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tants; and the next moment he can penetrate to We congratulate the friends of education on regions of the universe immeasurably distant, the above selection. The deep interest that and contemplate the mountains and the vales, Col Young has always evinced in the cause of the rocks and the plains which diversified the Common Schools, apart from his official station, scenery of distant surrounding worlds. He can renders any comment on the propriety of his extract an invisible substance from a piece of appointment (by the legislature itself,) totally coal, by which he can produce almost in a mo. unnecessary. But as the remaining gentlemen ment, the most splendid illumination throughout have been selected by the Regents, it may seem every part of a large and populous city; he can proper to say, that the Rev. Dr. Potter is univerdetach the element of fire from the invisible air, sally known by his writings and personal exand cause the hardest stones, and the heaviest ertions, to improve the staudard of education ; mctals to melt like wax under its powerful agen that Mr. Hawley comes to his station with the cy; and he can direct the lightnings of heaven result of many years' experience as a former to accomplish his purposes in splitting immense Superintendent of Common Schools, and also stones into a multitude of fragments. He can with a faithful and unwcaried study of the subcause a splendid city, adorned with lofty columns, ject as a science ; that the Rev. Mr. Campbell, palaces and temples, to arise in a spot where of this city, was for many years, before he benothing was formerly beheld but a vast dlesert "came the pastor of one of the Reformed Dutch or a putrid marsh, and can make the wilder. churches in this city, an eminent and successful ness and the solitary place be glad, and the Principal of an Academy in the southern disdesert to bud and blossom as the rose.' He can trict, and that his learning and sound sense are communicate his thoughts and sentiments in a acknowledged by all who know him ; and fi. few hours to ten hundred thousands of his fellow nally, that Mr. Dwight, from his official situamen-in a few weeks to the whole civilized tions, his capacity and his devotion to the cause world ; and after his decease he can diffuse im- of education, will also be a useful and efficient portant instruction among mankind throughout member. succeeding generations. In short, he can look While this undertaking (important, highly back and trace the most memorable events which important as it is in its nature and its probable have happened in the world since time began; he consequences,) is thus ushered under such auscan survey the present aspect of the moral world pices before the public, we trust that at the same among all nations ; he can penetrate beyond time the difficulties incident to its successful es. the limits of all that is visible in the immense tablishment, and the labor absolutely requisite canopy of heaven, and range amidst the infinity for its management, and which will be gratuof unknown systems and worlds dispersed itously bestowed, will be considered by all our throughout the boundless regions of creation ; fellow-citizens with a kindly spirit. Let not an and he can overleap the bounds of time, and ex. unfounded prejudice mar its beginnings, but let patiate amidst future scenes of beauty and sub. all remember that it is preëminently an instita. limity which "eye hath not seen” throughout tion for the public good, and intended for the the countless ages of eternity.”
benefit of all.
A distinguished philanthropist and patriot has
authorized the subscriber to offer a Prize of One Most of our readers are probably aware that Hundred Dollars for the best Essay on “ THE an act was passed at the last session of the le. USES AND ADVANTAGES OF TJIE Town ORGANIgislature for the establishment of a Normal | ZATION." School (i. e. for the education of teachers of By Town Organization is meant-1st. That common schools) to be located in the county of geographical division of territory into such cir. Albany. At the same time, a munificeni en.cles or sections as allows all the inhabitants condowment was provided of ten thousand dollars veniently to assemble for the transaction of local per annum for the term of five years, to be de concerns; and 2d. The investment of all the invoted to the salaries of teachers, the purchase of habitants residents of such territory, with corpo school furniture and apparatus, and the support, rate powers for the transaction in primary asif necessary, of those who may become pupils. semblies of all ordinary municipal affairs; or, The expense of a building will be avoided, as in other words, The Uses and Advantages of the Common Council of the city of Albany have the mode of Organization common in New-Eng. engaged to furnish a proper one.
land, as contrasted with the county and paro. The Regents of the University, to whom the chial organization adopted in some other parts general care and supervision of this institution of the Union, in its effect upon the pecuniary is entrusted, were directed by the above act, to prospects, the useful arts, the character and the appoint a board or executive committee of five general mental advancement and civilization of persons (of whom the Superintendent of Com. | the people. mon Schools shall be one,) to whom are com. All competitors for the PRIZE must transmit mitted the care, management and government their Essays to the subscriber, at the ofiice of of the “ Normal School.” At a meeting of that the Common School Journal, No. 184 Washingbody, held June 1, 1844, fifteen members being ton-street, Boston, on or before the first day of present, the following persons were unaniinously October next, each Essay containing some seal appointed as said Board or Executive Committee or cipher by which its author can be known.
