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1, 1842, concludes a notice of one of these schools ted other teachers in the work of self.culture; in these words: “If this and similar institutions and even in those parts of the commonwealth shall continue and prosper, their good effects which have received no direct advantage from will be more and more manifest in the better the establishment of these institutions, either in health and improved dispositions, the superior the education or employment of normal scholars, intelligence, the more real information, the high- a spirit of emulation has been ercited, an ader morality, and the greater goodness of the vance has been made in the qualification of teachchildren of our land."

ers, and a salutary impulse has been given to In a report made to the board of education in the cause of education. They express a “deep 1842, it was stated, " such is the estimation in regret" that they have not the means to send a which their services have been held, that many well-fitted, certificated normal scholar into at districts which have once employed normal least each town in the commonwealth. scholars, are extremely unwilling to employ any In their report the present year, the board say other teachers.”

of the Lexington school, " Such is the reputaAs the funds in the hands of the board for the lion of this school, that applications have been support of the normaal schools would be exhaus. made to it from seren of our sister states for ted that year, early in the session of 1812 a joint teachers." conmittee of the two houses was appointed to An important question here arises, how are examine and report apon the propriety of making these instilutions regarded in those sections of a further appropriation to aid those schools. the state which have had an opportunity of em

Before that committee, on the 16th of Februa: ploying the normal scholars as teachers ? In ry, Mr. Emerson, one of the most distinguished looking over the reports of the town school offi. and successful educationists of that or any other cers during the years 1811-2,* after these instistate, after speaking in strong terins of approval tutions had been in operation little more than of the normal schools, said : " In a large town Ihree years, they find not one instance of disapwhich he had visited during the summer, the probation or disappointment expressed—but they unanimous testimony of the school committee do find many of the reports from seven out of was given to the superiority of that one of the fourteen counties, speak of the normal schools teachers who had passed through the normai with marked commendation. As specimens, the school, over all others in the place. The Hon. following are selected: The school committee of Horace Mann, the secretary of the board of the town of Lincoln say, that in one teacher from education, read before the same committee - six the normal school they have "had an opportuor eight letters from a large file that he had re. nity of witnessing the effects of teaching upon ceived unsolicited, from school committees resi. the teacher ; though young and inexperienced, ding in the country, in regard to the success of she appeared to understand her place well. There, the normal pupils, as teachers, in their respective was a directness in her teaching which we too towns." These letters spoke of the better class seldom see; she had an object always before her, of the pupils from the normal schools as decided. and was constantly advancing towards it; her ly superior to any teachers of which the commit. object seemed to be to fix the lesson more deeply tees had ever had any knowledge : and it was in the child's mind,” &c. Another town comsaid that the second-rate Teachers were better than mittee say, “the establishment of normal schools common school teachers had ordinarily been."'* | has done much and will do every thing to reform

The joint committee, “ without a dissenting the system of teaching, il persevered in." Ano' voice," recommended that the sum of six thou. other says, “if this town could have two or sand dollars be annually appropriated for three three teachers annually, who had enjoyed the years to the support of normal schools. The privileges of a normal school, that would be of resolution to that effect, passed in the House of ten-fold more benefit to our schools than any Representatives 6 by a large majority and with other measure that could be adopted.” Another out a count”-in the Senate by à voie of 20 to town uses these words, “ we look for still greater 12, and was approved by the Governor on the improvement through the agency of the normal 3d March, 1842.7

schools, or schools for the especial education of This was the second legislative scrutiny to teachers, whose establishinent we hail with great which these schools had been subjected. They joy: They must soon introduce a new era, by were a serious innovation and early excited aigiving dignity to the teacher's calling, by bringtention, not to say suspicion and jealousy in some ing into the work minds that are well disciplined ininds. In March, 19:10, they were examined and trained. By raising the standard of by a legislative committee, hostile to their con the teacher's qualifications, by making good tinuance, and an attempt was made to abolish teachers more common, by throwing light along them, and signally failed; they had so far dis- their pathway, hy diffusing among all the expearmed this prejudice that when the ierm of three rienced and improved methods of all, and by years, for which provision had been made for demonstrating how good an education may be them, was about to expire, the legislature, as given at the common school, when it shall be already stated, with great promptness, made an perfected as a system-by all these means the appropriation for their further support.

normal schools will act upon the public schools, In their sixth annual report to the legislature, and through them upon the moral and social con(1843,) the board of education say: "The pu- dition of the people at large, with the happiest pils who have gone forth from these schools have results.” Another town bears this testimony, met with extraordinary success in the perform.

