give but few extracts ing and other exercises. The context generally from his excellent report.

determines their sense. In the dictionary, their There is a tendency, in some teachers, to ad- meaning is not always apparent from their defi. vance their pupils loo rapidly; to aim rather at nitions. Very often the definition itself wants extensive than al thorough instruction. This is a

defining. Yei is the dictionary useful. It is abTatal error, immediately detrimental to the pupil, solutely necessary in school as a book of fre. and sooner or later, as results show themselves, quent reference. The learner, in pronouncing to the teacher.- Education seeks to develop the and defining the words of his' lesson, may remind; and development, like the germination of ceive material aid from it. And if all teachers seeds, is imperceptibly slow. It can only be will impress upon their pupils the necessity of appreciated, at long intervals, in its effects. To studying every reading lesson as carefully as develop the mind, is to give it the power to think, they study their arithmetic, history and other or rather to evolve, as by a new creation, the lessons, passing no word, sentence, paragraph intellectual and moral capacities given to it by or chapter, without understanding and being able God. Ideas, and the self-motive faculty of pro. to explain it, column lessons in a Dictionary will ducing and re-producing them, not words or the cease to be considered essential to acquisition in mere accumulation of facts, are what the mind language. wants. The greatest knowledge does not neces In some schools, I have observed want of ani. sarily imply the highest education. That per- mation in the pupils during recitations. Dall. son,” says one, “is not the best educated, who ness is certainly not a characteristic of childhood. has learned the most, but he who knows best how One out of a number may perhaps be stupid by to learn."

nature; but a whole class cannot be : the fault Teachers should rather strive to keep their is oftener with the teacher than with the pupil. pupils back, than to spirit them forwaad ; at all Children can easily be made to take deep interest events it is their duty to see that every chapter in the subject matter of their lessons, and the read or recited is understood. Nochild should be teacher's first study should be how to excite and allowed to leave the primer, for instance, until the sustain it. A distinguished educator, speaking ideas, there presented in simple language, shall of schools abroad, says he has seen " classes have become its own. So of the other reading kepi for two hours in succession in a state of books. A sentence, fully comprehended, will do mental activity, with nothing more than an al. the pupil infinitely more good, than a book par. ternation of subjects during the time, cr perhaps tially understood. So of arithmetic. A child the relaxation of singing : and at the end of the that can answer readily any question in the oral recitation, both teacher and pupil would glow part of Emerson, giving the way and the where with heat, and be covered with perspiration, as fore of cach result, even if he cannot cipher ont, though they had been contending in the race or according to rule, a sum in simple division or re- the ring." "The moment an eye wanders," he peat the simplest table of compound numbers, is continues, or a countenance becomes listless, it better educated than one that can cipher through is roused by a special appeal; and the contagion the 3d book, but only refer to the printed rule as of the excitement is so great as to operate upon his guide in every case. The mental acquisi- every mind and frame that is not an absolute non

conductor to life.” It is a fact, too, that in Scot. more quiet and contented, the more serviceable land, Prussia and some other countries, this and useful will he be. The perfectibility of the power over the attention of a class is the first human nature, its constant power of improvetest of a teacher's qualifications.

ment is also its most noble faculty, and gives the clearest proof that it has come from God him

self, and when attracted to Him, will and should FREDERICK WILLIAM, III., KING OF PRUSSIA.

return again to the centre of all goodness. Every

thing that can be called an advance in this respect, We take the following from a late work of I have ever welcomed and aided with lively symBishop Eylert, entitled “Characteristic Traits pathy, and ever will aid and forward with the

most ready assistance as long as I live and rule. and Historical Fragments from the Life of the In this respect too much or enough can never be King of Prussia, Frederick William III.” It will done in or by means of either schools or churches. be recollected that it was under the auspices of Here to awaken, to excite and to advance, as

often and wherever this can be done, is indeed this truly great and enlightened monarch, that praiseworthy. All schoolmen and clergymen the existing Prussian school system was matured who have performed aught in this sphere, I and brought to its present state of excellence and therefore cherish and mark by my special favor.

