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both in the pupils and the master, and every the immediate and peryading presence of the where the same kind of instruction.

great Fountain of life, and light, and happiness. The most remarkable thing of all is, that they To us the moral is one full of interest and in. have arrived at this state of excellence in a few struction. The gardens of Paradise are open to years ; by means simple in themselves. A short all; the " tree of knowledge of good and evil” account of this important operation is essential is still standing in the midst ; and the solemn in. to the right fulfilment of our object.

junction of the Creator of our spirits, warning Thirty years ago, the inferior school of us to beware lest we put forth our hands and Holland resembled those of the same class in take and eat of its forbidden fruit, is ever sound. other countries. Masters, nearly as ignorant ing in our ears. Shall this voice continue to be as the children they had to teach, succeeded unheeded, and the arts of the tempter still prevail, with difficulty to impart, in several years, a until the flaming sword of the angel of retributive slender amount of instruction in reading and justice debars us forever from the Eden of our writing to a small number of scholars. There existence? Shall we not rather listen to the voice was no general superintendence of the schools; of God, speaking through nature and revelation ; the most of them were set up on private specu learn to know ourselves, and our whole duty ; lation: the different religious sects maintained and cheerfully and intelligently fulfil the purposes several for their poor, under the supervision of and the end of our being, while we daily and their deacons ; but these schools were exclusive hourly reap the rich rewards of wisdom and ly for the children of the parish; those whose experience ? parents did not belong to some particular church To the YOUNG,_" the innocent in heart and were not provided for ; the Catholics had no soul,” for whom life still blooms in all the schools of the sort, although so numerous in the freshness and beauty of hope and truth, who country. The result of all these circumstances bask in the bright sunshine of moral purity and was, that a large proportion of the young were peace, little dreaming of the countless perils sunk in ignorance and immorality.

which surround them, breathing the ethereal

odors of a Paradise they have not as yet for. THE SPRING TIME OF LIFE. feited,—to such, how earnest, how unwearied,

should be our constant and most impressive (From S. S. RANDALL'3 "Mental and Moral Culture."] admonition-Avoid the first approaches of the

tempter ; heed not for a wavering moment his Whence is it that, in the advanced stages of subtle and fatal voice ; wrap yourselves in the existence, the sere and yellow leat” of our being; sacred mantle of your innocence, and repose in the mind so loves to linger upon the scenes and trustful assurance upon the promises of the associations of life's opening dawn? that the heart Author of your being, the Dispenser of the rich forgets its withering sorrows and its bitter expe blessings by which you are surrounded—blessings rience, and often and fondly recurs to the elastic you cannot now appreciate, but which once lost energies which prompted the glowing anticipa- can never be recalled. The conditions of prestions and bright hopes of childhood and inno- ent enjoyment and continued happiness, are cence? The memories thus invoked, come to us clearly unfolded to your mental and moral percep. loaded with freshness and fragrance ; with a tion by Him who called you into existence, and vivid impression of happiness and enjoyment, long curiously moulded the constitution of your being unknown; with the distant echoes of a harmony, While those conditions are faithfully observed, which has ceased to vibrate upon our blunted that existence will prove a constant source of senses ; with a soul-subduing gentleness, which pleasure, an unfailing well-spring of improvehas power to unseal the deep sources of feelings, ment, a perpetual concord of sweet and harmowhose destined current the cares and the passions, nious influences. Around and about you, on the anxieties and the sufferings, of worldly expe. every hand, are withered hopes, blasted expec. rience have choked and suppressed. None are tations, irremediable sorrow, fruitless remorse, so far beyond the pale of humanity, as to be in pain, anguish, disease, premature decay, and accessible at times to these soothing and benig.death. Hope 'not to disobey the voice of God nant influences of our mysterious nature. The within your souls, and to escape these dire and conqueror, in his mad career of crime, borne bitter consequences of transgression. The rec. onward by the impetuous waves of passion, and ords of human experience, from the creation of revelling in feverish dreams of ambition, power, the world to the present hour, furnish not a and fame; the miser, surrounded by his wealth ; solitary instance of such an exemption from the the sensualist, by his luxurious appliances ; and penalty denounced by the voice of the Almighty. even the doomed criminal, darkly brooding over Venture not, then, upon the fearful and most his career of guilt, and its fearful retribution ; presumptous experiment.. Walk while you may to each and all, the visions of early lite, of unsul in the placid shades of innocence and virtue ; lied innocence and 'undimmed purity of soul,commune with the Being whose presence will throng upon the mind, insensible though it may surround you at all times, and whose blessing, be to every other impression of goodness, of even length of days and life forevermore, beauty, or of truth. It is the feeling which we will consecrate and reward your obedience to may imagine our first parents to have experienced his perfect laws. in all its intensity, when, after long years of wandering over the arid waste of a world no

