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no district clerk, the trustees of the district may collected is to be applied as directed in Article XII. of appoint the librarian.

regulations No. II. with respect to fines. Trustees of school districts, are by virtue of their VI. It is the duty of the trustees to provide a plain office, trustees of the library, and have the general and sufficient case for the library, with a good lock, if charge and superintendence of it. The librarian is the district shall have neglected to do so. They are subject to their directions in all matters relating to also to cause the books and case to be repaired as soon the preservation of the books and appurtenances of the as may be, when injured; they are also to provide library, and he may be removed by them for the causes sufficient wrapping paper to cover their books, and the and under the circumstances mentioned in the first | necessary writing paper to enable the librarian to keep section of the " Act respecting school district libraries.” minutes of the delivery and return of books. These are (No. 180.)

proper expenses for the preservation and repair of the Whenever the trustees go out of office they are to de- || books, and are to be defrayed by a tax on the district, liver to their successors all the books in ihe districe which is to be added by any tax voted by a district library, with the case and all other appurtenances, and meeting. It is not necessary that the tax to defray such delivery should be had within ten days at least these expenses should be voted by the inhabitants of after their successors are chosen; and the librarian is the district; it is to be assessed and collected in the at the same time to deliver to his successor all the some manner as a tax for building or repairing a minutes, catalogues, papers and property, appertaining school house, or to farnish it with necessary fuel and to the library.

appendages. III. When any library is purchased and taken charge VII. The librarian must cause to be pasted ineach book of by the librarian, he is to make out a full and com- belonging to the library, a printed label, or must write plete catalogue of all the books contained therein. At in the first blank leaf of each book, specifying that the ihe foot of each catalogue the librarian is to sign a re- book belongs to the library of school district No. ceipt in the following form:

in the town of

i naming the town and giving 1, A. B. do hereby acknowledge that the books speci. I the number of the district; and he is on no account to fied in the preceding catalogue have been delivered to deliver cut any book which has not such printed or me by the Trustees of School District No. in the written declaration in it. He is also to cause all the town of

to be safely kept by me as Librarian | books to be covered with strong wrapping paper, on the of the said District for the use of the inhabitants there back of which is to be written the title of the book, and of, according to the regulations prescribed by the its number in large figures. As new books are added, Superintendent of Common Schools, and to be accounted the numbers are to be continued, and they are in no for by me according to the said regulations to the case to be altered; so that if a book be lost, its number Trustees of the said District, and to be delivered to my and title must still be continued on the catalogue, with successor in office. Dated, &c.

a note that it is missing. A correct copy of the catalogue and receipt is then to VIII. The librarian must keep a blank book, that may be made, to which the trustees are to add a certificate be made by stitching together half a dozen or more in the following form:

sheets of writing paper. Let these be ruled across the We the Subscribers, Trustees of School District No. width of the paper so as to leave five columns of the

in the town of do certify that the preceding proper size for the following entries, to be written is a full and complete catalogue of books in the Library | lengthwise of the paper: in the first column, the date of the said District now in possession of A. B. the Li- of the delivery of any book to any inhabitant; in the brarian thereof, and of his receipt thereon. Given second, the title of the book delivered, and its number; under our hands this day of 18

in the third, the name of the person to whom delivered ; The catalogue having the librarian's receipt, is to be in the fourth, the date of its return; and in the fifth, delivered to the trustees, and a copy having the certifi-remarks, respecting its condition, 'in the following cate of the trustees, is to be delivered to the librarian form: for his indemnity.

Whenever books are added to the library, a catalogue | Time of Title and To whom. When Condi. with a similar receipt by the librarian is to be delivered delivery. | No. of Book.

returned tion. to the trustees, and a copy with a certificate of the 1839, History of T. Jones. June 20. Good. trustees that it is a copy of the catalogue delivered June 1o. | Virginia, 43. them by the librarian, is to be furnished to him. Every catalogue received by the trustees is to be kept by them

The proper width of each column can be ascertained carefully among the papers of the district and to be de- by writing the different entries on a half sheet of paper livered to their successors in office.

and seeing how much room they respectively occupy. IV. During the week preceding the annual meeting all