“public opinion has grown stronger and stronger ance of their duties. Their success has stimula. in support of these institutions, till the time has

arrived when their opponents are converted into *Mass. Com. School Jour. vol. iv. p. 85, 98.

*The committee have not access to returns of a more tVol. iv. Mass. Com. School Jour. p. 97, 104,

recent date,

friends, and men of all parties equally unite in interest the thoughtless, to repress the mischiev. commending !hem to the patronage of every phious? A matter of no trilling consideration, is lanthropist in the state. We make but one the fact, that scholars require some opportunity more extract from these reports : " No measure to become acquainted with the ways and has ever been devise:l, tending so directly to the mode of instruction of the teacher before they improvement of our sy tem of public instruction, can make all the improvement that the comas the establishment of these school. The spe. mon school is capable of imparting. The cific design of them is to prepare teachers for our reputation of a hich school or an academy would common schools. The results of the experiinent soon le frittered away by a constant change of in cur own county, (Plymouth,) so far as they principals onec in two or three years; :2nd have have had time to appear, have been most satis district schools no reputation to suffer from the factory. We, of this town, have had some means inore frequent recurrence of the same course? of judging. Five of our young women, and tiro

We look to the establishment of normai schools of our young men have speni, part of them six as a means of curing or modifying this evil. months, and part of them a year, in the normal from town oilicers, from county superintend. school, an. have received instructions in all the ents, froin the friends of education in all parts elementary branches of learning, much more of the state, the call has been and yet is long thorough, and much better adaptel to enable and loud--"give us better qualifici teachers,” themselves to teach, than they could have re- until that call can be responded to, there will ceived at any school or academy with which we continue to be change of teachers; intelligent are acquainted.”

districts will not be satisfied with indifferent or In concluciing so much of the report as has poorly qualified teachers; if they chance to en. particular reference to the normal schools of gage such once, they will not do it the second Massachusetts, the cominittee would say, that time. twelve of the normal scholars, all females, are If this demand can be supplied with qualified now employed as teachers in the public schools professional teachers, this evil will cease; and of Boston; that an intelligent school orlicer, such teachers we can only obtain by educating. whose duty it is in some districts of the town 10 It may be said that thus far the supply has select teachers, remarked to the chairman, that equalled the demanl, and that it will so continue other things being equal, he invariably gave the to do. There are unmistakable signs in various preference to those teachers who had spent some parts of the state, that the nature of that de. time at the normal schools; that a year's train and is undergoing a change--that the time is ing there was more than equal to three years' ex- coming when teacher's qualifications must be perience, the acquirements in other respects being greatly advanced from what many of them now the same in each case. Another school officer are. It is painful to reflect that the demand for remarked that a good teacher from the normal better qualified teachers has already outstripped school, would and did advance schools in ore the supply; and that this supply will now be the year, as far as common teachers did in two years, work of years. A good teacher cannot be preor cren three years.

pared as a merchant or manufacturer tills an orIn those schools taught by these and other der for goods. Even Adam Smith excepts edugood teachers, so far as the same were visited, cation from the mercantile or economical law, children of four and five years of age, seemed that the supply will follow and equal the de as interested, attentive and orderly as older schol. mand. “In every age, even among the heathen," ars; pnpils of 6 and 7 years of age, judging by says Martin Luther," the necessity has been question and black-board, were as conversant felt of having good schoolmasters in order to with geography generally, topography, mental make any th ng respectable of a nation. But and written arithmetic, &c., as those in our dis. surely we are not to sit still and wait until they trict schools who have the advantage of ten ad. grow up of themselves. We can neither chop ditional years.