The SUPERINTENDENT OF COMMON SCHOOLS, Distinguished men will be selected as judges, Rev. Alonzo POTTER, D.D., of Union College and the prize will be awarded as early as Janu. Gideon HAWLEY, LL.D.,
ary 1st, 1845. T'he copyright of the successful Rev. WILLIAM H. CAMPBELL,
Essay will be the property of its author. | FRANCIS DWIGHT, Esq.
WM. B. FOWLE.
ALBANY. JULY, 1914.
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL. fine model for imitation-a noble specimen of
intellectual and moral qualities of the highest
order, exerted exclusively for the benefit of his DEATH OF JAMES WADSWORTII. race--for the present advancement--the future
welfare, and the permanent advantage of huWe discharge a most melancholy duty in an
manity-an encouraging pattern of unobtrusive nouncing the decease of the venerable JAMES benevolence, kindly affections, enlightened and WADSWORTH, at his residence in Geneseo. Mr.
comprehensive philanthropy, and practical Wadsworth was eminentiy a great and good christian philosophy. " Like a shock of corn
During a long and eventful lile his enero Tully ripe," this great and good man has been gies, mental and physical, his wealth and his in- ' gathered to his fathers,” but over him and fluence were uniforinly exerted for the promotion such as lim, death itself has no power ; and of the great interests of humanity—for the all. while we shail no longer be permitted to look vancement of civilization--the diffusion of know.
upon his countenance beaming with benignity, ledge—and the amelioration of the civil and so I and venerable from the reflection of all the vircial system in all its departments. His philan- tues which can adorn humanity, we and our thropy comprehended within its expanded circle, children and children's children shall long enjoy all of every faith, every grade, every nation, the priceless treasures of intellect and wisdom who needed the aid, assistance or encourage and knowledge, which his exertions and his inment which were at his command. His efforts fluence have bequeathed us. So long as our ad. for the extension, the elevation and improve mirable system of Cormon School EDUCATION ment of popular education, and especially of
our noble institution of School District LIthe common schools, were unremitted and sys: Braries—and our thousands of TEMPLES OF tematic. To his exertions, his intiuence, and KNOWLEDGE AND Virtue, remain as monuhis efficient aid, are we mainly indebted for the
ments of a superior and progressive civilization establishment and organization of our invalua
--so long will the name and memory of James ble district libraries : and each successive mea. WADSWORTH, be“ famiiiar as household words" sure undertaken or proposed for the advance.
to every citizen of our commonwealth. ment of our elementary institutions of learning, found in him an able and earnest coadjutor--a
MR. FOWLE'S LECTURE. liberal supporter-and an enlightened advocate. Deeming the improvement of the means of popular
LET no reader be deterred by the length of this education as the greatest blessing which can be excellent lecture. Once begun it will not be conferred upon an enlightened community, he, at voluntarily laid aside unfinished. It may be, that an early period, concentrated his energies upon some will agree with us, in dissenting from Mr. this great object. But in this, as in every other Fowle's opinions on the best method of teaching channel where “ the wilderness and the solitary the alphabet, but all will unite in commending places” of ignorance, of error, or of destitution, his admirable exposure of the absurdities of the mental or physical, were made “ to bud and “rote system,” in the various branches of edublossom as the rose," through his timely and ju- cation, and the sad perversion by its professors, dicious beneficence, the noiseless course of the who are legion, of that noble faculty, memory. current was indicated only by the verdure and luxuriance of the surrounding soil. His bcne. TO TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS AND factions were studiously and systematically THE FRIENDS OF THE JOURNAL. averted from the public gaze: and nothing pain. ed him more than their exposure, however
ÄFTE JOURNAL will continue, as heretohonorable to himself, or grateful to the objects tore, to be sent gratuitously, to the several of his bounty. His alms were “in secret ;" | Town Superintendents of Common Schools and He " who seeth in secret” will " reward | eight hundred and forty in number—although no him openly."