So live, that when the summons comes to join

The innumerable caravan that moves longer clothed, to their eyes, in its primeval

To the pale realms of shade, where each shall cake freshness and verdure, they recalled the bright His chamber in the silent halls of death, image of the Paradise they had forfeited,-its Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night, ever-present delights, its hallowed scenes of quiet

Chained, to his dungeon; bui, sustained and soothed

By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave bliss, its unceasing strains of celestial harmony, Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch and all the pure and holy influences flowing from About him, and lies down to pleasing dreams."

MISCELLAN Y.
MAHOGANY.

centuries, expands to such a gigantic trunk,
throws out such massive arms, and spreads the

shade of its shining green leaves over such a The common mahogany (called by botanists vast surface, that even the proudest oaks of our Swieten ia mahagoni) is one of the most majestic forests appear insignificant in comparison with trees of the whole world. There are trees of it. • A single log, such as is brought to this coun. greater height than the mahogany-bat in Cuba try from Honduras, not unfrequently weighs six and Honduras this tree, during a growth of two or seven tons.

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(Mahogany Tree.) When we consider the enormous size of a the latter number. They are composed of slaves trank of mahogany, and further learn that the and free persons, without any comparative dismost valuable timber grows in the most inacces. tinction of rank, and it very frequently occurs sible situations, it must be evident that a great that the conductor of such work, here styled the portion of the price of this timber must be made Captain, is a slave. Each gang has also one up of the cost of the labor required for trans. person belonging to it termed the Huntsman. porting it from its native forests to the place of He is generally selected from the most intelli. its embarkation for other countries. The mode in gent of his fellows, and his chief occupation is which this difficult work is accomplished is high to scarch the woods, or, as it is called, the bush, ly interesting; and we have, fortunately, the to find labor for the whole. Accordingly, about means of giving an account of the process the beginning of August, the huntsman is de. (which, we believe, has never before been mi. spatched on his important mission. He cuts his nutely described in any publication,) from some way through the thickest of the woods to some statements printed in a Honduras Almanac, elevated situation, and climbs the tallest tree he which has been kindly put into our hands for finds, from which he minutely surveys the sur. this parpose.

rounding country. At this season the leaves of The season for cutting the mahogany usually the mahogany tree are invariably of a yellow commences about the month of August. The reddish hue, and an eye accustomed to this kind gange of laborers employed in this work con- of exercise, can, at a great distance, discern the sist of from twenty to fifty each, but few exceed places where the wood is most abundant. He

now descends, and to such places his steps are cleared of brush-wood, they still require the directed; and, without compass, or other guide labor of hoes, pick-axes, and sledge hammers, than what observation has imprinted on his re. to level down the hillocks, to break the rocks, collection, he never fails to reach the exact point and to cut such of the remaining stumps as at which he aims. On some occasions no ordi- might impede the wheels that are hereafter to nary stratagem is necessary to be resorted to by pass over them. the huntsman, to prevent others from availing The roads being now in a state of readiness, themselves of the adva age of his discoveries; which may generally be effected by the month for, if his steps be traced by those who may be of December, the cross-cutting, as it is techni. engaged in the same pursuit, which is a very cally called, commences. This is merely dividcommon thing, all his ingenuity must be exerted ing cross-wise, by means of saws, each mahoto beguile them from the true scent. In this, gany tree into logs, according to their length; however, he is not always successful, being fol. and it often occurs, that while some are but long lowed by those who are entirely aware of all the enough for one log, others, on the contrary, will arts he may use, and whose eyes are so quick admit of four or five being cut from the same that the lightest turn of a lear, or the faintest trunk or stem. The chief guide for dividing the impression of the foot, is unerringly perceived. trees into logs is the necessity for equalizing the The treasure being, however, reached by one loads the cattle have to draw. Consequently, party or another, the next operation is the fell as the tree increases in thickness, the logs are ing of a sufficient number of trees to employ the reduced in length. This however, does not al. gang during the season. The mahogany tree is together obviate the irregularity of the loads, commonly cut about ten or twelve feet from the and a supply of oxen are constantly kept in reaground, a stage being erected for the axe-man diness to add to the usual number, according to employed in levelling it. The trunk of the tree, the weight of the log. This becomes unavoida. from the dimensions of the wood it furnishes, is ble, from the very great difference of size of the deemed the most valuable; but, for ornamental mahogany trees, the logs taken from one tree purposes, the limbs, or branches, are generally being about 300 cubic feet, while those from the preferred.