“The spread of cultivation and intelligence, superiority. Those who can find nothing in that in all directions through national schools, is not system but despotism, sectarianism and aristoc- to be blamed; but this must not be the highest, racy, will do well to ponder upon the compre. the utmost goal: after all, the great, nay the hensive and noble views upon which it was calling, his character and his being.

only point to secure, is true excellence in a man's moulded, as given in the language of its royal "If I do not see the fruits of the people's edu. and distinguished patron.

cation, I cannot feel any great confidence in it. Deceived and fearfully mistaken are those

But the fault does not lie in the schools only; who deem that the study of the arts and scien- it lies also elsewhere. It is not true, at least not ces, alone, can make man happy: Cultivate, is the barbarism and ignorance of the people.

exclusively so, that, as some say, the real cause smooth and polish, render agreeable, it may, Instruct and educate that people, awake in them indeed; but that which would render the heart pure and sincere, firm and faithful, must have

a sense of honor, let men be made happy, and another origin.

Intellectual

they will then of themselves, become better.” cultivation, without moralimprovement, poisons

[From Wyse's work on Educational Reform.) the human community, the more the former waxes and the latter decreases. Where there is

CULTURE OF THE IMAGINATION no faith, there is also no truth and no honesty. “With respect to the louder and ever louder

The education of the Imagination is intended demands of the spirit of the age for the educa. to assist in the formation of the other facultiestion of the people, by means of improvement in to make us happy men. At the same time its the schools, I find myself in a somewhat pain: With an imagination which, instead of our being

utility depends immediately on its regulation. ful position, which has often caused me much anxiety: Úndoubtedly, national education is its master, has become ours, we are constantly the basis upon which national prosperity must exposed to folly or unhappiness. Like fire, it rest. A neglected, half-savage, ignorant peo.

is an admirable servant, but a tyrannical master. ple, cannot be good, and therefore cannot be

should not possess us, but we should possess happy. I have, therefore, yielded to the ge.

it. Within these limits a greater intellectual neral cry in this respect, and gladly granted and gift can hardly be bestowed on the weary pilallotted as much as possible, and as the admin. grim of this earth. Heaven knows, the Ideal, istration of the state finances permitted. With with all its gracious fantasies of joy and sorrow, pleasure, too, I hear the many praises of the flies from us but too soon; "too soon we lose, advances of our Prussian lands in this respect. one after the other, the morning companions of But very recently a curious statistical parallel our journey; good fortune passes, light-footed, amused me much, from which I learned that in away: Thirst of knowledge, indeed, remains my country, as compared with others, the great lost in the darkness of doubt. Love, with all

unsatisfied ; but the sunny gleam of Truth is est number of children received instruction, whilst on the other hand, there were still territo: her gentle gifts, follows in the train of the brief ries in Europe, in which no schools whatever spring; and high ambition, and all the large could be tound.

hopes and fond aspirations which we once formed. My opinion is this. Every buman being, the dreary heart.” We touch at last the cold re

for our country and our kind, die gradually in without exceplion, in every rank, has, as man, a twofold destination, one for heaven and eter

ality; we see nity, the other for this earth and his earthly cal.

• The holy crown of fame ling. Considered as an immortal being, there

Profaned by vulgar brows," may be no boundaries to his moral cultivation : And sink down the vale of life after our

weary the course opened before him is endless, and chase and wasted hour," with little more than a ceaselessly should he strive to become better and pale glimmering of hope to light us the remainbetter, that is, ever more pleasing to God, and der of our way. more similar in unity of spirit to his blessed

" All that can still nourish the heart in the Lord and Saviour. Never could he be so good midst of this barrenness; which can keep up that he could not become better. And the more the fresh fountains of youth in our withering moral and truly noble he is, and ever waxes, the existence; which can bring even a portion of

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its life into our life ; and not permit the world, Igression—no certain success. Nations, like in-
worldly as it is, to be wholly desecrated to our dividuals, will sit down and fall asleep.
sense-whatever can do this is a great and good Such is the utility of æsthetics--of their
gift to any human being, and at no time, and in beauty need I speak? What is more wonderful,
few countries, greater or better than in our own. amongst all the marvels of this glorious world,