provision exists in the law for defraying the To particularize instances of his unwearied heavy additional charge thus incurred-the State and discriminating benevolence, in every de subscription including only a number sufficient to partment of social life, would be to write his supply one copy to each school district. The enbiography: and that, however grateful the task, largement of the paper and the consequent inwe are compelled to leave to abler hands. Increased expenses incident to its publication, neall the relations of life his example afforded cessarily throws the entire burther of this addi.
tional charge, upon the editor and proprietor. ing it for their own benefit or that of their famiAppreciating as he does, in common with the lies, but who conceive themselves unable to incur Department, the value and importance of the the expense of subscription. But if this is ex. services which the Town Superintendents are pecting too much, may we not confidently call rendering to the great cause of popular educa. upon every Town Superintendent to obtain at tion, he does not hesitate cheerfully to encounter least four SUBSCRIBERS, for if even this is done, the risk, whatever it may be, involved in the the Journal can be maintained in its present adoption of this course, on his part; confidently re: form, and its pages enriched by contributions lying upon the ability and the disposition of these from the best writers of our country. officers to promote and extend the circulation of We should not make this urgent appeal, were the Journal, if in their judgment it is worthy of not an effort absolutely necessary to prevent a a more general diffusion. It is earnestly to be heavy loss consequent upon our undertaking to hoped that in this reasonable expectation he will supply the districts with nearly double the not be disappointed. If the work is in any de- amount of information heretofore diffused through gree worthy of the high confidence which has the columns of the Journal. been reposed in it by the State, its circulation ought not to be limited to one or two individuals
DISTRICT LIBRARIES. in each school district, who are required to keep it principally in their own possession, in order The institution of district libraries is one of that it may be safely preserved for binding at the the most valuable improvements which the friends end of the year. It should ve in the possession of the common school system have engrasted of every family in the district.
upon it. That a scheme so beneficial in its naA very little exertion on the part of each Townture, and so admirably calculated for permanent Superintendent to procure subscribers in each usefulness should so long have been neglected, district, would enable its conductors to furnish an is matter of surprise and astonishment. Its sucamount and a quality of reading matter unequal-cess thus far has corresponded to the most san. led in interest and value by any periodical in the guine anticipations of its friends, and its conUnion : and this they, on their part, unhesita. iinuance will, beyond all doubt, infuse new life. tingly engage to do, provided their exertions are and animation in the moral and intellectual purin any degree properly seconded by those for suits of our youth. The presence of these li. whom they labor. May we not appeal, not braries, and the facilities which are afforded for merely to Town and County Superintendents
, access to them at all times, not only gratifies but but to the trustees and other officers, and to the creates a lively relish and taste for the cultivainhabitants of districts generally, for substantial tion of the mind, which as it expands and maaid and encouragement to enable us to procurctures, will open the way to the most extended the best talents of the country—to procure the development of the higher faculties of thought greatest possible amount of valuable and useful and reason. It is of the utmost importance that information—to avail ourselves of the richest this refined taste should receive an early and effruits of literature, science and the arts—to call ficient encouragement. The innate activity of forth native genius and latent talent,to diffuse the mental powers will not be satisfied, unless far and wide throughout the land, a knowledge constantly furnished with subjects upon which of the most sound and successful methods of de their energies can be exerted ; and the readiness veloping the mental and moral faculties of our with which every first impression for good or for youth_and to supply the domestic and social evil is received and adopted, inculcates strongly circle with ample materials for thought, for re- the necessity of affording a proper direction to flection, for information and practical usefulness? those powers, and of guiding them by an allur
As an additional inducement to the exertions ing path, to the attainment of right views. of our friends and the friends of education to co.