them out of wood, nor hew them out of stone. Such was the origin—such the growth-such God will work no miracles to furnish thât which the effect—and such is now the appreciation of we have the means to provide. We must, there. normal schools in the commonwealth of Massa- fore, apply our care and money to train up and chusetts, a commonwealth that last year paid to make them."* wards educating in its public schools its 181,896 One obstacle in the way of making teaching children between the ages of 4 and 16, $517,- to any extent a profession, has been inadequacy 215.97, of which $510,590.02 were raised by of compensation. But in very many districts, a direct tar. In the five preceding years its has not the pay been fully equal to the worth of three hundred and eight towns expended in the servires rendered? Have not very many teach. erection of school houses alone, $516,122.71. ers felt and acted the veritable saying of the

What improvement san be looked for in schools, English dame, it is but little they pays ere, when change, change, is the one unchanging sea- and it is but little I teaches them.ture.

It is believed that but very few instances can Experience has long since taught that the fre. I have occurred in this state where persons have quent change of teacher is the great bane ofitted themselves to teach, and had “ sufficient schools; that when a teacher is “ apt to teach " | ability” to instruct and manage a school, and yet --has a good faculty of governing, the school failed to obtain employment and reasonable comwill make much greater proficiency the second pensation. term than it can the first. It takes a quick teach. Perhaps the most serious obstacle in the way

er several weeks to become thoroughly acquaint- of making teaching a profession, remains yet to • ed with the various attainments, the dispositions be noticed—the low estimation in which that ocand capacities of each scholar; and without such aoquaintance how can he know what incentives

*Filth Annual Report of Secretary of kass. Board are best adapted to spur forward the laggard, to 'Eurication.

cupation is held, especially so much of it as per- are to be spent in the office of a practising lawtains to common schools.

yer. It has also denied hitherto, to those who How can this be otherwise, so long as so great assume the care of the body, the aid of its laws a proportion of novices, ignoramuses, and in to collect pay for their services, unless a fixed competents are permitted to hold the station of course of study, or attendance upon lectures, has public teachers?

been rigidly pursued and properly certified. Yet In too many cases teaching is resorted to by thus far, neither common consent, nor common academic and college students merely to eke out understanding, nor statutory provision, have rea stinted income to aid in completing their studies quired any apprenticeship, any special education, -by young girls desirous of obtaining the means the spending of any fixed term of time, preparatoof finishing their education by spending one or ry to entering upon an employment where is laid two terms at a higher seminary. The ruling the very foundation of all these superstructures. motive here is praiseworthy, and far be it from Here, inexperienced, unskilful hands are per. the committee to disparage a youth of scanty mitted to make experiments to perfect themselves means making such efforts to obtain an educa --and yet the subjects of these experiments are tion; but the fact is nevertheless true, that not immorial beings. unfrequently schools sufler by the employment

From the very nature of the case, the teaching of such teachers. Their minds are inteni upon of such teachers cannot but be in low estimation; their own studies--io them their hours out of the art they practice suffers by their inexperischool are devoted; with such the duties in the cnce and unskilfulness. If no preparation, no school-room must and to become secondary con training preparatory to the practice of that 'art, siderations; not expecting or desiring a perman- continue to be thought necessary, it must remain ent connexion, there cannot be that entire giving where it now is in the public estimation. It can up of the whole mind and attention to a tempo- never be elevated while so little is required from rary occupation, which yet is so essential to en- those who practise it. sure success in any employment, and especially w** in that of teaching school.

