« PreviousContinue »
has given ; to build upon that which may sus of conscience; to carry forward its civilization, tain, and in the order in which the removal of promote its welfare and prosperity, and contrino one stone may endanger the entire structure. bute to the happiness and well-being of its citiThat base is intellectual education.
zens. His intellectual and moral faculties must “When I speak of moral education, I imply be so cultivated and developed as to enable him, religion; and when I speak of religion, I speak in the right exercise his judgment and disof christianity. It is morality—it is conscience crimination, to arrive at just conclusions upon par excellence. Even in the most worldly sense, the various questions of individual, social, or it could easily be shown that no other morality public concernment, in relation to which he may so truly binds, no other education so effectually be called to act. In his researches into the hissecures even the coarse and material interests of tory of the past, as well as in his investigations society. The economist himself would find his of the varying phenomena and results of science gain in such a system. It works his most san. and the arts; in his study of the universe, as guine speculations of gool into far surer and well of matter as of mind,-he should be enamore rapid conclusions, than any system he bled to proceed upon enlarged and comprehencould attempt to set up in its place. No system sive principles, to separate the essential and the of philosophy has better consulted the mechanism permanent from the transitory and the accidental, of society, or jointed it together with a closer and to deduce those conclusions which alone can adaptation of all its parts, than christianity. No strengthen and invigorate the intellectual powers, legislator who is truly wise--no christian-will and carry forward the whole mind in its pursuit for a moment think-for the interests of society of truth. and religion, which indeed are one-of separat. Let the teacher, then, ponder well the deep ing christianity from moral education. It would responsibilities, which his office involves. Let be quite as absurd as to separate moral edncation him reficct that to him is committed the direcfrom intellectual. But this is very different from tion, in a great degree, of the future destines of sectarianism."
immortal beings, fresh from the hands of their
Creator, and entering upon a career of existence EDUCATION
which is to know no termination. Above all,
let him be deeply and seriously impressed with We take the following extracts from a work the reflection that, during the rapidly fleeting Mental and Moral Culture and Popular is going on with an impulse which cannot be re
years of childhood, the great work of education Education,” by S. S. Randall, recently pub. strained ; that, while the body is progressing to lished by C. S. Francis & Co. New York, and maturity, the intellectual and moral faculties are J. H. Francis, Boston.
constantly participating in all the influences daily " The great end and aim of all education the wonderful elements of mind are incessantly
and hourly presented by the external world ; that should be to confer upon the pupil an enligh: engaged in the solution of the great problem of tened knowledge of the fundamental laws and existence; and that, with or without the instruc. constitution of his nature, and a clear perception which it is his duty to communicate, results tion of his duties and obligations as an intelli- of infinite moment to the future welfare and gent, moral, and social being. He should be made to comprehend, so far as it is possible for prosperity of the beings confided to his care will
be attained. him to do so, his wonderful and mysterious exis. tence; the great purposes for which he was created; the high duties and responsibilities de
HARMONIOUS CULTURE. volved upon him ; the various physical and men. tal faculties which he possesses; their adapta “PROPORTION-symmetry—are the first great tion to cach other, and to the external world of rules of all education. No single chord of our matter as well as mind ; their limitations and complicated being should be left untouched or restrictions ; their capacities for action and en. unstrung. They are placed in us in order to be joyment ; the consequences resulting from their sounded ; sounded separately, they produce moproper and harmonious action, in the elevation, notony-sounded without a knowledge of their expansion, and happiness of his nature ; and combinations, discord. The very wants which the inevitable retributions and sufferings flowing we experience are permitted by a wise Provi. from the discordant play of the passions and the dence to rouse and stimulate us to action. There violation of the laws of his being. He should would be no gradation-no activity-no constant early be taught to recognize the supremacy of tending to perfection, without them. They are the moral sentiments, the dictates of duty, the calculated with the nicest wisdom not only to voice of God within his soul; and that he may rouse but to expand. This feeling of unity of rightly understand and intelligently interpret the keeping in the intellectual and moral man, as will of his Creator, his intellect must le stored well as in the physical, was the beau ideal of with the rich treasures of knowledge ; his per. ancient education. Plato, Cicero, Quinctilian, ceptions of truth rendered clear and undisturbed; under one form or another, exhibit this model his faculties of analysis, discrimination, com inimitable perhaps, but not unapproachable--as parason, and reason, kept in constant, regular, the visible and tangible of their philosophy. and healthy exercise ; and every admixture of But already in their day the division of labor" error carefully removed. He must be taught to system had crept into cuucation. There was a regard himself as a portion of the community in master for virtue, and a master for knowledge, which he resides, bound to consult its paramount a teacher of arguments and a teacher of persua. interests, to obey cheerfully all its laws, and sion. In like manner, we not only have different conform to its institutions, in so far as they do drillers for different portions of the same man, not clearly subvert the obligations of duty and but what is a great deal worse, we often omit,