In connection, however, with the innumeraoperate with us in this undertaking, and with ble benefits which may reasonably be anticipatthe view of a more general diffusion of our ed, from bringing within the reach of the young work, we will engage to forward fifteen copies a constant supply of reading materials, it is easy of the Journal to the order of any district or per- to perceive, that most serious evils may spring son transmitting to us five dollars. In this way up, unless a judicious supervision is uniformly five copies of the Journal may be distributed maintained over the details of the system. The among such of the inhabitants of each district proper selection of a library, adapted to the re• adopting this plan, as may be desirous of perus. 'spective ages, and probable destigation and pur.
suits of those for whom it is intended, is, in the most remote parts of our country towns, and first instance, an object which cannot receive too some central village or settlement; and each inmuch attention. Devolving, as it too often must, habitant or family being provided with a printed upon those who are not possessed of the requi. catalogue of the library, books may be sent for, site qualifications to discharge this responsible and returned with little more difficulty or emduty in the best manner, an irreparable injury barrassment than is experienced under the premay unconsciously be inflicted on the tender and sent system. By a judicious and discriminating susceptible minds of youth. The kind and investment of the funds thus united, a sufficient quality of reading or study, too, which might number of volumes would soon be procured to be proper and beneficial at one age, or to one meet all the exigencies of the population ; and person, will be found entirely unsuited to the so exhaustless and abundant would the supply wants and capacities of another; and an early soon become, that no questions need arise rerepugnance, or a wrong bias, may thus insensi. specting the proportion of the fund annually con. bly be communicated. The only praeticable tributed by the respective districts. Each district remedy for this evil, where it may be appre would, moreover, retain the library it now has, hended to exist, would it is believed be, for the thereby providing a source of constant supply trustees to commit the selection and arrangement whenever for any reason resort could not be had of the library, to such individuals, whether offi to the town library. cially connected with the schools or otherwise, There may be objections to the plan here sug. as from their education, judgment and pursuits, gested, which have failed to present themselves would be best adapted to execute the trust with to our notice, and if so, we should be happy to fidelity and ability.
be reminded of them from any source. But it It has been suggested, and the suggestion has seemed to us, that such a combination and strikes us as well worthy of consideration and concentration of our library fund, as we have discussion, that the several school districts of briefly attempted to sketch, would have the efthe respective towns, unite the library funds fect of removing many of the impediments which which they may hereafter receive and which they arise from the necessarily meagre stock of books, may determine to apply to the purchase of books, which a large proportion of our country district and place the same in the hands of the town su libraries present; and that, instead of ten, Afperintendent or some other competent and re teen or twenty adjoining libraries, with substansponsible person, to be expended in the purchase tially the same collection of books, often frivoand annual augmentation of a Town School Lilous, common.place and uninteresting, we might BRARY, to be centrally and conveniently located secure for each of our eight hundred and forty and placed under the supervision of a librarian, towns, a noble, extensive and valuable library, to be appointed by the trustees of the several to which all classes of community might resort districts, or designated by the town superinten with the certainty of a high degree of intellecdent.. The adoption of some such plan as this
tual and moral gratification and instruction, would, it is evident, add very materially to the If due attention is given to the advantages value of our libraries ; would place from ten to which such libraries are capable, under proper twenty, and in some instances, thirty times the management, of affording, and judicious and present amount and variety of reading matter, seasonable efforts made to divest them of an un. within the reach of the inhabitants of the seve favorable and injurious influence, they may be. ral districts, and would ensure to each town, come a more effectual instrument for creating a within the compass of a few years, a library sound and wholesome literary taste, than has fully equal, if not superior, to the best now in yet been devised in our systems of popular eduthe state. There may be some towns, where cation. They will be found to minister not only from the great extent of surface which they oc. to the intellectual, but to the moral requirements cupy, or from the absence of the necessary of those within the sphere of their benefits ; thoroughfares connecting together different por- and while they assist in rendering the course of tions of the territory, such an arrangement might early instruction interesting and pleasant, they be objectionable ; but in these, two or more li- will insensibly divert the mind from improper braries might be established, and as near an ap. J and pernicious aspirations, strengthen and keep proximation as practicable made to the principle in constant and healthy exercise its relecting in view. Ordinarily, it is believed, facilities powers, and prepare it for those nobler and more for cominunication at least as often as once in daring slights, to which its high ambition points, each month, will be found to exist between the 'The bill of science is, indeed. but a barren
beath, until it is adorned with the perennial fruits querors-call them philosophers-call them pa. of christian morality, and the rich flowers of triots- put
on what golden seeming you mayimagination, taste and refinement; and it is im. When the mask falls off
, as it always does in due
season, we see behind it the worsi combination possible that we should contemplate its steep which can disgust or afflict humanity. Sach ascent with pleasure, until we can indistinctly, men-deliverers and enlighteners, as their sycoat least, discern its expanding beauties, and plants hail them-such men are the true master
workers of the vices and calamities of their age comprehend, in some measure, the rich variety and country. But who made them? They who and wide extent of view which it presents on taught them. Education left out its very essence. every side. The munificent liberality of the It gave them knowledge, but it left them im.
morality. state has provided us with the roost ample means
"What is true of individuals is still truer of of accomplishing this desirable result, and it societies. A reading and writing community only remains for us so to appropriate and apply may be a very vicious community, if morality those means, as to secure the utmost attainable made as much a portion of education as reading
- not merely its thcory, but its practice-be not mental and moral advantages.