COMMUNICATION. There is another class, quite too numerous, whose mercenary motive is not extenuated or EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION. I rel ieved by so laudable an object--a class who engage in teaching without any love for the art, (By the author of Popular Lessons, School •Friend, &c.) without any consideration of the incomputable importance of the trust committed to them Dr. Julius, a functionary of the Prussian gowithout any other further object than to keep vernment, sent some years ago to this country to scholars and parents from complaining until the examine our institutions, told the writer, that school closes. They enter the school-room as once being in a large school in one of our cities, the eye-servant enters the shop or the field, to he asked the scholars to tell him of a specimen spend the allotted time-to waich for the going of an animal, vegetable, and mineral, and to down of the sun-to count the hours, the days, describe the distinctive character of each. Not the weeks, the months, that must come and go one of them did it. Now not one of these childuill" the last day"arrives, when the lask will be ren was liable to confound the three kingdoms ended and the money be received.

of nature; they had never been pointed out to Can such a teacher protit a school? Can such them. Mr. George Combe. in his book of traa teacher be respected by his scholars, by his vels in America, says that when in Philadelphia employers, by himself? This class of teachers in the public school, a boy read the phrase, must disappear before the occupation of teaching “Mr. Jefferson ratified the treaty," he enquired can become respectable, sufficiently so to be re- of him what it signified. The boy made no recognized as a profession. It must come to be ply, and the teacher remarked that he did not more generally understood and acted upon, that know, and that he had, himself, no time to exa poor teacher is very poor—that all of necessi

. plain such things;-he supposed the boy would ty are poor teachers who have not taken some understand what he read when he should be oldpains, spent some time specially, to fit themselves er. This schoolmaster was no philosopher; he for teaching--that greai skill and experience are supposed that the boy would form the habit of requisite to know how to teach well. By com- reading without information, and then, at last mon consent, it is necessary to serve an appren: truth would reveal itself to his benighted under ticeship of years to know how to make a hai, a standing, notwithstanding his superinduced shoe, a coai, or erect a building, and then the blindness. The schoolmasters in Holland, beapprentice is admitted and recognized as a sides competent knowledge of the elements workman," a mechanic."

taught, are required to possess “ cultivated A common understanding seems to prevail minds,” because such mind alone enables a man among most Christian denominations, that no one to aid his pupil intelligently. shall be recognized as rightfully having " the The mere capability of reading is only an incore of souls," who has not, preparatory to the let to truth-an avenue that may be opened or exercise of that “ function," spent some time choked up by the manner in which initiatory with an approved divine, or at some seminary reading is practised. When Sir William Jones specially instituted for the education of the min. was a child, his mother had not leisure to anistry.

swer all the questions he asked her, she put The state, too, has not regarded as beneath him in a way to gain the knowledge he sought its care, to require that no man shall be recog. hy this reply-"Read, and you will know." nized as competent to take charge, in its couris Ii is not to be presumed that this judicious moof justice, of the property, the reputation, or the ther did not give the child the right book when life of his fellow.men, until he has gone through she commanded him to read. She thus made a course of seven years' study; three of which 'him depend upon his own mind, and the great

depository of books. She taught him self-reli. facility is to educate the people; and he preance, while she made him feel that his own in- sumes rightly; he will have abundant reason to sufficient powers might be aided by information calculate that no particular amount of know. of others, which, however, would not be ac. ledge, no elegant scholarship, no elevated moral corded to him without labor of his own. This aim on his part, is requisite to his enterprise, explains the whole theory of the use of books. till some predisposing influence, not at present The book is essential to the enlargement of in. exerted in this matter, shall suspend the pur. dividual knowledge—but it must be the right chase of school books; shall make the selector book-one fitted to serve its use, and not imper. . of such books willing to examine them, capable fect in regard to its peculiar designs,

of judging them, and scrupulous in comparing The books for the use of the young ought to them with what has been done or may be done. be written in a clear, popular style, always ha- Now the writer depends upon his