As it will be impossible for the librarian to keep any the books shall be called inFor this purpose the libra- | trace of the books without such minutes, his own inte. rian is to refuse to deliver out any books for fourteen rest to screen himself from responsibility, as well as days preceding the time so prescribed for collecting his duty to the public, will, it is to be hoped, induce them together. The trustees must make a careful him to be exact in making his entries at the time any examination of the books, compare them with the cata. I book is delivered; and when it is returned to be equally logue, and make written statements in a column oppo exact in noticing its condition, and making the proper site the name of each book of its actual condition,

minute. whether lost or present, and whether in good order or

IX. A fair copy of the catalogue should be kept by the injured, and if injured, specifying in general terms, the librarian, to be exhibited

to those who desire to select extent of such injury. This catalogue, with the re.

a book; and if there be room, it should be fastened on marks, is to be kept by them; a copy of it is to be made the door of the case. out and delivered to the new librarian with the library, by

X. The several trustees of school districts are hereby whom a receipt in the form above prescribed is to be required, in their annual reports to the town superinten given, and to be delivered to the trustees. Another dent of common schools, to state the number of books be. copy certified by them as before mentioned, is to be delonging to their district library on the last day of De. livered to the librarian.

cember in each year. V. Trustees are to attend to the library for the pur.

XI. The trustees of each school district shall, at the pose of comparing the catalogue with the books. They time of their making their annual reports, deliver to the are at all times when they think proper, and especially town superintendent'of common schools of their town, on their coming into office, to examine the books care.

a catalogue containing the titles of all the books in the fully, and note such as are missing or injured. For district library, with the number of volumes of each every book that is missing the librarian is accountable set or series, and the condition of such books, whether to the trustees for the full value thereof, and for the sound, or injured, or defaced. This catalogue must be whole series of which it formed a part : such value to signed by them and by the librarian. be determined by the trustees. He is accountable also

XII. The town superinttendent of common schools in for any injury which a book may appear to have sus

each town is required carefully to preserve such cata. tained, by being soiled, defaced, torn, or otherwise. logues, and deliver them, with the papers of their office, And he can be relieved from such accountability only the catalogues delivered to him, and hand them over

to his successor, who is also required to preserve by the trustees, on its being satisfactorily shewn to them that some inhabitant of the district has been

to his successor, charged or is chargeable for the value of the book so

XIII. Town superintendents of common schools canmissing, or for the amount of the injury so done to any not pay over any library money to the trustees of a work. It is the duty of the trustees to take prompt and district in the following cases : efficient measures for the collection of the amount for 1st. If a catalogue, as required by articie XI, has not which any librarian is accountable ; such amount when been delivered to them.

2d. If the number of books belonging to its library isi 4th. A person under age cannot be permitted to take out not stated in the annual report of the trustees.

a book unless he resides with some responsible in8d. If it does not clearly appear from such report that habitant of the district; nor cau he then receive a

the whole of the library money paid to such district book if notice has been given by his parent or guas. the preceding year, have been expended according to dian or the person with whom he resides, that they law. No part of the library money can be applied to will not be responsible for books delivered such minor. the purchase of a case for the books. These are the 5th. Each individual residing in the district, of sufficient like conditions” referred to in the act authorizing the age to read the books helonging to the library, is to be

apportionment of public money to district libraries. regarded as an inhabitant, and is entitled to all the 4th. Wherever it appears that any district has expended benefits and privileges conferred by the regulations

any portion of its library money in the purchase of relative to district libraries. Minors will draw in any text book used in schools, such as spelling books, their own names, but on the responsibility of their pa. arithmetics, or grammars, or any book clearly im rents or guardians. proper to be admitted into a district library.

6th. Where there is a sufficient number of volumes in XIV. Whenever town superintendents of common the library to accommodate all residents of the dig. school withhold from any district its library money, they trict who'wish to borrow, the librarian should per. * re not to distribute the money among the other dis mit each member of a family to take books as often tricts, but are to report the case and the circumstances as desired, so long as the regulations are punctually to the Superintendent, in order to enable him to exer and fully observed. But where there are not books cise the discretion given by the sixth section of the "Act enough to supply all the borrowers, the vibrarian respecting school district libraries." (No. 186.)