It is not persisage, with all its levity, nor phi-than a human soul in the fulness of its develop losophism, with all its errors, which has so ma. ment? What more beautiful than all its depths terialized us; but the love and worship of gold, spread out, star-illumined, like those of the mid. a common.place, mercantile ambition, vulgar night heavens above us, with pure affections and means and palrty ends. The elevated, the true, bright thoughts? How doubly beautiful and how the pure, the constant, have ceased' from our doubly admirable is all this, in the perfect purity public morality—they are words of reproach, of youth, before the mist of this lower world deeds of folly, the knight-errantry of a by.gone hath yet come upon it! What a task, full of age, the romance of a patriotism which can exist sacred and inspiriting consolations, for a true no more.

We have got indeed, in return, politi teacher ? What an education that, which procal tact, and financial common sense ; the medi-poses to give to this wonderful being the entire ocrity and dexterity and utter selfishness, and enjoyment and mastery of these wonders—the all the little vices of little men; patriotism that perfect possession of itself!" traffics ; “pride that licks the dust;" firmness in. domitable on paper ; governments just, through

LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS. force or fear; and nations that rant of liberty to the music of their chains. Let us then cling to her chamber in the third story of a lofty house at

A young lady who resides in the country, has whatever God has planted in us of spiritual—to no great distance from an extensive wood or whatever may still linger with us of the frank park. The windows are furnished with Veneness and freshness of our first nature-of the tian shutters, leaving a space of about six devotedness and the truc-heartedness of youth. inches between them and the glass sashes. These are the regenerators which we want. Early in the last winter the lady observed that imaginations or realities-wisdom or folly- a beautiful squirrel ha: sought this refuge from they at least raise us and keep us above the sor. did and the vile; they give us another conscience She gave the little creature a kind and hospitable

the season, and snugly located himself there. besides expediency, and a nobler glory than successful chicane. We have had enough of the other dainties, and leaving him at liberty to go

welcome, feeding him plentifully with nuts, and material and the gross enough of earth; it is to his wood, and return at his pleasure, which time that a higher and purer spirit, somewhat he did daily. After a short time he brought a more allied to soul, somewhat less to should be allowed to breathe upon us, as in the companion to share the comfort and luxury of

his habitation, and went on increasing their olden time; and if it cannot purge us from this number till the colony amounted to nine or ten dross, to preserve at least from such contagion, more, who were furnished by their kind host, that young and yet untainted generation which ess with boxes for their shelter, and soft wool is destined so soon to take our place.

for their bedding, which they arranged to their "The Imagination should be diligently and taste, and used without fear, making occasional lovingly conducted, not for its own sake only, visits to the park for variety and exercise. They but for the sake of all the other powers which showed no reluctance or distrust when the win. walk with it. It has an immediate, and when dow was raised for the curiosity of visitors, or so taught, a most kindly influence upon that por- to give them their food; and they seemed as tion of Intellectual Education known as the Æs- conscious of safety as they were of the comfort thetic--the education of sentiment of the feel and luxury of their living. What sort of intelli. ings. This portion is generally left in our pub- gence existed between these little animals and lic schools, even in its connection with religion, their friends in the woods, that they could com: a chill and dreary blank. Yet how beautiful,municate to them the good quarters they had how glorious might it be made! how kindling discovered, and induce them to follow to this with life! how truly, how intensely, life itself comfortable abode? The first adventurer, who We have hearts, as well as heads; we should may be called the Columbus of the settlement, call into action far more energetically than we must have been able to inform his followers of do this better portion of our nature. Éducation the warm home and delicate fare prepared for is only knowledge, without the love of moral them : and perhaps he allured them by describbeauty; without the sense of higher perfection ing the gay and gentle spirit, and captivating to which we are constantly.to tend, it is slug- charms of the fair patroness.- National Gazette. gish self-conceit. If it does not lead us far be. yond this, it fails in its most essential quality. A young man, just entering upon the duties of It may give us palisades, to prevent us from fall. life, can commit no greater mistake than to con. ing over precipices; but what we want is force sider himself above his business—that such to impel us on the road. It may give us deco. branches only as are particularly pleasant are rous mediocrity-means to conceal under propri. worthy of his consideration; and that, in many eties, defects ; but sobriety is not thought-nei. respecis, instead of serving himself and his emther is absence of vice, virtue ; nor exemption ployers, he must be served. Let such an one, from mistake, truth. If we are to look to pro. if he would win 'golden opinions,' and find gold, priety, let it be to the lofty propriety of ancient strive to be useful, by atiending steadily to his excellence. Let it be dashed with something business study order, neatness, economy, solike heart, with something we may feel to be briety and temperance, discard 'idleness, false soul. Without this there will be no fermenta- pride, hypocrisy, dandyism and tobacco, and be tion, either in the man or in society-no true pro- / "'very inch a man."