publisherving regard to elegance and good laste, with as then he will rely upon the intrinsic worth of little admixture as possible of difficult terms; what he can offer to the teacher and the taught. and they should be iilustrated and rendered in. Then, out of the good treasure of his mind he teresting by practical examples. At present will bring forth things new and old, and make such books are rare-almost unknown: their of them a seed for good ground;—now he may composition requires talents of a peculiar cha. take a pair of scissors, and just arrange certain racter--the talent that is well informed with matter, more or less profitable, according to the knowledge of the human mind in its successive syllables contained in the words of it; and if he stages of development; and which has been it. offend not against decency—the reach of his lesself improved with a higher knowledge than the sons--their consecutive meaning, and progres. elementary. The latter is strictly connected sive wisdom will be of small importance to the with the former. The composition of clemen- reception of his books. tary works, has, hitherto, been left to very in We are ourselves a teacher of the young; we ferior hands--to writers not afraid of, nor sub- have followed this vocation many long years; ject to criticism; for no cognizance whatever is and of all the hindrances that have prevented taken of them by the higher powers. " Do you the efficacy of our labors, the want of proper know Mr. Brown?" said a man to Dr. Johnson, books for our work has most done so. We have What! Tom Brown who wrote a spelling wished to misspend no time and no effort-10 book, and dedicated it to the Universe?”—was train up children in the way they should go-to the great lexicographer's answer The very make them see truth, and love it above all things tone of this answer shows how the poor word. -to make the printed page the very mirror of monger was regarded by the critic. In like God's world and God's will—to lead the young manner the caterers for children are still regard. learner from the first hymn of his infancy to ed by the purveyors for maturity. This ought the "brightest heaven of invention"-from not to be. Proficients in science, and all truth, Watt's “Busy bee” to Milton's celestial hier. owe services to the community, to every class archy—and we want all children to be so irain. of it, from the earliest stage of life-some su. ed. And they will—they must be, if we have pervision of the humbler works that predispose but the will, the skill, the patience to seek out or indispose to the reception of the higher. the very best means of instruction, and then to

There is nothing that calls more loudly for make use of them. improvement among us than school-books. "The best possible school book would teach the teach

DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS. er as well as the pupil. Who that uses Col. burn's First Lessons does not bless the memory

Boyle entitled one of his essays, “Of Man's of that gisted person, who began at the begin. Great Ignorance of the Uses of Natural Things, ning of his science, and still leads innumerable or, that there is no one thing in nature whereof minds right onward to the higher processes of the uses to human life are yet thoroughly under. the understanding?

stood.” The whole history of the arts, (observes “Books," said Grimes, " are not dead things, Sir John Herschel in his “ Discourse on the but do contain a potency of life in them, as ac? Study of Natural Philosophy,'') since Boyle's tive as that soul whose progeny they are. They time, has been one continued comment on this preserve, as in a vial, the purest efficacy, and text. Nor are we to suppose that the field is in extraction of that living intellect which bred the slightest degree narrowed, or the chances in them.

They are as vigorously productive as favor of such fortunate discoveries at all de. the fabulous dragon's teeth.” Hence it follows creased, by those which have already taken that school books should be sifted as wheat. place; on the contrary, they have been incalcu. We deprecate a censorship of the press, but we lably extended. Science, therefore, in relation would invite enlightened criticism--not that to our faculues, still remains boundless and unwhich is paid, or expects to be paid for its ora.

explored. cular opinions, but just such a criticism as the highest minds' exercise upon works of the high. ing bread or giving poison? Is it the fruit of

Are we teaching or are we not? Are we givest pretensions, from the love of literature and the tree of life, or the fruit of the tree of knowthe love of truth. From such an ordeal, pre- ledige only, which, if it makes us like unto Gods, tension, or ignorant presumption, could not es. | drives us out of Paradise at the same time, which cape; and from it the philosophic writer might we are holding forth to the eager appetites of the expect a sentence of justice as sufficient for the country? These are momentous questions.proper exhibition of his value as the furnace is

Wyse. to the ore of the mine.

Whoever writes children's books and expects The most fomiliar and intimate habitudes, conto penetrate the popular mind with them hy aid nexions and frien !ships, require a degree of of a bookseller, presumes that mere commercial good breeding to preserve them.