next may be as many thousand. The largest A sufficient number of trees being selled to oc- log ever cut in Honduras was of the following cupy the gang during the season, they commence dimensions: Length, 17 feet; breadth, 57 inches; cutting the roads upon which they are to be depth, 64 inches; measuring 5,168 superficial transported. This may fairly be estimated at feet, or 15 tons weight. two-thirds of the labor and expense of mahoga. The sawing being now completed, the logs are ny cutting. Each mahogany work forms in itself reduced, by means of the axe, from the round a small village on the bank of a river--the choice or natural form, into the square. The month of of situation being always regulated by the proxi. March is now reached, when all the preparation mity of such river to the mahogany intended as before described is, or ought to be, completed; the object of future operations.

when the dry season, or time of drawing down After completing the establishment of a suffi. the logs from the place of their growth comcient number of huts for the accommodation of mences. This process can only be carried on in the workmen, a main road is opened from the the months of April and May; the ground, dur. settlement, in a direction as near as possible to ing all the rest of the year, being too soft io ad. the centre of the body of trees so felled, into mit of a heavily laden truck to pass over it withwhich branch-roads are afterwaris introduced, out sinking. It is now necessary that not a mothe grounds through which the roads are to run ment should be lost in drawing out the wood to being yet a mass of dense forest, both of high the river. trees and underwood. The laborers commence A gang of forty men is generally capable of by clearing away the underwood with cutlasses. I working six trucks. Each truck requires seven This labor is usually performed by tusk-work, pair of oxen and two drivers; sixteen to cut food of one hundred yards, each man, per day. The for the cattle, and twelve to load or put the logs underwood being removed, the larger trees are on the carriages. From the intense heat of the then cut down by the axe, as even with the sun, the cattle, especially, would be unable to ground as possible, the task being also at this work during its influence; and, consequently, work one hundred yards per day to each laborer. the loading and carriage of the timber is per. The hard woods growing here, on failure of the formed in the night. The logs are placed upon axe, are removed by the application of fire. the trucks by means of a temporary platform The trunks of these trees, although many of laid from the edge of the truck to a sufficient them are valuable, such as bullet-tree, ironwood, distance upon the ground, so as to make an inredwood, and sapodilla, are thrown away as clined plane, upon which the log is gradually useless, unless they happen to be adjacent to pushed up by bodily labor, without any further some creek or small river, which may intersect mechanical aid. the road. In that case they are applied to the The operations of loading and carrying are construction of bridges, which are frequently of thus principally performed during the hours of considerable size, and require great labor to darkness. The torches employed are pieces of make them of sufficient strength to bear such wood split from the trunk of the pitch-pine. immense loads as are brought over them. The river-side is generally reached by the wea

If the mahogany trees are much dispersed or ried drivers and cattle before the sun is at its scattered, the labor and extent of road-cutting highest power; and the logs, marked with the is, of course, greatly increased. It not unfre. owner's initials, are thrown into the river. quently occurs that miles of road and many About the end of May the periodical rains bridges are made to a single tree, that may ulti. again commence; the torrents of water discharg. mately yield but one log. When roads are ed from the clouds are so great as to render the

roads impassable in the course of a few hours, etors, where they are taken out of the water,
when all trucking ceases. About the middle of and undergo a second process of the axe, to
June the rivers are swollen to an immense height. make the surface smooth. The ends, which
The logs then float down a distance of two hun. frequently get split and rent by being dashed
dred miles, being followed by the gang in pit. against rocks in the river by the force of the
pans, (a kind of flat-bottomed canoe,) to disen. current, are also sawed off. They are now
gage them from the branches of the overhanging ready for shipping.
trees, uutil they are stopped by a boom placed The ships clearing out from Balize, the prin-
in some situation convenient to the mouth of the cipal port of Honduras, with their valuable
river. Each gang then separates its own cut. freight of mahogany, either go direct to England,
ting, by the marks on the ends of the logs, and or take their cargo to some free warehousing port
forms them into large rasts; in which state they in the British Possessions, in the West Indies,
are brought down to the wharves of the propri. or America.—Penny Maguzine.

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BY ROBERT THE RHYMESTER.

COUNSELS FOR THE YOUNG.