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[Tree Leopard at Bay.) The leopard of Southern Africa is known farmers also, for his ravages among the flocks, among the Cape colonists by the name of tiger : and among the young foals and calves in the but is, in fact, the real leopard, the felis ju. | breeding season. bato of naturalists. It differs from the panther The leopard is often seen at night in the vilof Northren Africa in the form of its spots, in ine lages of the negroes on the west coast; and bemore slender structure of its body, and in the ing considered a sacred animal, is never hunted, legs not being so long in proportion to its size. though children and women are not unfrequentIn watching for his prey the leopard crouches ly destroyed by him. In the Cape Colony, on the ground, with his fore-pawe stretched out where no such respect is paid him, he is shyer and his head between them, his eyes rather die and much more in awe of man. But though in rected upwards. His appearance in his wild South Africa he seldom or never ventures to at state is exceedingly beautiful, his motions in the tack mankind, except when driven to extremity higbest degree easy and graceful, and his agility (unless it he some poor Hottentot child now in bounding among the rocks and woods quite and then that he finds unguarded), yet in remote amazing. Of this activity no person can have places, his low, half-smothered growl is freany idea by seeing these animals in the cages quently heard at night, as he prowls around in which they are usually exhibited in Europe, the cottage or the kraal, as the writer of this humbled and tamed as they are by confinement notice has a hundred times heard it. His purand the damp cold of our climate.

pose on such occasions is to break into the sheepThe leopard is chiefly found in the mountain fold, and in this purpose he not unfrequently ous districts of South Africa, where he preys on succeeds, in spite of the troops of fierce watchsuch of the antelopes as he can surprise, or dogs which every farmer keeps to protect his young baboons, and on the rock bådgers on Pocks. rabbits. He is very much dreaded by the Cape' The leopard, like the hyæna, is often caught

in traps constructed of large stones and timber, AFFECTION OF INSECTS FOR THEIR ! butupon the same principle as a common mouse

YOUNG. trap. When thus caught, he is usually baited The dragon-fly is an inhabitant of the air, and with dogs, in order to train them to contend could not exist in water ; yet in this last element, with him, and seldom dies without killing one which is alone adapted for her young, she ever or two of his canine antagonists. When hunted carefully drops her egg. The larvæ of the gadin the fields he instinctively betakes himself to fly are destined to live in the stomach of the a tree, if one should be within reach. In ihis horse. How shall the parent, a two winged fly, situation it is exceedingly perilous to approach convey them thither? By a mode truly extraordiwithin reach of his spring; but at the same nary. Flying round the animal, she commonly time, from his exposed position, he becomes an poises her body for an instant, while she glues easy prey to the shot of the huntsman.

