Page images

these flowers are succeeded by soft green berries or pods, containing each from one to three white seeds. The plant will grow in either low or elevated situations, but always thrives best and furnishes leaves of the finest quality when produced in light stony ground.

The leaves are gathered from one to four times during the year, according to the age of the trees, Most commonly there are three periods of gathering; the first commences about the middle of April; the second at midsummer; and the last is accomplished during August and September. The leaves that are earliest gathered are of the most delicate color and most aromatic fla. vor, with the least portion of either fibre or bitterness. Leaves of the second gathering are of a dull green color, and have less valuable quali ties than the former; while those which are last collected, are of a dark green, and possess an inferior value. The quality is farther influenced by the age of the wood on which the leaves are borne, and by the degree of exposure to which

they have been accustomed ; leaves from young TEA.

wood, and those most exposed, being always the

best. The history of commerce does not, perhaps, present a parallel to the circumstances which have attended the introduction of tea into Great Britain. This leaf was first imported into Europe by the Dutch East India Company, in the early part of the seventeenth century; but it was not until the year 1666, that a small quantity was brought over from Holland to this country, by the Lords Arlington and Ossory; and yet, from a period earlier than any to which the inemories of any of the existing generation can reach, tea has been one of the principal neces. saries of life among all classes of the community. To provide a sufficient supply of this aliment, many thousand tons of the finest mercan. tile navy in the world, are annually employed in trading with a people by whom all dealings with foreigners are merely tolerated ; and from this

[Tea-gathering—from a Chinese drawing 1 recently acquired taste, a very large and easily collected revenue is obtained by the state. The leaves, as soon as gathered, are put into

The tea plant is a native of China or Japan, wide shallow baskets, and placed in the air or and probably of both. It has been used among wind, or sunshine, during some hours. They the natives of the former country from time im are then placed on a flat cast iron pan, over a memorial. It is only in a particular tract of the stove heated with charcoal, from a half to three Chinese empire that the plant is cultivated; and quarters of a pound of leaves being operated on this tract, which is situated on the eastern side, at one time. These leaves are stirred quicky between the 30th and 33d degrees of north lati about with a kind of brush, and are then as tude, is distinguished by the natives as the "tea quickly swept off the pan into baskets. The country.” The more northern part of China next process is that of rolling, which is effected would be too cold; and farther south the heat by carefully rubbing them between men's hands; would be too great. There are, however, a few after which they are again put in larger quantismall plantations to be seen near to Canton. ties on the pan, and subjected anew to heat, but

The Chinese give to the plant the name of at this time to a lower degree than at first, and Icha or tha. It is propagated by them from just suficient to dry them effectually without seeds, which are deposited in rows four or five risk of scorching. This effected, the tea is feet asunder; and so uncertain is their vegeta placed on a table and carefully picked over, evetion, even in their native climate, that it is found ry unsightly or imperfectly dried leaf that is denecessary to sow as many as seven or eight tected being removed from the rest, in order that seeds in every hole. The ground between each the sample may present a more even and a betrow is always kept free from weeds, and the ter appearance when offered for sale. plants are not allowed to attain a higher growth The names by which some of the principal than admits of the leaves being conveniently ga- sorts of tea are known in China, are taken from thered. The first crop of leaves is not collected the places in which they are produced, while until the third year after sowing; and when the others are distinguished according to the periods trees are six or seven years old, the produce be- of their gathering, the manner employed in cnrcomes so inferior that they are removed to make ing, or other extrinsic circumstances, It is a room for a fresh succession.

commonly received opinion, that the distinctive The flowers of the tea tree are white, and color of green tea is imparted to it by sheets of somewhat resemble the wild rose of our hedges: 'copper, upon which it is dried. For this belief,

there is not, however, the smallest foundation in against the inconveniences that would attend any fact, since copper is never used for the purpose. interruption to a trade entirely dependent upon Repeated experiments have been made to disco. the caprice of an arbitrary government. ver, by an unerring test, whether the leaves of