should endeavor to accommodate as many as possible, XV. Whenever in these regulations any act or duty by furnishing each family in proportion to the number is directed or authorized to be performed by trustees of its readers or borrowers. of libraries, tbe same may be performed by a majority IV. Every book must be returned to the library within of the trustees at a meeting of the whole number; and twenty days after it shall have been taken out, but the when any meeting of the trustees shall have been noti. same inhabitant may again lake it, unless application bed, by notice given by any one trustee to the others, has been made for it, while it was so out of the library, a majority of the whole are competent to the transac- by any person entitled, who has not previously borrowtion of any business, in the same manner as if all were ed the same book, in which care such applicant shall present. But a majority cannot act unless notice has have a preference in the use of it. And where there been given to all to attend at the time and place of have been several such applicants, the preference shall meeting

be according to the priority in time of their applicaXVI Whenever the legal voters of two or more dis- lions, to be determined by the librarian. Upon appli. tricts desire to unite their librars moneys and funds, cation to the Superintendent, the time for keeping books and purchase a joint library, under the provisions of out of the library will be extended to a period not exthe 5th section of the act hereto annexed; (No. 184.) a ceeding i wenty-eight days, where sufficient reasons for special meeting should be called in each district for the such extension are shown. purpose, under a notice specifying the object. The V. If a book be not returned at the proper time, the irustees will then transmit to the Superintendent certi. librarian is to report the fact to the trustees; and he fied copies of the votes, and a statement of the number must also exhibit to them every book which has been voting for and against them. They will also furnish relurned injured by soiling, defacing, tearing, or in statements of the number of inhabitants, the valuations any other way, before such book shall be again loaned of their property, the amount of library money received out, together with the name of the inhabitant in whose in each district, the amount each has voted to raise by | possession it was when so injured. tax on the district, and a general description or map VI. The trustees of school districts being by virtue of of the districts, so as to shew their contiguity; and in their office trustees of the library, are hereby authoriz. all cases where the convenience of the inhabitants will led to impose the following fines: be promoted and the great object of the libraries will ist. For each day's detention of a book beyond the time be advanced by such a union, the Superintendent will allowed by these regulations, six cents, but not to be cheerfully give his approbation to its being formed. imposed for more than ten day's detention.

XVII. Where such a union is formed, the preceding 2d. For the destruction or loss of a book, a fine equal regulations will be deemed to apply to the joint library, to the full value of the book, or of the set, if it be subject only to the variations prescribed in the before one of a series, with the addition to such value of mentioned fifth section, and such as arise from the na. ten cents for each volume. And on the payment of ture of the union. A majority of the whole number of such fine, the party fined shall be entitled to the resi. trustees of all the districts considered as one body, will due of the series. If he has also been fined for de. be competent to the transaction of business, and to de. taining such book, then the said ten cents shall not be cide all questions which may properly come before them. added to the value.

It is proper to remark that by section 6 of the act 3d. For any injury which a book may sustain after it relative to common schools, passed May 3, 1939, (No. shall be taken out by a borrower and before its return, 166,) a penalty of len dollars is incurred by every town a fine may be imposed of six cents for every spot of superintendent of common schools and by every trustee grease or oil upon the cover or upon any leaf of the of a school district for resusing or wilsully neglecting volume; for writing in or defacing any book, not less to perform any duty required by law or by any regula than ten cents, nor more than the value of ihe book; tion of the Superintendeot of Common Schools, under for cutting or tearing the cover, or the binding, or the authority of the statute; and they are also liable

any leaf, not less than ten cents, por more than the to their towns and districts for the amount of any loss value of the book. that may be sustained by reason of such neglect or re- 4th. If a leaf be torn out, or so defaced or mutilated fusa).

that it cannot be read, or if any thing be written in

the volume, or any other injury done to it, which renDISTRICT LIBRARY REGULATIONS, NO. JI. ders it unfii for general circulation, the trustees will Regulations concerning the use of the Books in District consider it a destruction of the book, and sball im.

Libraries prescribed by the Superintendent of Common pose a fine accordingly, as above provided in case of Schools pursuant to the third section of the Act re loss of a book specting School District Libraries,” passed April 15th, 5th. When a book shall have been detained seven days 1939.

beyond the 20 days allowed by these regulations, the I. The librarian has charge of the books and is responsi librarjan sball give notice to the borrower to return ble for their preserva oon and delivery to bis successor. the same within three days. If not returned ai that

II. A copy of the catalogue required to be made out by time, the trustees may consider the book lost or des. Articles Ill. and IV. of Regulations No. 1. is to be kept troyed, and may impose a fine for its destruction in by the librarian, open to the inspection of the inhabi. addition to the fines for its detention. tants of the district at all reasonable times. It will be VII. But the imposition of a fine for the loss or des. found convenient to affix a copy of it on the door of the struction of a book, shall not prevent the trustees from bookcase containing the library.

recovering, such book in an action of replevin, unless TU. Books are to be delivered as follows:

such fine shall have been paid. Ist. Only to inhabitants of the district.