He that revenges knows no rest;

The meck possess a peaceful breast.
If you have an enemy act kindly to him, and

make him your friend. You may not win him
NEVER be cast down by trifles. If a spider over at once, but try again. Let one kindness
breaks his thread twenty times, twenty times be followed by another, till you have compassed
will he mend it again. Make up your minds to your end. By little and little great things are
do a thing, and you will do it. Fear not if a completed.
trouble comes upon you ; keep up your spirits,

Water falling, day by day,

Wears the hardest roek away. though the day be a dark one. Troubles never stop for ever,

And so repeated kindness will soften a heart of The darkest day will pass away!

stone. If the sun is gone down, look up at the stars ; if

Whatever you do, do it willingly. A boy that the earth is dark, keep your eyes on heaven! is whipped to school never learns his lesson well. With God's presence and God's promises, a man A man that is compelled to work cares not how or a child may be always cheerful.

badly it is performed. He that pulls off his coat Never despair when ihe fog's in the air! cheerfully, strips up his sleeves in earnest, and A sunshiny morning will come without warning. sings while he works, is the man for me. Mind what you run after ! Never be con A cheerful spirit gets on quick;, tented with a bubble that will burst, or with a

A grumbler in the mud will stick. firework that will end in smoke and darkness.

Evil thoughts are worse enemies than lions Get that which you can keep, and which is worth and tigers, for we can keep keep out of the way keeping.

of wild beasts, but bad thoughts win their way Something sterling that will stay

everywhere. The cup that is full will hold no When gold and silver fly away.

more ; heep your heads and your hearts full of Fight hard against a hasty temper. Anger good thoughts, that bad thoughts may find no will come ; but resist it stoutly. A spark may room. set a house on fire. A fit of passion may give Be on your guard, and strive, and pray, you cause to mourn all the days of your life.

To drive ali evil thoughts away. Never revenge an injury.

Youth's Penny Gazette.

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The modes of building in different countries The Gothic architecture appears to be an imi. anil in different ages of the world, have resulted tation of the grove; the roof being supported by in several distinct styles of architecture pillars, branching upward. The engraving will

give some idea of this style of building. It flour. Among the ancient Egyptians, it would seem, ished from the year 1000 to 1500, A. D., and from the low and massy forms of their edifices, was particularly used in the construction of chur that they were fashioned in imitation of caves ches, monasteries, and other religious buildings, -the first habitations of savage man. The tem during that period. In France and Germany ples, of which many ruins remain along the bor- there are still to be seen many churches in this ders of the Nile, seem almost like structures hewn style ; and though they have an ancient and glooout of the rock ; so heavy are the columns, and my appearance, they are very beautiful, and the so low the arches.

sombre light withing seems wel

, fried core plans Among the Greeks, the style of architecture of worship: In England, also, seemed to be suggested by the wooden cabin, Gothic edifices of the olden time, among which supported upon the trunks of trees. Thus the Westminster Abbey, in London, is a fine specilighter and loftier columns supporting their edi- men. In Boston, Trinity Church is somewhat fices, seem to be a leading feature of their build- in the Gothic taste; and at Hartford there is a ings.

fine specimen, in the Episcopal Church. There

are also several other edifices in this country, of In China, the houses appear to be fashioned recent structure, which are imitations, in part, after the tent, as if the idea had been borrowed of ancient Gothic buildings; but a pure example from the pastoral age, when the inhabitants of this style is hardly to be found, except in Eu. subsisted upon flocks, and dwelt in tents. rope, and among the edifices of past centuries.

THE APPEAL DIRECT.

the character of the school, and therefore, leave

the business of visitation to others. But do they A few days since a friend in Springfield, Mass. not judge of the schools by the reports of their sent us a copy of the annual report of the school children, and would they not be better prepared committee of that town. Towards the close of to do this, if they should personally visit them? it we found the following very plain language, And, granting that they may not be qualified to at which we were at first inclined to laugh out- decide upon the accuracy of the recitations, do right. On second thought, however, we con- they not know that their presence animates and cluded to be sober in consideration of the cutting encourages both the teacher and the scholars? truth here told. Some of these remarks might How can a parent feel that he has done his duty apply to parents who are seldom if ever seen in to his children, if he never drops in to see how the Sabbath school where their children go to they are passing their time in the school-room? receive moral instruction.

If he is a farmer he daily looks to see how his “Parents, also, manifest too little interest in pigs are thriving, and whether they are comfor. the successful operation of the schools. The tably housed; but his children may pass years school-room, by some, is never visited, and in without his troubling himself as to the quality some instances this is true where the office of of their mental aliment, or to the manner in prudential committee is added to the relation of which it is imparted to them. Is not a child of parent. They may feel incompetent to judge of more value than a pig?"

TOHY Mod

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