The people of China partake of tea at all their green tea contain any impregnation of copper, meals, and frequently at other times of the day. bat in no case has any trace of this metal been They drink the infusion prepared in the same detected. The Chinese do not use their tea until it is it either sugar or milk. The working classes

manner as we employ, but they do not mix with about a year old, considering that it is too ac. in that country are obliged to content themselves tively narcotic when new. Tea is yet older with a very weak infusion. Mr. Anderson, in when it is brought into consumption in Eng. his narrative of Lord Macartney's Embassy, re. land, as in addition to the length of time occulates that the natives in attendance never failed pied in its collection and transport to this coun. try, the East India Company are obliged by to bez the tea leaves remaining after the Eurotheir charter to have always a supply sufficient submitting them again to boiling water, they

peans had breakfasted, and with these, after for one year's consumption in their London made a beverage, which they acknowledged was warehouses ; and this regulation which enhan. better than any they could ordinarily obtain.ces the price to the consumer, is said to have

Penny Magazine, been made by way of guarding in some measure


CAPTURE OF ELEPHANTS. larger and ferocious, going about either single

or only two or three in company. It is probable It is remarkable that in every mode of cap. the laiter kind are only the full grown males.” turing the wild elephant, man avails himselt of They probably, in many cases, separate them. the docility of individuals of the same species, selves from their companions in search of fresh which he has already subdued. Birds may be pastures. But as they are sometimes found in taught to assist in ensnaring other birds, but a state of considerable irritation, doing much this is simply an effect of habit. The elephant, mischief wherever they pass, it has been thought on the contrary, has an evident desire to join its that these have been driven away by the strong. master in subduing its own race; and in this er males, and that they are suffering all the ago. treachery to its kind, exercises so much inge. nies of unavailing jealousy. Being the finest nuity, courage, and perseverance, that we can elephants, and therefore the best adapted for not find a parallel instance of complete subjec. sale, the hunters soon mark them for their own. tion to the will of him to whom it was given to They follow them cautiously by day and by “have dominion over the fish of the sea, and night, with two, and sometimes four trained fe. over the fowl of the air, and over every living males, called Koomkies. If it be dark, they can thing that moveth upon the earth."

hear the animal striking his food, to clean it, From some peculiar circumstances which have against his fore legs, and they then approach not been accurately explained, large male ele. iolerably close ; if light, they advance more cau. phants are sometimes found apart from the herd. tiously. The females gradually move towards Sir S. Raffles says, speaking of the elephants that him, apparently unconscious of his presence, he met with in his journey through the southern grazing with great complacency, as if they were Presidencies to Passumah, “The natives fancy like him, inhabitants of the wild forest. It is that there are two kinds of elephants, the gaja soon perceived by them whether he is likely to berkam-pong, those which always go in herds, be entrapped by their arts. The drivers remain and which are seldom mischievous, and the gaja concealed at a little distance, while the koomkies salunggal, or single elephants, which are much press round the unhappy goondah or saun, (for

so this sort of elephant is called.) If he aban. short as is required to transmit it from Washing. don himself himself to the caresses of his new ton to Baltimore; or at least, the difference companions, his capture is almost certain. The would not be perceptible. It is easy to see that hunters cautiously crecp under him, and during such a telegraph would be of great importance the intoxication of his pleasure, fasten his legs in case of war. It a hostile fleet should make with a strong rope. It is said that the wily ie. its appearance of Portland, the fact could be males will not only divert his attention from made known at New Orleans, or at any intertheir mahouts, but ahsolutely assiiz tlern in fast: mediate station, in three minutes. Moreover ening the cords. Mr. Howitt made a spirited this telegraph can be worked with the same fadrawing of this curious scene, from the descripcility and effect by night as by day-in stormy tions of Captain Williamson.

weather as in sunshine--which is not the case The hind legs of the captive being secured in with the telegraphs heretofore ia use.

The lata similar manner, ine hunters leave him to him. ter also are worked but slowly, and at every self, and retire to a short distance. In some ca- station the process must be repeated. Not so ses he is fastened at once to a large tree, if the with Morse's telegraph. Supposing the commusituation in which he is firsi cntrapped allows nication to be complete, a single touch of the this. But under other circumstances, in the wire would send the intelligence around the first instance his legs are only tied together. globe. At least this is probable, for Professor When the seinales quit him he discovers his ig. Morse's experiments show that although the nominious condition, and attempts to retreat in power of the magnet diminishes for the first ten the covert of the forest. But he moves with miles, there is no perceptible diminution afterdifficulty, in consequence of the ropes which wards, within the limits to which the experi. have been lashed round his linbs. There are ment has been extended [beyond the 10th mile] long cables trailing behind bill, and the ma- viz. 33 miles. From the 10th to the 330 mile in. houts, watching an opportunity, secure these to clusive, the weight sustained by the magnet was a tree of sufficient strength. He now becomes a constant quantity. And the presumption is, furious, throwing himself down, and thrusting that the same law holds gooù for any greater his tusks into the carth. If he break the cables, distance. The scientific facts on which Profesand escape into the forest, the hunters dare not sor Morse's invention rests, are thus stated by a pursue hiin; but if he is adequately bound, he committee of congress. soon becomes exhauste i with his own rage. He