VIII. When in the opinion of the librarian any fine 2d. One only can be delivered to an inhabitant at a time; || has been incurred by any person under these regulations,

and any one having a book out of the library must reo he may refuse to deliver any book to the party liable to turn it before he can receive another.

such fine, until the decision of the trustees upon such 8d. No person upon whom a fine has been imposed by || liability, be had.

the trustees under these regulations, can receive a IX. Previous to the imposition of any fine, two days' book while such fine remains unpaid.'

written or verbal notice is to be given by any trustee, or

the librarian, or any other person authorized by eitherSuperintendent, either separately or in conjucction of them, to the person charged, to show cause why he with the Supervisor and 'Town Clerk, relative to the should not be fined for the alleged offence or neglect; | formation or alteration of any School District, or of the and if within that time good cause be not shown, the Trustees or Librarian, in the discharge of any of the trustees shall impose the fine herein prescribed. No duties devolving upon them, or concerning any other other excuse for an extraordinary injury to a book, that matter arising under the school law of whatever desis for such an injury as would not be occasioned by its cription, is now required to bring bis appeal, in the ordinary use should be received, but the fact that the manner and within the time now prescribed by the rebook was as much injured when it was taken out by the gulations of the department, to the County Superinten. person charged, as it was when he returned it. As dent, whose decision : hereon is final, unless appealed such loss must fall on some one, it is more just that it from to this department within fifteen days after ser. should be borne by the party whose duty it was to take vice of a copy thereof. care of the volume, than by the district. Negligence can only be prevented, and disputes can only be avoid CASES IN WHICH APPEALS MAY BE MADE, ed by the adoption of this rule. Subject to these general. Under the 110th Section of the Common School Act. (No. principles, the imposition of all, or any of these fincs,

160.) is discretionary with the trustees, and ihey should or.

1. Where any decision has been made by any School dinarily be imposed only for wilful or culpably negli District meeting. gent injuries to books, or where the district actually

This includes the whole class of cases, in which dissustains a loss, or serious injury. Reasonable excusestrict meetings have the power to decide on any propofor the detention of the books beyond the twenty days,

sition or motion that may legally be made to them, unsbould in all cases be received.

der any section of the School Act. X. It is the special duty of the librarian to give now tice to the borrower of a book that shall be returned in: | Superintendent of Common Schools, or by him and the

II. Where any decision bas been made by the Town jured, to show cause why he should not be fined. Such | Supervisor and Town Clerk, in the forming or altering, notice may be given to the agent of the borrower who

or in refusing to form or alter any School District, or returns the book; and it should always be given at the

in refusing to pay any school moneys 10 any district ; time the book is returned. XI. The librarian is to inform the trustees of every

and under the general provision, "concerning any other notice given by him to show cause against the imposi;|| from the proceedings of such Town Superintendent in

matter under the present title," appeals will also lie tion of a fine; and they shall assemble at the time and

any erroneous distribution of public money, in paying place appointed by him, or by any notice given by them, it io any distriet not entitled, or more than it is an. or any one of them; and shall bear the charge and delihorized to receive; and in fact from any official deci. sence. They are to keep a book of minutes, in which sion, act, or proceeding, and from a refusal to discharge every fine imposed by them, and the cause, shall be en

any duty imposed by law, or the regulations of the Sutered and signed by ihem, or the major part of them. || perintendent, or incident to the duties of his

office. Such original minutes, or a copy certified by theni, or the major part of them, or by the clerk of the district, || school districts in paying any teacher, or refusing to

Ul. Where any decision has been made by Trustees of shall be conclusive evidence of the fact ihat a fine was imposed as stated in such minutes, according to these || ously into the school. And under the same general pro

pay him, or in refusing io admit any scholar gratuit. regulations. XII. It shall be the duty of trustees to prosecute gratuitously, in making out ang tax list, or rate bill,

vision referred to, in improperly admitting any scholar promptly for the collection of all fipes imposed by them. Fines collected for the detention of books, or for inju://dertake to perform officially; and also for a refusal to

or in any act or proceeding whatever, which they un. ries to ihem, are to be applied to defray the expense of discharge any duty enjoined by law, or any regulation repairing the books in the library; Fines collected for of the Superintendent, or incident to the duties of their the loss or destruction of any book, or of a set or series

office. of books, shall be applied to the purchase of the same

IV. Where Town Superintendents have improperly or other suitable books.

granted or annulled a certificate or qualification to a XIII. These regulations being declared by law obli: teacher, or have refused to grant or annul such certifi. gatory upon all persons and officers having charge of cate; and where they have undertaken to perform any such libraries, or using or possessing any of the books official act, or refused to discharge any duty imposed thereof," it is expedient that they should be made by law or under its authority, in the inspection of known to every borrower of a book. And for that pur-Il teachers and visitation of schools. pose a printed copy is to be aífixed conspicuously on the case containing any library, or in one of such cases, if other ministerial officers, refuse to perform aliy duty