in our drilling, many of these portions altogether. to prevent its too frequent, and oftentimes imWe make up minds as we make up goods, not proper use. But we also most sincerely believe according to their really intrinsic qualities, but that there are instances in which the highest according to what they are likely at the moment good of a school, as well as the good of an offend. to bring in the market-the " style of thing" er,,demands a severe application of the rod. Its actually in demand. But fashion, no more in use, however, should never be resorted to, hastily this, than in any other of its caprices, is to be or passionately. There are teachers, and there relied on; the fashion passes, even while pre- are parents, who for every slight offence of a paring for it; and the "single power” man, child, fly to the rod, and with passionate violence like the “single speech” man, cannot work in use it. This we regard as extremely unwise and the new machinery, and is necessarily thrown by wrong. We would not advocate the use of the when most needed, as altogether worthless—of no rod on every occasion-for every offence, but practical use."--Wyse, p. 74.
would endeavor to have the infrequency of its
use contribute in no small degree, to its efficacy. A CONTRAST.
When resorted to, it should be with calmness
and seriousness, and the whole case with all its FLETCHER, of Saltoun, gives a dreadful picture circumstances, should be so represented and exof the state of Scotland, at the close of the plained that the whole school and the offender seventeenth century :
himself, shall see and feel that the teacher is “ There are, at this day” he says, (1698) " in about to perform an unpleasant and painful Scotland, besides a great many poor families, duty-a duty from the discharge of which he very meanly provided for by the church-boxes, shall never shrink when called upon by circum(with others who by living upon bad food fall stances to act. into various diseases,) two hundred thousand
After suitably commenting upon the circum. people begging from door to door. And though stances and the nature of the case, let the rod be the number of these be, perhaps, double to what applied with such a degree of severity as shall it was formerly, by reason of this present great subdue the guilty one and strongly impress upon distress, yet in all times therehare been about one him that the way of the transgressor is" and hundred ihousand of these vagabonds, who have always will be “hard.". This, followed by a lived without any regard or subjection, either kindness on the part of the teacher, which shall to the laws of the land or eren those of God and show that nought has been done " in malice, Nature. No magistrate could ever discover or will, almost invariably, produce the desired be informed, which way one in a hundred of
result. these wretches died, nor that ever they were
Good order and submission to wholesome regu. baptized. Many murders liave been discovered lations must be insisted upon in every good among them, and they are not only a most un
school and family. These should be obtained by speakable oppression to poor tenants, (if they inild and kind means if possible, but should not give not bread or some kind of provision to per. in any case be sacrificed to a frequently conceiv. haps forty such villians on one day, are sure to ed, though we think erroneous idea, that the use be insulted by them,) but they rob many poor of the rod savors too much of cruelty and bru: people who live in houses distant from any neigh. tality. If boys so far depart from a proper borhood. In years of plenty many thousand of course, as to allow brutal passions to gain the them meet together in the mountains, where ascendency, under whose control they set at they feast and riot for many days; and at coun. nought” all good requirements and salutary retry weddings, markets, burials, and other the gulations of parents or teachers, they should be like public occasions, they are to be seen, both promptly met and conquered by arguments well men and women perpetually drunk, cursing, adapted to the ground they have presumed to blaspheming and fighting together.”
A. A system
of parochial education was shortly afterwards established in Scotland, and the re.
A GREAT ERROR, -READ. sult was, that Scotland, then one of the most barbarous countries in Christendom, became
Hear some remarks from an address of Horace and has for a century and a half remained the most orderly. Is not here a lesson for statesmen | Greely, Esq. of New York, on the "Formation and political economists, no less than for phi- of Character.” The prevailing evil spoken of lanthropists and social reformers ?
needs to be seen and done away.