R. and writing. Knowledge is only a branch of
education, but it has too often been taken for
the whole. ence the innumerable contests on INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL EDU. CATION.
the advantages and disadvantages of Education.
If the terms of the proposition had been clearly We take the following beautiful extract from stated at the beginning, these differences could not
have arisen. The advocates of education apan admirable work on education, by Thomas peal for prooss of its advantages to the effects Wyse, Esq. M. P.; published in London. It is resulting from the extension of reading and full of instruction, and replete with the most rriting only. These effects are by no means as
favorable as it is assumed. The opponents of soand views of educational philosophy.
education, taking advantage of this circumstance, “ Intellectual and moral education may rank maintain that education in general is injurious. before physical; but they are not more essential. If both parties had determined that by education The physical powers are the hewers of wood should be understood, not only knowledge, but and the drawers of water for the spiritual. The morality, there could not have been a question base of the column is in the earth ; but without between them of the advantages of its diffusion. it neither could the shaft stand firm above it, nor Both, therefore, to a certain degree are right, the capital ascend to the sky.
and both are wrong. That the extension of true 'The education which confines to the desk or education of complete education—is a blessing, chapel is a very partial education; it is only a cannot be doubted; but that the extension of inchapter in the system. It is pernicious; it is a tellectual cducation, without moral—the extenportion only of the blessings of education. If sion of the half-education, or the false educasuch te the result of separating physical and tion now in use-is such, is a very different intellectual education, how much more so of diquestion. viding intellectual and moral! It is laboriously “But is moral education possible, without inproviding for the community dangers and crimes. tellectual? There are those who think they can It entrusts power with the perfect certainty of and ought to separate them. But they judge erits being abused. It brings into the very heart roneously, and, thank God, attempt impossiof our social existence the two hostile principles bilities. Hall of our being cannot ihus be torn of Manicheism ; it sets up the glory and beauty from the other. They are intertwisted : it is of civilization, to be dashed to pieces by the evil difficult to say where one begins and the other spirit' to whom it gives authority over it. It ends” * "Intellectual education teaches disciplines the bad passions of our nature against first to observe and enquire, and then to conthe good, making men wicked by rule, render- clude. Just conclusions lead to just actionsing vice system, intrusting to the clever head, just actions are virtue. A community so formed the strong hand, and setting both loose by the will not fall into those national prejudices which impulse of the bad heart below. The omission not only strike with astonishment other times of physical education renders the other two in. and nations, but, when the fit is over, surprise effective or precarious; but the neglect of moral and humble themselves. The wise king asked education converts physical and intellectual into for understanding, alove all treasures. To positive evils. The pestilence of a high-laught him it was morality-virtue--religion. He was but corrupt mind-blowing where it listeth-right. Without it morality is mere passionsca thes and sears the soul of men : it is felt for virtue an accident or a name-religion gropes miles and years almost interminable. By the blindly into fanaticism, or floats off from disappress, (the steam of the intellectual world,) it pointmet into incredulity. A faith which is touches distant ages and other hemispheres. It merely the echo of an echo—which is thought, corrupts the species in mass. It is not only in but not believed---which is custom, but not con. the actual generation, but in the rickety offspring viction-rests passively, but not firmly in the which follow late and long, that its deep-eating mind of the professor. It is not thrown off, poison-its Mephistophiles breath-is strong y neither is it kept. It remains there, if no storm detected. Late ages wonder at the waste of threaten : but the first blast which disturbs, des. great means, at the perversion of high oppor- troys. No one would willingly trust the characiunities and noble powers, at the dereliction of ter of a child to the decision of such chances solemn duties, which every where characterize much less the character of a community. How these strong, but evil beings. Call them con much wiser to build upon the base which God