First. That a current of electricity will pass is then left to the further operation of hunger, to any distance along a conductor counecting the till he is sufficiently subdued to be conducted, two poles of a volia ic battery or generator of under the escort of his treacherous friends, to an electricity, and produce visible effects at any deappointed station, to which, after a few month's sired points on that conductor. discipline, he becomes reconciled.

Second. That magnetism is produced in a piece of soft iron (around which the conductor, in its

progress, is made to pass) when the electric cur. (Prom the N. Y. Journal of Commerce.)

rent is permitted to flow, and that the magneMORSE'S ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TELE. tism ceases when the current of electricity is GRAPH.

prevented from flowing. This current of elec

tricity is produced and destroyed by breaking THE complete saccess which has attended the and closing the galvanic circuit at the pleasure working of this telegraph, now in operation be: of the operator of the telegraph, who in this tween Washington and Baltimore, has attracted manner directs and controls the operation of a public attention to it, even in this bustling city, simple and compact piece of mechanism, styled and led to many inquiries to the method by which the register, which at the will of the operator such wonderful results are achieved. It was at the point of communication, is made to refortunate both for the inventor and the invention, cord, at the point of reception, legible characthat the communication was completed between ters, un a roll of paper put in motion at the same Washington and Baltimore prior to the meeting time with the writing instrument. of the Democratie National Convention, (the These characters, consisting of dots and hori. proceedings of which were awaited with so zontal lines, the inventor has arranged into a much interest,) because an opportunity was conventional alphabet, as follows : thereby afforded to test the practicability and usefulness of the invention, in the most effectual A manner. By means of this telegraph, every new B movement of the convention was made known C at Wasbington almost simultaneously with its D occurrence; while with the same rapidity, the E proceedings of congress were made known at F Baltimore. The Washington Spectator of Wed. GJ

7 nesday said :


8 “ The locomotive, with the mail, came thun.

9 dering along last night with the intelligence up K

0 to 5 o'clock, which had been received here by the lightning express lwo hours and a half previously.”

In fact, by the electro-magnetic telegraph, railroad speed is rendered comparatively snail. P like. Were this telegraph extended from Portland to New Orleans, intelligence could be transmitted the whole distance in a space of time as 92



[ocr errors]



A B C.



Oh, thou Alpha Beta row, The machine which produces these characters,

Fun and freedom's earliest foe,

Shall I e'er forget the primer, (called the register,) is moved by a weight like Thumb'd beside some Mrs. Trimmer, a clock, the slip of paper being wound about a While mighty problem held me fast, cylinder, and carried under the style by the ope

To know if Z was first or last 3 ration of the machinery. To the style or pen

And all Pandora had for me

Was emptied forth in A B C. which makes the marks, is attached a piece of iron, resting just above a mass of soft iron,

Teazing things of toil and trouble, which last is instantly rendered a magnet by the

Fount of many a rolling bubble,

How I strived with pouting pain, transmission of the electric current. This cur To get thee quartered on my brain. rent is transmitted by means of protected wires, But when the giant feat was done, supported at suitable distances and at a proper

How nobly wide the field I'd won!

Wit, reason, wisdom, all might be elevation, by posts or spars. Suppose the ope

Enjoyed through simple A B°C. rator to be at Washington, and that he wishes to transmit intelligence to Baltimore. He has Steps that lead to topmast height,

Or worldly fame and human might, before him the two extremities of the wires, and

Ye win the orator's renown, the means of sending along a current of the

The poet's joy, the scholar's gown: electric fluid. The instant he brings them to Philosophers must bend and say

'Twas ye who ope'd their glorious way: gether, the soft iron mass in Baltimore becoines

Sage, statesman, critic, where is he a magnet-the iron above it is drawn towards it;

Who's not obliged to A B C. and the style to which it is attached, is pressed

Ye really ought to be exempt, upon the paper ; and this, being carried forward

From slighting taunt and cool contempt : by the machinery which is at the same instant

But drinking deep from learning's cup, by another magnet set in motion, receives the We scorn the hand that filled it up. impression. As soon as the two wires are sepa.