V. Where Clerks of Districts, Clerks of towns, or there be several: and the librarian is to call the atten: enjoined by the Common School Act. tion to them of every person on the first occasion of his

VI. Where any other matter under the said act, shall taking out a book.

be presented, either in conscquence of disputes between

districts respecting their boundaries, or any other subAppeals to the County Superintendents. ject; or in consequence of disputes between any offi(The cases in which the courts will not entertain ju-l laws concerning Common Schools, or disputes between

cers charged with the execntion of any duties under the risdiction of complaints of erroneous proceedings un: I them and any other person relating to such duties or der the school laws, and in which only a certiorari will

any of them. lie, may be inferred from the decision of the Sup. Court in the case of Eaton and others, vs. Calendar, ii Wend.|| Under the 4th Section of the Act respecting School Dis90. "The plaintiff below was not without his remedy.

trict Librarics." (No. 183.) IR. S. 487, $ 110, 111 and the amendment of the law, ll of trustees or school districts concerning the Libraries,

VII. Appeals may be made from any act or decision 20th April, 1930, provides that “any person conceiving himself aggrieved in consequence of any decision made

or the books therein, or the use of such books, by the Trustees of any district in paying any teacher,

VIII. Any act or decision of the Librarian in respect or concerning any other matter under the present title,"

to the library. (which includes the whole of the school act,)“ may

IX. Any act or decision of any district meeting in reappeal to the Superintendent of Common Schools whose

lation to their library school. decision shall be final.” This provision was intended

X. Appeals also lie from the acts of Town Saperiufor what it practically is, a cheap and expeditious mode tendents of Common Schools in withholding or paying of settling most, if not all, of the difficulties and dis. I over library money to any district. putes arising in the course of the execution of the law. Under the 40th Section of the Act of 1941, relating to A common law certiorari would no doubt lie from this

Common Schools. (No. 161.) court, to the trustees to bring up and correct any erro XI. All proceedings under any authority conferred by neous proceeding not concluded by an adjudication of this act upon any of the officers connected with the the Superintendent, or in a case where his powers were || Common Schools, and all omissions and refusals to inadequate to give the relief to which the party was en perform any duty enjoined by said act, is subject to ap. titled.)

peal in the same manner and with the like effect as in The passage of several acts of the Legislature ren. cases arising under the 110th section above referred) to. ders necessary a revision of the regulations concerning appeals: And the following are therefore substituted BY WHOM APPEALS ARE TO BE MADE. for those heretofore established:

XII. The porson aggrieved by the act complained of, Any inhabitant of a School District conceiving him. I only, can appeal. Generally, every inhabitant of a dis. self aggrieved, in consequence of any proceeding or de-trict is aggrieved by the wrongful act or omission of a cision of any Śchool District meeting, or of the town || Trustee or Town Superintendent, by which money or

property is disposed of, or not secured for the benefit | money in their hands claimed to belong to any person, of the district. But no one is aggrieved by another be. or any other District, after the copy of an appeal is ing included in a tax list or rate bill, although other served on them in relation to such claim, they must reinhabitants are by the omission of one who should be lain such moneys lo abide the result, and musi not extaxed; and appeals may be made by trustees, in behalfpend them so as to defeat the object of the appeal. of their districts, whenever they are aggrieved.