MISCELLAN Y. The following extracts, with their illustra. nication, whether for a single individual or a tions, are from a very curious and interesting load of goods. The roads were not only very book, recently published by W. H. Colyer, left by the Romans.

narrow, but nowhere graded, except a few roads New-York, entitled the Social History of Great The government couriers were the letter. Britain, by William Goodman.

carriers. There is now in preservation a letter

from Mr. Bagg, (dated 1623,) deputy mayor of . HOME TRAVELLING.

Plymouth, to Sir Edward Conway, Strand, Lon

don, with all its endorsements on it at the va. "Boon shall thy arm, unconquer'd steam, afar Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car,

rious posts during the distance, which is 211 or Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear

214 miles : it took the courier fifty-seven hours. The flying chariot through the fields of air." In 1825 the defiance coach used regularly to trav.

Darwin, 1793.

el the same distance in twenty-seven hours. This quotation contains a prophecy. At the These government couriers were under mar. time it was written, steam was only in its infan- tial law; and if it was found they anywhere lin. cy; but it presents an admirable contrast to the gered, they were liable to be hanged, as a warn. state of travelling at the beginning of the seven-ing to the next. teenth century, two centuries before the lines

PILLION RIDING. apply. To state the case in a concise manner, "This riding double was no crime as it has been stated, * " in our domestic traffic, In the first great Edward's time, pack-horses have given way to wagons; wagons

No brave man thought himself disgraced to canals, and canals to rail-roads." But I ap

By two fair arms about his waist;

Nor did the lady blush vermilion prehend my readers would not be satisfied,

Sitting on the lover's pillion, without I stated how these gradations came Why? because all modes and actions about ; and this I propose doing in this chapter.

Bowed not then to vulgar fractions, A Lancashire gentleman now can have his

Nor were tested all resources own carriage, containing himself and family in

By the power to purchase horses." side, and some of his domestics out, put upon a

QUEEN ELIZABETH often used to ride, on state railroad car, his own horses, which drew him occasions, on a pillion, behind the lord chancel. down to the station, put into safe boxes on an.

lor or lord chamberlain. other car, and he will be set down in London (a

COACHES. distance of two hundred miles) in twelve hours. It is said to have been Henry Fitzallon, lord jemaNow, let us see what was done in 1603. steward of her household, who introduced coach. Queen Elizabeth died at three o'clock on the es. It is well known she had William Boonen, morning of Thursday, 24th March. Sir Robert a Dutchman, for her first coachman, in 1564. Careyf stole away from Richmond Palace, and As the nobility at this period lived mostly by arrived in Edinborough, with the news to King the side of the Thames, they used to move about James, in the course of the following Saturday in their own splendid barges, until they began night. The distance from Richmond to London to have coaches, which at first were driven is nine miles; from London to Edinborough, 383 (though so clumsy) with two horses ; but the miles. This is the present distance : it may be profligate Buckingham flourished away with six, within bounds to assume that the distance at that and sometimes eight. time was 400 miles. He performed this distance In 1605 coaches were partially used by the on single horses, say in sixty hours; and, taking nobility and gentry. into consideration the then state of the roads, he In 1625 Captain Baily, an old sea officer, first would be pronounced a good horseman. Hor- set up coaches to ply for hire; hence they obses at that time were the only means of commu- tained the name hackney.coaches.

[graphic]

HACKNEY Coach, 1623. H

Gentlemen's Magazine, 1838.

The following extract is from Dr. Bannatyne's ScrapWith, I suppose, bottelles of wine strapped to his book, as given in Dr. Cleland's statistical account of

Glasgow: saddele, and pastyes of

salmonde, troutes, and egles wrapted in toweles."-Froissart, by BERNERS.

The public have now been so long familiar to stage.

coaches, that they are led to think they have always # In 1713 Briscol (then the second port in the kingdom) existed.' It is, however, even in England, of compara. had no carts; but ihe traffic was all moved about the tively late date. city on sledges, winter and summer. I was

The late Mr. Andrew Thompson, sea., told me that

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