"There remains one other monstrous error of (For the District School Journal.} our fireside education which I cannot refrain CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.
from exposing, though I am aware that it is
less elemental than those I have already repreWithin a few years, probably, no subject has hended, and in fact is but an off-shoot from them been discussed more frequently, or with more in-a branch of that great Upas of false forma. terest, by the friends of popular education, than tion of character, whereof I have endeavored to the practice of inflicting corporal punishment in expose the gnarled and writhing roots to general our schools. These discussions have, unques. | scrutiny and abhorrence. I allude to the fatal tionably, done good, and will do still more, if practice of paying for virtue, or rewarding with conducted with a proper spirit; but while en. adventitious iudulgence acts of integrity and of deavoring to turn the public aitention to the cor. duty. As in its nature and origin this is a com. rection of any evil or abuse:l privilege, there is pound of most of the errors I have enumerated, great danger of tending to opposite extremes. so is it in its consequences more pernicious than We believe the rod has been used too freely in any one of them. The child which for performour schools, and think something sbould be done ing a task nimbly and faithfully, for aoquiring a
lesson rapidly and thoroughly, is rewarded with nurturing it. Worse even than this is the dela. some dainty consectionary or glittering toy, you sion implanted, that daintier food and gaudier have doubly corrupted ; first, in making that a toys are of' more value than elevating knowledge task, which, being a duty, should also be a and habits of healthful industry-in fact, that pleasure in itself; secondly, in pampering an they are of any value at all. But time would appetite or a craving, which, being fictitious, fail me to trace out all the evil consequences of cannot fail to be evil. If that task were not that one woful folly, by which you have pollutproperly his-if that lesson were not of itself ed all the springs of action, clouded the moral worth acquiring-you should not have imposed vision, and corrupted the very soul of the victim it. If it were, you have blinded him to its true of your fatally mistaken policy. Let us banish worth and meaning ; you have taught him to forever the idea of reward for well-doing extralook astray for the reward of well doing ; you neous from and unrelated to itself. There is have made that which was a simple and irne ac- nothing like il in nature-in the vast universe. • tion, no longer sach, but a finesse--, dexterous God never proinised a reward thus detached feat_a sinister calculation. The child thus paid from an alien to the obedience it would recom. to do right will soon have learned not to do right pense; the Devil promises, but never pays. It without payment. It will not accept the harvest is ignoran th, desire, mudness to expect any. as the proper reco:apanse of its toil and culture, thini UL." but will clamor to be paid beside for sowing and
THE ROMAN FORUM. [These engravings are taken from The Youth'sed in the midst of the square, and with their Plutarch,” (by the author of Popular Lessons, eyes fixed on the capitol, which immediately &c.,) a selection from Plutarch's Lives, of a minds with patriotisni, whilst the Tarpeian rock
face then, and which was suited to fill their few of those individuals who were the friends of reminded them of the fate reserved for treason peace, of law, and civil order in the better days or corruption,--the noblest of orators “ wielded of Greece and Rome. The writer has adapted of gathered thousands with one object, one wish,
at will the fierce democracy,” or filled the souls these histories especially to the youth of our one passion-the freedom and glory of the Roman country, giving them a modern form of language, race ;-e freedom which would have been more in strict conformity to the facts of the original. ensuring liad the glory teen less. The moral value of the writings of the "Chero.
" Yes; in yon field below,
A thousand years of silenced factions sleepnean sage," has been acknowledged for eighteen And Slin the eloquen' air breatbes, burns with Cicero
The Forun, where the immortal accents glow, centuries, and they are as instruetive in the pre
" The field of freedom, faction, fame, and blood: sent day as they were in the first century, when
Here a proud neople's passions were exhaled,
From the first hour of empire in the bud, they were presented to the world.]
To that when surther worlds to conquer sail'd;
But long before had Freedom's face been veil'd; Here, as long as the Romans were a free peo And Anarchy assumed her attributes; ple, all the affairs of the state were debaled in a Till every lawless soldier who assailid most public manner, and from the rostra, elevat.