Be courteous, pedants,-stay and thank

Your servants of the Roman rapk, rated, the soft iron is no longer a magnet-the

For F. R. S. and L. L. I. iron above is no longer attracted, and the pen Can only spring from A B C. no longer rests upon the paper. By bringing the wires in contact and instantly separating them,

OFFICIAL a dot is made ; by keeping them in contact for a little time, a dash ; and by the combination of The certificate heretofore issued to Thomas E. these two, all the words in the language and all Burdick, of the county of Fulton, was, on the the numerals, may be written and read. 30th of April last, duly annulled, for causes

By means of this telegraph, 12 to 20 charac- made known to the Department, on satisfactory ters i. e. (in effect,) letters of the alphabet, can evilence. be transmitted in a minute ; or as fast as a prin. The Superintendent desires it to be expressly ter could set up the types. So if the communi. understood that the number of State certificates cation were complete from Washington to New- of qualifications granted by him, in pursuance Orleans, the president's message, if not unrea of law, will be restricted to fire in each county sonably long, might be read entire in the latter annually, to be specially recommended for this city in 24 hours after it was delivered, and por- purpose by the County Superintendent, in his tions of it in a much less time.

annual report ; specifying particularly the supe. rior qualifications of the candidates recommend

ed, and the length of time he or she may have A LITERARY CURIOSITY.

been engaged in teaching a common school, and

that no certificate will be granted, except under A poetical friend of ours (says the Boston special circumstances, to any teacher who has Transcript) has a paper-folder, with the follow. taught for a less period than three years. ing line from Gray, marked on it:

S. YOUNG, Supt. of Com. Schools. 1 The ploughman homeward plods his weary way.”

TERMS On looking at the quotation, it occurred to him that it might be expressed in various ways, with. out destroying the rhyme or altering the sense. For one copy, in all cases, (per annum,)... 60 cts.

37 In a short time, he produced the following eleven “ twelve copies, each, different readings. We doubt whether another " one hundred copies, each,

31 line can be found, the words of which will ad. Payable in advance, in all cases. mit of so many transpositions, and still retain N. B.-Postmasters will forward silver without the original meaning :

charge. The legal postage on this sheet is one cent to The weary ploughman plods his homeward way.

any office within this State. ; The weary ploughman homeward plods his way. (All subscriptions to commence with the volume.)

The ploughman, weary, plods his homeward way.
The ploughman, weary, homeward plods his way.

Isaac C, SHELDON and FREDERICK H. Bacon Weaiy the ploughman plods his homeward way.

Weary the ploughman homeward plods his way. are appointed travelling agents for this Journal. | Homeward the ploughman plods his weary way. Homeward the weary ploughman plods his way.

The friends of the Journal are respectfully reHomeward the ploughman, weary, plods bis way. quested to favor their efforts to extend its circu. The homeward ploughman weary plods his way. The homeward ploughman plods his weary way.




And for sale by the Booksellers generally throughout the United States.


Phila., Nov. 30, 1842. In a series; adapted to the progressively developing I find, upon a careful examination of Johnston's Ma. capacities of youth.

nual of Chemistry, that it is extremely well adapted to MITCHELL'S PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY.

The object for which it is designed. As a text book, I reContaining 120 Engravings, and 14 colored Maps, de and is as superior to Turner's Chemistry, on which it

is based, being more condensed and practical, and yet signed as a first book of Geography for children.

sufficienily expanded, and equally presenting the late MITCHELL'S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY.

rapid advancement of the science. Accompanied with an Atlas, containing 18 Maps, en.

Respectfully yours, graved from original drawings, and executed in a clear


JAS. C. BOOTH. and distinct manner.

Messrs. Thomas Cowperthwait & Co., Phil'a.

FROST'S UNITED STATES, Consisting of a part of the High School Geography, and accompanied with an Atlas, containing 19 Maps; and Academies, by John Frost; illustrated with forty

History of the United States, for the use of Schools expressly designed for this work, and illustrated by 25

Engravings. Engravings, representing some of the most interesting events of Scriptural and Ancient History.