a single egg to one of the hairs of his skin, and The South African leopard, though far infe- repeals this process until she has fixed in a simirior to the lion or Bengal tiger in strength and lar way many bundred eggs. These, after a few intrepidity, and though he usually shuns a con. days, on the application of the slightest moisture flict with man, is nevertheless an exceedingly attended by warmth, hatch into little grubs. active and furious animal, and when driven io Whenever, therefore, the horse chances to lick desperation becomes a truly formidable antago- any part of his body to which they are attached, nist. The Cape colonists relale many insle nthe moisture of the tongue dislodges one or more ceb of frightful and sometimes fatal encounters grubs, which, adhering to it by means of the between the hunted leopard and his pursues. saliva, are conveyed into the mouth, and thence The following is a specimen of these adventures. find their way into the stomach. But here a It occurred in 1822, when the present writer question occurs to you. It is but a small portion of was in the interior of the colony; and is here a horse's body that he can reach with his given as it was related to him by an individual tongue-what, you ask, becomes of the eggs who knew the parties engaged in it.

deposited on other parts? I will tell you how Two African farmers, returning from hunting the gad-fly avoids this dilemma; and I will then the hartebeel(antelope bubalis) roused a leopard ask you if she does not discover a provident in a mountain ravine,and immediately gave chase forethought, a depth of instinct, which almost, to him. The leopard at first endeavored to es. casts into the shade the boasted reason of man? cape by clambering up a precipice ; but being She places her eggs only on those parts of the hotly pressed, and wounded by a musket-ball, skin which the horse is able to reach with his "he turned upon his pursuers with that frantic tongue ; nay, she confines them almost exclusive. ferocity peculiar to this animal on such emergen. Iy to the knee or shonlder, which he is sure to lick. cies, and springing on the man who had fired at What could the most refined reason, the most him, tore him from his horse to the ground, bit. precise adaptation of means to an end, do ing him at the same time on the shoulder, and more ?-Kirby and Spence's Entomology. tearing one of his cheeks severely with his claws, The other hunter seeing the danger of his com. rade, sprang from his horse and attempted to EXCESS IN THE PURSUIT OF KNOW. shoot the leopard through the head ; but, wheth

LEDGE. er owing to trepidation, or the fear of wounding The principal end why we are to get know. bis friend, or the quick motions of the animal, ledge here is to make use of it for the benefit of he unfortunately missed. The leopard, aban. ourselves and others in this world; but if by doning his prostrate enemy, darted with redoub gaining it we destroy our health, we labour for å led fury upon his second antagonist, and so fierce thing that will be useless in our hands, and if by and sudden was his onset, that before the boor harassing our bodies (though with a design to could stab him with his hunting-knife the render ourselves more useful), we deprive our. savage beast struck him on the head with his selves of the abilities and opportunities of doing claws, and actually tore the scalp over his eyes. that good we might have done wiih a meaner In this frightful condition the hunter grappled talent, which God thought sufficient for us, by with the leopard ; and, struggling for life, they having denied us the strength to improve it to rolled together down a steep declivity. All this that pitch, which men of stronger constitutions passed far more rapidly than it can be described can attain to, we rob God of so much service, in words. Before the man who had been first and our neighbour of all that help, which, in a attacked could start to his feet and seize his gun, state of health, with moderate knowledge, we They were rolling one over the other down the might have been able to perform. He that sinks bank. In a minute or two he had reloaded his his vessel by overloading it, though it be with gun, and rushed forward to save the life of his gold and silver and precious stones, will but give friend. But it was too late. The leopard had his owner but an ill account of his voyage.-- Locke. seized the unfortunate man by the throat, and mangled him so dreadfully, that death was inevi. INFLUENCE OF DOMESTIC HABITS. table ; and his comrade (himself severely wound. The man who lives in the midst of domestic ed)had only the melencholy satisfaction of com relations will have many opportunities of con: pleting the distruction of the savage beast, al-ferring pleasure, minute in detail, yet no trivial ready exhausted with the loss of blood from in the amount, without interfering with the pur. several deep wounds by the desperate knife of poses of general benevolence. Nay, by kind. the expiring huntsman.

ling his sensibility, and harmonising his soul,

they may be expected, if he is endowed with a When you have spoken the word, it reigns liberal and manly spirit, to render him more over you : but while it is not yet spoken, you prompt in the service of strangers and the pubreign over it.

lic.-Godrin's Preface to St. Leon

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