XXIV. Whenever a decision is made by the County

Superintendent, and communicated to the Town Su. FORM AND MANNER OF PROCEEDING. perintendent of Common Schools, respecting the for. XIII. An appeal must be in writing and signed by the mation, division or alteration of Districts, he must appellant. When made by the Trustees of a district, it cause the decision to be recorded in the oftice of the must be signed by all the trustees, or a reason must be Town Clerk. All other decisions communicated to him, given for the omission of any, verified by the oath of or to the Trustees of Districts, are to be kept among The appellant, or of some person acquainted with such the official papers of the Clerk of the Town or l'istrict reason.

and handed over to his successors; and the district XIV. A copy of the appeal, duly verified, and of all Clerks are required to record all such as come to their the statements, maps and papeis intended to be pre- hands in the District book kept by them. sented in support of it, must be served on the officers whose act or decision is complained of, or some one of APPEALS TO THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT. them ; or if it be from the decision or proceedings of a XXV. The following regulations respecting the mode distriet meeting, upon the district clerk or one of the of bringing an appeal from the decision of the County trustees, whose duiy it is to cause information of such Superintendent are hereby prescribed in pursuance of appeal to be given to the inhabitants who voted for the the authority conferred by the seventh section of the decision or proceeding appealed from.

late act. XV. Such service musi be made within thirty days Whenever any party to an appeal shall be desirous of after the making of the decision, or the performance of appealing to the Superintendont of Common Schools the act complained of: or within that time, after the from the decision of any Couuty Superintendent, such knowledge of the cause of complaint came to the appel. party shall, withio fifteen days after service of a copy lant, or some satisfactory excuse must be rendered for of such decision, serve a writien notice upon such the delay.

County Superintendent either personally or by leaving XVI. The party on whom the appeal was served, must the same at his residence, of his or their intention to within ten days from the time of such service, answer appeal from such decision. Such County Superintenthe same, either by concurring in a statement of facis dent shall, within ten days thereafter, transmit to the with the appellant, or by a separate answer. Such Superintendent of Common Schools, a statement setung statement and answer must be signed by all the Trus. rorih all the allegations and proofs of the respective tees, or oher officers, whose act, omission, or decision parties before him, or the originals or certified copies is appealed from, or a good reason on oath must be of such papers as were presented on such a ppeal, to. given for the omission of the signature of any of them, i gether with a copy of his decision thereon, for which he verified by oath, and a copy of such answer must be shall be entitled to receive the sum of one dollar, to be served on the appellants or some one of them.

paid by the party appealing on service of notice of his XVII. So far as the parties concur in a statement no intention to bring said appeal. The respective County oath will be required to it. But all facts, maps or pa. Superintendents shall annually render a correct account pers, not agreed upon by them and evidenced by their of ihe inoney so received by them, verifed ty their oath, signature on both sides, must be verified by oath. to the boards of supervisors of their counties: who, in

XVIII. All oaths required by these regulations must their discretion may deduct the said amount from the be taken before a Judge of a Court of Record, a Com. postage account of such Superintendent. The final de. missioner of Deeds, or a Justice of the Peace. cision of the Superintendent in the premises shall be

XIX. A copy of the answer, and of all the statements, communicated by the County Superintendent to the re. maps and papers intended to be presented in support spective parties, on application by them, or either of of it, must be served upon the appellants or some one them. The bringing of such appeal from the decision of them, within ten days after service of a copy of the of the County Superintendent, shall not operate as a appeal, nnless further time be given by the County Su. stay of proceedings, unless such stay shall lie specially perintendent, on application, in special cases; but no directed by such County Superintenden:; in which replication or rejoinder shall be allowed, except by per. case a copy of the order staying such proceedings shall mission of the County Superintendent, and in reference be served upon the opposite party. exclusively to maliers arising upon the answer, and which may be deemed by such County Superintendent

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. pertinent to the issue : in which case such replication The object of the Legislature in requiring the apand rejoinder shall be duly verified by oath and copies pointment of superintendents for the several counties thereof served on the opposite party.

of the State, may be expressed in the terms of the reXX. Proof or admission of ihe service of copies of commendation of that measure; that they should per. the appeal, answer and all other papers intended to be sonally visit the schools; give counsel and instruciion used on the bearing of such appeal must, in all cases, as to their management; discover errors and suggest accompany the same.

the proper remedy; animate the exertions of teachers, XXI. When any proceeding of a District Meeting is trustees and parents, and impart vigor to the whole sysappealed from; and when the inhabitants of a District tem. All writers on public education concur in the degenerally are interested in the matter of the appeal; cided opinion that effectual inspection and supervision and in all cases where an inhabitant might be an ap are more essentialto the proper management of schools, pellant, had the decision or proceeding been the oppo- and more indispensable to their improvement than any, site of that which was made or had; any one or more or all other agencies combined. This high duty will of such inbabitants may answer the appeal, with or now devolve chiefly on the county superintendenis. If without the Trustees.