FROST'S HISTORY OF THE U. STATES, MITCHELL'S ATLAS OF OUTLINE MAPS, For the use of Common Schools, condensed from the

(An Accompaniment to the School Allas,) author's larger History of the United States. Possessing all the advantages to be derived from map

FROST'S AMERICAN SPEAKER, drawing, with a great saving of time.

Embellished with engraved Portraits of distinguish. MITCHELL'S GEOGRAPHICAL READER, ed American Orators, on steel. Designed as a reading book for classes using the School Geopraphy, or pupils farther advanced.


(Pinno:k's improred edition ;) TO THE STUDY OF THE Maps; comprising his Atlas, in From the invasion of Julius Cæsar to the year 1838; a series of lessons for beginners in Geupraphy. illustrated with thirty Engravings. MITCHELL'S HIGH SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY,

Dr. GOLDSMITH'S HISTORY OF GREECE, With an Atlas, will contain about 600 pages, and com.

(Pinnock's improved edition ;) prise a complete system of Mathematical, Physical, Po. litical, Statistical and Descriptive Modern Geography;

With Questions for examination at the end of each together with

a Compendium of Ancient Geography; 11. section; thirty Engravings. lustrated by Engravings, executed by the first artists of Dr. GOLDSMITH'S HISTORY OF ROME, the country. The Atlas to accompany the above will contain not less than thirty laps, constructed particu.

(Pinnock's improved edition ;) larly for the work, and designed to correspond with, With Questions for examination at the end of each and illustrate it, in the most precise manner. This section; thirty Engravings. work is progressing, and will be issued at the earliest GOLDSMITH'S NATURAL HISTORY, day consistent with the importance of the undertaking. Numerous recommendations from the highest autho.

Abridged for the use of Schools, by Mrs. PILKINGTON ; rily, in favor of the above series, are in the possession revised and corrected by a Teacher of Philaldelphia, of the publishers; but as they prefer that any works

with Questions, and upwards of 100 Engravings. published by them should stand upon their merits alone, The CHILD'S HISTORY of the UNITED STATES, they deem it unnecessary to insert them here.


History for Schools; illustrated with numerous Engrav.

ings and anecdotes. A Manual of Chemistry, on the basis of Dr. Turner's

Elements of Chemistry, containing, in a condensed

BRIDGE'S ALGEBRA, 1 form, all the most important facts and principles of the Science, designed as a Text Book in Colleges and other A Treatise on the Elements of Alsebra, by the Rep. Seminaries of learning. By Johs JOHNSTON, A. M., Pro. P. BRIDGE, B.D., F. R. S., Professor of Mathematics, &c. fessor of Natural Science in the Wesleyan University.


Guy's Elements of Astronomy, and an abridgement of From J. W. Bailey, Prof. of Chemistry at West Point. Keith's New Treatise on the use of the Globes, 1 vol

West Point, N. Y., May 1843. My Dear Sir,-I have too long delayed ihanking you

BROOKS'S ROSS'S LATIN GRAMMAR, for the copy of your Manual of Chemistry, which you Comprising all the rules and observations necessary kindly sent me. I have looked through the book with to an accurate knowledge of the Latin Classics; having considerable altention, and it appears to me that you the sign of quantity affixed to certain syllables; with an have succeeded in making a judicious selection and ar. Alphabetical Vocabulary; by JAMES 'Russ. Revised, rangement of the most important facts and theories of corrected and improved, by N. C. Brooks, Principal of Chemical Science. There is much usually included in the High School, Baltimore. A new edition, 1844. text books, which is only useful to refer to, but which | RUDDIMAN'S RUDIMENTS of the LATIN TONGUE, cannot advantageously form a part of the usual course of instruction : and I think you have done well in omit. A new and improved edition, with Notes, by WM. ting such matter. I think your Manual well adapted to Manz, A. M. the course of chemical instruction usually given in this country, and without hesitation would recommend it

CLARK'S CÆSAR. for the use of students.

The Notes and Intrepretations translated and impror. Believe me sincerely your friend, ed by THOMAS CLARK. Carefully corrected by compari

(Signed,] 'J. W. BAILEY. son with a standard London edition, and containing va. Prof, J. Johnston, Wes. I'niv'y.

rious emendations in the Notes; by W. Mann, A.M. /

« PreviousContinue »