Trod un ihe trembling senate's slavish mutes,
Here the orators of the people brought their potism ; and the Romans experienced, what all accusations against public men, or pronounced nations will feel, that in forging chains for others the eulogies of such as had died for their coun. they make rivets for their own necks,-that try, and here also were exhibited the bleeding those who enslave to-day are on the road to be heads or lifeless bodies of traitors, or as it but enslaved to-morrow,--that the spoils of unjust 100 oiten happened,) of men unjustly deemed so aggression, and the gains wrung from a vanquishby an overbearing faciion.
ed but once free people, are like clothes stolen The Forum was the court of justice, and in from the back of a man that has died of the the homely days of the early Republic, civil and plague, which carry a curse and death to the fool criminal causes were tried and decided by simple who puts them on. The wooden sheds where laws, in the open air, or in very plain sheds built Virginia repaired to school, and where her father in this square. The humble schools for the re, seized the butcher's knife, were succeeded by publican children (for these old Romans had marble porticoes and colonnades; and it is even places of public instruction for even the poor said that, by night, the Forum was illuminated people) stood round the Forum, and seem to all round with lanıps. On one occasion, Julius have been intermixed with shops, shainbles, Casar nearly covered it all over with tents or stalls, lowly temples, and altars. It was als she awnings, for the purpose of commodiously cele used to cross the Forum, day by day, in her way, brating certain games; and Octavia, the sister to and from school, that the innocent young Vir of the Emperor Augustus, furnished' it with an ginia, a maiden of plebeian rank but extra orili. immense quantity of relaria, or canvass awnnary beauty, unhappily attracted the notice of ings, to shade the portions of it where causes the lustful and tyrannical Decemvir, Appius were tried. In the immediate neighborhood Claudius, who sat there on the tribunal, sur of the Forum-on the Palatine Hill, which stands rounded by lictors to administer the laws which at one end of it-Augustus himself built a libra. he himself outraged. It was here, as she was cry, wherein he placed a large collection of law on her way to school, that Appius had her seiz. books, as well as the works of all the famous ed. Livy says, “ As Virginia came into the Roman authors. Pliny gives an almost incredi. Forum, (for the schools of learning were held ble notion of the number of statues and busts of there in sheds,) a dependent and minister of the gods, heroes and emperors, which a few years Decemvir's lust laid his hands on her, and ailirm. , later were arranged in the midst or around the ing' that she was a slave, and born of a woman Forum Romanum. Here the adjective sounds who was his slave,' ordered her to follow him, like an absurdity or a reproach. threatening, in case of refusal, to drag her away by force."
SPARTAN FESTIVAL. This fearful tragedy, with a sort of dramatic unity, was ended where it began. When the
It was a beautiful idea of the ancients to ac. honest centurion Virginius, informed of the dis knowledge children as citizens. Both among the grace hanging over the head oi his daughter, Greeks and Romans, at an appointed time in quitted the army with which he was fighting for his country, and came to Rome, he appeared in every year, the boys of about seven years of the Forum to plead for hi-child; and when he their names were enrolled as belonging to the
age were brought into a public assembly, and and Icilius, a young man to whom Virginia was state, and thenceforward they were allowed to betrothed, had both pleaded in vain, it was here take part in the public festivals. At a later age he slew her. To narrate all the great events of which this! they assumed the apparel of maturity and took
the oath of citizenship. spacious area was the scene would be in a man. ner to write the history of Rome. Virgil, in citizens classed according to their respective ages.
In the Spartan festivals one exhibited all the speaking of this site in the days of Evander, who On that occasion they formed a procession conis supposed to have flourished some centuries be- sisting of the old men, the middle aged, and the fore Romulus, says that then the flocks of sheep children. The old men, as they marched along used to wander and cows low on the Roman sung one portion of a popular song, the younger Forum.
During the Republic, in the absence of those men continued, and the boys concluded it. The vast and splendid theatres and amphitheatres song from Plutarch's Greek, has been paraphras
ed as follows by Mr. Bryant. where the emperors afterwards amused that peo. ple whom they enslaved, the players and gladia.
OLD MEN: iors exhibited in the Forum. In the later years We are old and sceble porof the Commonwealth a great number of tem.