they realize its vast importance, and bring to its dis. XXII. Where the appeal has relation to the alteration charge a firm resolution to regard only the great inteor formation of a School District, it must be accompa. rests confided to their hands, they will become the honnied by a map, exhibitiog the site of the school house, ored means of extending and sustaining a cause, on the roads, the old and new lines of Districts, the diffe which depends the happiness and prosperity of the peo. rent lots, the particular location and distance from the ple, and the perpetuity of our institutions. school houses, of the persons aggrieved; and their Their duties are so connected with the interests of relative distance is there are two or more school houses others, and are so liable at times to conflict with the in question. Also, a list of all the taxable inhabitants opinions and prejudices of those with whom they will in the District or territory to be affected by i he question : associate that the greatest prudence will be required the valuation of their property taken from the last as. to prevent unfavorable impressions at the commence. sessment roll, and the number of children between five ment of a system so new, and by many but imperfectly and sixteen belonging to each person, distinguishing the understood. As their usefulness will depend mainly Districts to which they respectively belong.

on the influence they shall be able to exercise upon the XXIII. When the copy of the appeal is served, all pro: officers and teachers of schools, and upon parents and ceedings upon or in continuation of the act complained the inhabitants of districts generally, they will endea. of, or consequent in any way upon such act, must be vor to deserve that influence by their deportment, and suspended, until the case is decided. So where any de studiously to avoid every thing which may impair it. cision concerning the distribution of public money to Hence it will be indispensable that they should abstain one or more Districts is appealed from, the Town So wholly and absolutely from all interference in any lo. perintendent must retain the money which is in dispute cal divisions, or in any questions by which the commu. until the appeal is decided. And where Trustees have nity in any town or district may be agitated; and al.

though they cannot be expected to abandon their politi- school, on the part of the inhabitants, and all those on. cal sentiments, yet it is obvious that any participationer particulars which go to form the character of the in measures to promote the success of any political par. l school, and to determine the amount of mental and ly, will not lonly diminish their influence, and impairmoralinfluence which it is to exercise on its inmates. their usefulness, by exciting suspicion of the objecis of But if, from the number of districts which it is made his their movements and measures, but will expose the of-duty io visit, he cannot accomplish this amount of la. fice they hold to a vindictive hostility that will not cease bor, and at the same time faithfully discharge ihe addi. until it is abolished. The intelligence of our people tional obligations devolved upon him by the existing will not tolerate the idea of the agents of public in-law, it is far beller that be should restrict his visita. struction becoming the emissaries of partisan manage- tions to a number to which he can do full justice, than ment.

that he should nominally conform to ihe strict requise. The subordination of pupils, the good order of the ment of his instructions, by making a flying visit io all schools, and the success of the whole system, depend the districts, without leaving any abiding, permanent upon the harmonious co-operation of all the officers impression of utility upon any. Let what is accom. charged with the performance of duties under it, and plished he accomplished ihoroughly; what is done, be upon the maintenance of their authority in the respec. well done; and the lemporary inconvenience which any tive spheres of their duty. The teacher must be re. one or more districts may sustain from a failure on the spected by his scholars; and to insure this, they must part of the county superintendent to reach them in any he impressed with a conviction of his authority to go. I given period, will be more than counterbalanced by the vern them. The trustees of districts, and officers of amount of good effected when he does appear among towns, are to be sustained, and their authority respect. I them. All embarrassments arising from this source, ed in their appropriate departments, 30 as to insure the may, however, in most cases, easily be averted by the greatest degree of efficiency Organization, and a cen-l appointment of two superintendents, under the section tral communication, will accomplish much in giving referred to. uniformity and regularity to the system : but afier all, more is to he done by local efforts aud public sentiment, |I. Visiting the Districts and Inspecting the especially in providing competent teachers and in filling the schools. It should, then, be the great object of the

Schools. county superintendents to encourage and sustain these The statute makes it the duty of every county super; Incal efforts; to guide and enlighten the public opinion: l intendent, "to visit and examine all the schools, and and to interest parents in those institutions which are school districts committed to his charge, as often in so seriously to affect the moral and intellectual charac- each year as may be practicable, having reference to the ter of their offspring.

number of such districts." This language is understood To altain these purposes, it will be advisable for them to mean that the districts and schools are to be visited to avail themselves of every proper opportunity to deli. as often as their number will permit. ver familiar addresses in public, ipon tbe importance 1 The act reqnires the superintendents to notify the of our primary schools, the necessity of attention to town superintendents of the towns, of the time appoint. them, and the means of promoting their success. In led to visit the schools; and to invite their attendance. their present condition, the points that seem to require the superintendents will also give notice to the trus. the most attention are, First, The employment of tees of the districts, of the time when their schools will good teachers; Second, The attendance of all the chil-ll be visited. To enable them to comply with the:e pro. dren in the schools during the whole time they are visions, they should make a previous arrangemeni of open; and, Third, The elevation of the standard of ed. ll their visits, in reference to the means of travelling, so ucation.

as to reach as many districts as possible in the shortest They should impress upon parents, that cheap teach time; and for this purpose they will find it necessary to ers cannot be good teachers, until all the principles of divide their counties into sections. Having fixed the human action are reversed, and until men cease to puro time for visiting the schools in one or more sections, sue those employments which render the test returns they should at once give ample notice, by transmitting for their talent and industry. From the employment of a copy of their arrangement to the town superintendents good teachers, other results will necessarily follow : 1 of the towns embraced within it, and regnest them 10 particularly a more extended range, and a higher de communicate to the trustees of districts, information of gree of instruction. These will, inevitably, fill the The time appointed for inspecting their schools, or in schools, by drawing pupils from those private and se. some other way give publicity to their plans. It is pre. lect establishments which are founded chiefly to supply sumed that publishers of newspapers would cheerfully The deficiencies of ihe common schools, and which ordi- | insert such notices gratuitously. They have ever been narily operate so much to their injury

found ready to render their assistance to disseminate By the fourth section of the late aci, tbe board of su information calculated to promote the interests of the pervisors of any county in which there are more than

common schools, one hundred and fifty school districts, (including those The inhabitants of the district, and particularly pa. joint districts, the school houses of which are located

rents who have children attending the school, should be within the county,) are authorized to appoint two coun- invited to be present at the inspection by the superin. Ty superintendents; in which case they are to divide the tendent: and irustees of districts are hereby required, county into two convenient districts, and to assign a whenever they receive information of an intended visit, superintendent to each. Each county in the State, is, to communicate it as generally as possible to the inhahowever, to have one county superintendent, upon pe-bitants. Their attendance will afford an opportunity nalty of being deprived of its share of the public money, for the public addresses of the superintendents, before unless otherwise directed by this department.

suggested. The appointment of two county superintendents wher. 2. Examination of the School.- Preparatory to this, ever the number of districts in any county shall exceed the superintendent should ascertain from the teacher one hundred and fifty, is strongly recommended. Nol the number of classes; the studies pursved hy each;' the one person can do full justice in the supervision of a routine of the school, the successive exercises of each greater number of schools during the limited periods for

class during each hour of the day; the play spells al. which they are annually kept open; and unless the so- lowed, &c., and thus obiain a general knowledge of the pervision is thorough in all respects; unless the coun. school, which will be found greatly to facilitate his sub. iy superintendent has made himself familiarly and inti sequent duties. Every superintendent is enjoined 10 marely acquainted with the resources, administration, call for and examine the list of scholars in the book and capabilities of every one of the schools which he which the statute requires the teacher to keey, in order visits; unless he has been enabled to detect and remove that he may see whether the names are correctly and by judicious counsel and friendly advice, every materi- | neatly entered. He will also examine the day roll and al obstacle to the prosperity and success of the school; | the weekly roll, which by the preceding regulations, to develop all its advantages, and to give to it the teachers are directed to preserve, and will ascertain means for attaining to an equality with those of the by the proper inquiries, whether they are exact in enterhighest grade, the great object for which his office was ing all who are present. created. has not been accomplished. Il is, on every ac. The superintendent will then hear each class recite count, desirable that the county superintendent should, the ordinary lesson of the day. It will then be examinonce at least in every year, and oftener if practicable ||ed on the subjects of study: Generally it will be belier visit every district within bis jurisdiction; thoroughly lo allow the reacher to conduct the exercises and examinspeet ils school; satisfactorily ascertain the qualifi. inations, as the pupils will be less likely to be intimi. cations of the teacher, and the facilities for instruction dated, and an opportunity will be given of judging of at his command; the condition of the school house and

the qualifications of the instructers. its appurtenances; the condition and prospects of the To enable bim to compare the school with itself at library; the degree of interest manifested iowards the" another time, and with other schools, and to comply

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