Feeble hands to age belongples, military columns, and rostra dotted the B!11, when o'er our youthfui brow
Fell the dark hair, we were strong. space; but these, for the most pari, gave way to more splendid edifices and objects whici were To the strife we once could bring erected during the empire, when the soul of li. Lirds by toil and hardship sieeled;
Dreaded rivals in the ring, berty that had animated the place and the virtues
Dreaded fues in baitle-tield. which could cast a charm on lowly val's had for ever laken their departure. We do not eulogize
YOUNG MEN: the factious spirit, the love of war and conquest, Though your youthful strength departs, which were the immediate canses of their ruin,
With your children it endures;
In our arms and in our hearts but we need scarcely remind any of our readers Lives the valor dat was yours. that the old Roman republicans had many pri.
CHILDREN: vate and public virtues,--that they were sober, honest, chaste and hospitable,-and that they
We shall yet that strength attain,
Deels like yours shall m us known, loved their country with an unbounded passion.
And ihe glory we shall gain, All these disappeared under an execrable des. Hapls may surpass your own.
"All the wiumphs of truth and genius over pre. 1 SOUTH AFRICANS AND THE LETTER. judice and power, in every country and in every age, have been the triumphs of Athens.
Mr. Morfart, the African missionary, speak. "Wherever a few great minds have made a ing at a public meeting of the schools which had stand against violence and fruud, in the cause of been establ shed in South Africa, said. " he had liberty and reason, there has been her spirit in been compelled to leave his family, and live a the midst of them; inspiring, encouraging, con semi-savage life one hundred miles from the mais. soling ;-by the lonely lamp of Erasmus; by the sionary station. He could not hear from them, restless bed of Pascal; in the tribune of Mira- for there were no mail.coaches in that country beau ; in the cell of Galileo ; on the scaffold of On one occasion, however, he received a letter Sidney.
from Mrs. Moffatt; and a chief, sitting beside “But who shall estimate her influence on pri- him, wished to know what it was. He trans. vate happiness? Who shall say how many thou. lated to him a part of the contents. The indi. sands have been made wiser, happier, and bet vidual who brought it looked at him with utter ter, by those pursuits in which she has taught amazement, and at last exclaimed, 'Verily that mankind to engage; to how many the studies letter speaks: if I had known it, I would not which took their rise from her have been wealth have brought it. It has told every word that is in poverty, -liberty in bondage, -health in sick- true, and yet it has no mouth. Some time after ness,- society in solitude. Her power is indeed he wished to get an individual to convey a letter manifested at the bar; in the senate ; in the field to Mrs. Moffat, but could not procure one, though of batue ; in the schools of philosophy. But he offered the most liberal remuneration. A these are not her glory. Wherever literature simpleton was at last obtained, who promised consoles sorrow, or assuages pain,-wherever it to take it ; but when he received it, he thought brings gladness to eyes which fail with wakeful it was not worth carrying; he expected to reness and tears, and ache for the dark house and ceive something in a bag, and that they were the long sleep, there is exhibited, in its noblest p'aying a trick with him. He was told that it form, the immortal influence of Athens." would convey all the news to Mrs. Moffatt;
Such,” continues Mr. Macaulay, " is the gift or on which he threw it down, and nothing could of Athens to man. Her freedom and her power prevail on him to take it. He said, it would have for more than twenty centuries been anni. speak to him on the road, and make him go out hilated ; her people have degenerated into timid of his wits. slaves ; her language into a barbarous jargon ; On another occasion, when he wished to for. her temples have been given up to the successive ward a letter, he asked a native to carry it; but depredations of Romans, Turks, and Scotch the man hesitated, though he did not like to remen; but her intellectual empire is imperisha. fuse, for he did not wish to disoblige him (Mr. ble. And when those who have rivalled her Moffatt.) At last he inquired whether he could greatness, shall have shared her fate ; when civi- not put his spear through it; to which he re. lization and knowledge shall have fixel their plied he mignt if he thought that the most conabode in distant continents ; when the sceptre venient way of carrying it. The man answer. shall have passed away from England ;-her in. led, No; but if he ran his spear through it it fluence and her glory will still survive ;-fresh in would not say a syllable to him all the way be eternal youth, exempt from mutability and de. went. Now, however, schools were estab. cay, immortal as the intellectual principle from lished, churches were gathered, books wex which they derived their origin, and over wbich read from one end of the land to the other, and they exercise their control."
ibe cry was, 'Give us more, more education."